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Issue Cover for Volume 21, Number 6—June 2015

Volume 21, Number 6—June 2015

[PDF - 6.93 MB - 183 pages]

Research

Sequence Type 4821 Clonal Complex Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in China, 1978–2013 [PDF - 3.22 MB - 8 pages]
B. Zhu et al.

Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis strains belonging to sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821), a hyperinvasive lineage first identified for serogroup C in 2003, have been increasingly isolated in China. We characterized the outer membrane protein genes of 48 serogroup B and 214 serogroup C strains belonging to CC4821 and analyzed the genomic sequences of 22 strains. Four serogroup B strains had porin A (i.e., PorA), PorB, and ferric enterobactin transport (i.e., FetA) genotypes identical to those for serogroup C. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic sequences showed that the 22 CC4821 strains from patients and healthy carriers were unevenly clustered into 2 closely related groups; each group contained serogroup B and C strains. Serogroup B strains appeared variable at the capsule locus, and several recombination events had occurred at uncertain breakpoints. These findings suggest that CC4821 serogroup C N. meningitidis is the probable origin of highly pathogenic CC4821 serogroup B strains.

EID Zhu B, Xu Z, Du P, Xu L, Sun X, Gao Y, et al. Sequence Type 4821 Clonal Complex Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in China, 1978–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):925-932. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140687
AMA Zhu B, Xu Z, Du P, et al. Sequence Type 4821 Clonal Complex Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in China, 1978–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):925-932. doi:10.3201/eid2106.140687.
APA Zhu, B., Xu, Z., Du, P., Xu, L., Sun, X., Gao, Y....Shao, Z. (2015). Sequence Type 4821 Clonal Complex Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in China, 1978–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 925-932. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140687.

Medscape CME Activity
Estimated Deaths and Illnesses Averted During Fungal Meningitis Outbreak Associated with Contaminated Steroid Injections, United States, 2012–2013 [PDF - 2.29 MB - 8 pages]
R. Smith et al.

During 2012–2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and partners responded to a multistate outbreak of fungal infections linked to methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injections produced by a compounding pharmacy. We evaluated the effects of public health actions on the scope of this outbreak. A comparison of 60-day case-fatality rates and clinical characteristics of patients given a diagnosis on or before October 4, the date the outbreak was widely publicized, with those of patients given a diagnosis after October 4 showed that an estimated 3,150 MPA injections, 153 cases of meningitis or stroke, and 124 deaths were averted. Compared with diagnosis after October 4, diagnosis on or before October 4 was significantly associated with a higher 60-day case-fatality rate (28% vs. 5%; p<0.0001). Aggressive public health action resulted in a substantially reduced estimated number of persons affected by this outbreak and improved survival of affected patients.

EID Smith R, Derado G, Wise M, Harris JR, Chiller TM, Meltzer MI, et al. Estimated Deaths and Illnesses Averted During Fungal Meningitis Outbreak Associated with Contaminated Steroid Injections, United States, 2012–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):933-940. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141558
AMA Smith R, Derado G, Wise M, et al. Estimated Deaths and Illnesses Averted During Fungal Meningitis Outbreak Associated with Contaminated Steroid Injections, United States, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):933-940. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141558.
APA Smith, R., Derado, G., Wise, M., Harris, J. R., Chiller, T. M., Meltzer, M. I....Park, B. (2015). Estimated Deaths and Illnesses Averted During Fungal Meningitis Outbreak Associated with Contaminated Steroid Injections, United States, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 933-940. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141558.

Global Burden of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease, 2010 [PDF - 1.82 MB - 9 pages]
T. T. Ao et al.

Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a major cause of bloodstream infections worldwide, and HIV-infected persons and malaria-infected and malnourished children are at increased risk for the disease. We conducted a systematic literature review to obtain age group–specific, population-based invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) incidence data. Data were categorized by HIV and malaria prevalence and then extrapolated by using 2010 population data. The case-fatality ratio (CFR) was determined by expert opinion consensus. We estimated that 3.4 (range 2.1–6.5) million cases of iNTS disease occur annually (overall incidence 49 cases [range 30–94] per 100,000 population). Africa, where infants, young children, and young adults are most affected, had the highest incidence (227 cases [range 152–341] per 100,000 population) and number of cases (1.9 [range 1.3–2.9] million cases). An iNTS CFR of 20% yielded 681,316 (range 415,164–1,301,520) deaths annually. iNTS disease is a major cause of illness and death globally, particularly in Africa. Improved understanding of the epidemiology of iNTS is needed.

EID Ao TT, Feasey NA, Gordon MA, Keddy KH, Angulo FJ, Crump JA. Global Burden of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):941-949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140999
AMA Ao TT, Feasey NA, Gordon MA, et al. Global Burden of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):941-949. doi:10.3201/eid2106.140999.
APA Ao, T. T., Feasey, N. A., Gordon, M. A., Keddy, K. H., Angulo, F. J., & Crump, J. A. (2015). Global Burden of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 941-949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140999.

Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming [PDF - 1.25 MB - 10 pages]
A. Dorado-García et al.

The farming community can be a vehicle for introduction of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in hospitals. During 2011–2013, an 18-month longitudinal study aimed at reducing the prevalence of LA-MRSA was conducted on 36 pig farms in the Netherlands. Evaluations every 6 months showed a slight decrease in MRSA prevalence in animals and a stable prevalence in farmers and family members. Antimicrobial use, expressed as defined daily dosages per animal per year, decreased 44% during the study period and was associated with declining MRSA prevalence in pigs. MRSA carriage in animals was substantially higher at farms using cephalosporins. Antimicrobial use remained strongly associated with LA-MRSA in humans regardless of the level of animal contact. A risk factor analysis outlined potential future interventions for LA-MRSA control. These results should encourage animal and public health authorities to maintain their efforts in reducing antimicrobial use in livestock and ask for future controlled intervention studies.

EID Dorado-García A, Dohmen W, Bos M, Verstappen KM, Houben M, Wagenaar JA, et al. Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):950-959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140706
AMA Dorado-García A, Dohmen W, Bos M, et al. Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):950-959. doi:10.3201/eid2106.140706.
APA Dorado-García, A., Dohmen, W., Bos, M., Verstappen, K. M., Houben, M., Wagenaar, J. A....Heederik, D. (2015). Dose-Response Relationship between Antimicrobial Drugs and Livestock-Associated MRSA in Pig Farming. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 950-959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140706.

Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women [PDF - 1.19 MB - 9 pages]
K. Owusu-Edusei et al.

We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia screening program and assumed 2 prevaccination prevalences of 3.2% by main analysis and 3.7% by additional analysis. Estimated ICERs of vaccinating 14-year-old girls were $35,300/QALY by main analysis and $16,200/QALY by additional analysis compared with only screening. Catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women resulted in estimated ICERs of $53,200/QALY by main analysis and $26,300/QALY by additional analysis. The ICER was most sensitive to prevaccination prevalence for women, followed by cost of vaccination, duration of vaccine-conferred immunity, and vaccine efficacy. Our results suggest that a successful chlamydia vaccine could be cost-effective.

EID Owusu-Edusei K, Chesson HW, Gift TL, Brunham RC, Bolan G. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):960-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141270
AMA Owusu-Edusei K, Chesson HW, Gift TL, et al. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):960-968. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141270.
APA Owusu-Edusei, K., Chesson, H. W., Gift, T. L., Brunham, R. C., & Bolan, G. (2015). Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 960-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141270.

Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012 [PDF - 1.42 MB - 8 pages]
S. E. O’Neal and R. H. Flecker

Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003–2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20–44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money.

EID O’Neal SE, Flecker RH. Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):969-976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141324
AMA O’Neal SE, Flecker RH. Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):969-976. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141324.
APA O’Neal, S. E., & Flecker, R. H. (2015). Hospitalization Frequency and Charges for Neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 969-976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141324.

Additional Drug Resistance of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Patients in 9 Countries [PDF - 705 KB - 7 pages]
E. V. Kurbatova et al.

Data from a large multicenter observational study of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) were analyzed to simulate the possible use of 2 new approaches to treatment of MDR TB: a short (9-month) regimen and a bedaquiline-containing regimen. Of 1,254 patients, 952 (75.9%) had no resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs and thus would qualify as candidates for the 9-month regimen; 302 (24.1%) patients with resistance to a fluoroquinolone or second-line injectable drug would qualify as candidates for a bedaquiline-containing regimen in accordance with published guidelines. Among candidates for the 9-month regimen, standardized drug-susceptibility tests demonstrated susceptibility to a median of 5 (interquartile range 5–6) drugs. Among candidates for bedaquiline, drug-susceptibility tests demonstrated susceptibility to a median of 3 (interquartile range 2–4) drugs; 26% retained susceptibility to <2 drugs. These data may assist national TB programs in planning to implement new drugs and drug regimens.

EID Kurbatova EV, Dalton T, Ershova J, Tupasi TE, Caoili J, van der Walt ML, et al. Additional Drug Resistance of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Patients in 9 Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):977-983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141329
AMA Kurbatova EV, Dalton T, Ershova J, et al. Additional Drug Resistance of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Patients in 9 Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):977-983. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141329.
APA Kurbatova, E. V., Dalton, T., Ershova, J., Tupasi, T. E., Caoili, J., van der Walt, M. L....Cegielski, J. (2015). Additional Drug Resistance of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Patients in 9 Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 977-983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141329.

Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage, Barriers to Vaccination, and Adverse Events following Vaccination, Haiti, 2013 [PDF - 882 KB - 8 pages]
R. A. Tohme et al.

