Volume 21, Number 6—June 2015
Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women
|Duration of symptomatic infection, d||14 (10–21)||28 (10–35)||(15,16)|
|Duration of asymptomatic infection, d||182.5 (120–240)||365 (240–480)||(15,16)|
|Incubation period, d||14 (7–21)||14 (7–21)||(15,16)|
|Duration of sequelae, d||21 (10–30)||60 (45–75)||(16)|
|Probability of sequelae, %||2 (0–5)||15 (10–20)||(16,18)|
|Per-partnership transmission probability, %||70 (25–80)||68 (25–80)||(19)|
|Probability of symptomatic infection, %||50 (20–80)||20 (10–50)||(15,16)|
|Average no. partners in past year, high sexual activity||13.30 (10.00–16.00)||33.26 (30.00–40.00)||(15,16,20)|
|Average no. partners in past year, low sexual activity||0.90 (0.60–1.20)||0.88 (0.60–1.50)||(15,16,20)|
|Proportion in low sexual activity class, %||95.0 (90.0–99.0)||97.9 (95.0–99.0)||(15,16,20)|
|Annual screening rate, %||0||30 (10–50)||(15)|
|Probability of postscreening treatment, %||80 (50–99)||80 (50–99)||(15)|
|Probability of treatment, symptomatic, %||89 (80–100)||89 (80–100)||(4)|
|Test sensitivity, %||95 (90–100)||95 (90–100)||(21)|
|Test specificity, %||99 (95–100)||99 (95–100)||(21)|
|Treatment efficacy (doxycycline, azithromycin), %||92 (80–100)||92 (80–100)||(15,22)|
|Symptomatic infection||0.005646 ± 50%||0.009913 (± 50%)||(16)|
|Sequelae†||0.009530 ± 50%||0.497580 (± 50%)||(16)|
|Costs (2013 US Dollars)|
|Treatment of acute chlamydia‡||185.2 ± 50%||183.0 (± 50%)||(4,23–25)|
|Sequelae†||1,337 ± 50%||4,516 (± 50%)||(4,16,26)|
|Screening||55 ± 50%||55 (± 50%)||(4,23)|
|Vaccination||547 ± 50%||547 (± 50%)||Model assumption|
|Vaccine coverage, 14-y-old persons, %||0||30 (10–50)||Model assumption (27)|
|Vaccine coverage, 15–24-y-old persons, %||0||30||Model assumption (27)|
|Vaccine efficacy, %||75 (50–100)||75 (50–100)||Model assumption (27)|
|Duration of vaccine-conferred immunity, y||10 (1–100)||10 (1–100)||Model assumption|
|Duration of infection-conferred immunity, y||1 (0.5–5.0)||1 (0.5–5.0)||(17)|
|Relative size of the 14-y-old population entering model compared with overall population model, %||10 (5–15)||Model assumption|
|Sexual mixing parameter§||0.50 (0.10–0.90)||Model assumption|
|Discount rate, %||3 (0–10)||Model assumption|
*QALYs, quality-adjusted life years.
†Includes productivity costs or QALYs (where applicable) for epididymitis for men and complications associated with pelvic inflammatory diseases (i.e., chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility) for women.
‡Includes productivity costs associated with acute chlamydia and seeking treatment (24) and the reported youth (16–24-y-old persons) employment rate in 2010 (48.9%) (25).
§Used to determine the degree of mixing between the 2 (high and low) sexual activity groups (0, random mixing; 1, fully assortative).
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