In 2013, the first government-led oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in Haiti was implemented in Petite Anse and Cerca Carvajal. To evaluate vaccination coverage, barriers to vaccination, and adverse events following vaccination, we conducted a cluster survey. We enrolled 1,121 persons from Petite Anse and 809 persons from Cerca Carvajal, categorized by 3 age groups (1–4, 5–14, >15 years). Two-dose OCV coverage was 62.5% in Petite Anse and 76.8% in Cerca Carvajal. Two-dose coverage was lowest among persons >15 years of age. In Cerca Carvajal, coverage was significantly lower for male than female respondents (69% vs. 85%; p<0.001). No major adverse events were reported. The main reason for nonvaccination was absence during the campaign. Vaccination coverage after this campaign was acceptable and comparable to that resulting from campaigns implemented by nongovernmental organizations. Future campaigns should be tailored to reach adults who are not available during daytime hours.

EID Tohme RA, François J, Wannemuehler K, Iyengar P, Dismer A, Adrien P, et al. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage, Barriers to Vaccination, and Adverse Events following Vaccination, Haiti, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):984-991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141797
AMA Tohme RA, François J, Wannemuehler K, et al. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage, Barriers to Vaccination, and Adverse Events following Vaccination, Haiti, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):984-991. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141797.
APA Tohme, R. A., François, J., Wannemuehler, K., Iyengar, P., Dismer, A., Adrien, P....Katz, M. A. (2015). Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage, Barriers to Vaccination, and Adverse Events following Vaccination, Haiti, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 984-991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141797.

Medscape CME Activity
Acquired Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Poor Outcomes among Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis [PDF - 1.21 MB - 10 pages]
R. R. Kempker et al.

Rates and risk factors for acquired drug resistance and association with outcomes among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are not well defined. In an MDR TB cohort from the country of Georgia, drug susceptibility testing for second-line drugs (SLDs) was performed at baseline and every third month. Acquired resistance was defined as any SLD whose status changed from susceptible at baseline to resistant at follow-up. Among 141 patients, acquired resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis was observed in 19 (14%); prevalence was 9.1% for ofloxacin and 9.8% for capreomycin or kanamycin. Baseline cavitary disease and resistance to >6 drugs were associated with acquired resistance. Patients with M. tuberculosis that had acquired resistance were at significantly increased risk for poor treatment outcome compared with patients without these isolates (89% vs. 36%; p<0.01). Acquired resistance occurs commonly among patients with MDR TB and impedes successful treatment outcomes.

EID Kempker RR, Kipiani M, Mirtskhulava V, Tukvadze N, Magee MJ, Blumberg HM. Acquired Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Poor Outcomes among Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):992-1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141873
AMA Kempker RR, Kipiani M, Mirtskhulava V, et al. Acquired Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Poor Outcomes among Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):992-1001. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141873.
APA Kempker, R. R., Kipiani, M., Mirtskhulava, V., Tukvadze, N., Magee, M. J., & Blumberg, H. M. (2015). Acquired Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Poor Outcomes among Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 992-1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141873.

Risk Factors for Acquisition of Drug Resistance during Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005–2010 [PDF - 2.09 MB - 11 pages]
S. E. Smith et al.

Acquired resistance to antituberculosis drugs decreases effective treatment options and the likelihood of treatment success. We identified risk factors for acquisition of drug resistance during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and evaluated the effect on treatment outcomes. Data were collected prospectively from adults from Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, who had pulmonary MDR TB during 2005–2008. Acquisition of resistance to capreomycin and of extensively drug-resistant TB were more likely among patients who received <3 effective drugs than among patients who received >3 effective drugs (9.4% vs. 0% and 8.6% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Poor outcomes were more likely among patients with acquired capreomycin resistance (100% vs. 25.9%), acquired ofloxacin resistance (83.6% vs. 22.7%), or acquired extensive drug resistance (100% vs. 24.4%). To prevent acquired drug resistance and poor outcomes, baseline susceptibility to first- and second-line drugs should be determined quickly, and treatment should be adjusted to contain >3 effective drugs.

EID Smith SE, Ershova J, Vlasova N, Nikishova E, Tarasova I, Eliseev P, et al. Risk Factors for Acquisition of Drug Resistance during Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1002-1011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141907
AMA Smith SE, Ershova J, Vlasova N, et al. Risk Factors for Acquisition of Drug Resistance during Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1002-1011. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141907.
APA Smith, S. E., Ershova, J., Vlasova, N., Nikishova, E., Tarasova, I., Eliseev, P....Cegielski, J. (2015). Risk Factors for Acquisition of Drug Resistance during Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1002-1011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141907.

Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014 [PDF - 1.14 MB - 7 pages]
N. Rübsamen et al.

Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes.

EID Rübsamen N, Castell S, Horn J, Karch A, Ott JJ, Raupach-Rosin H, et al. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1012-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150013
AMA Rübsamen N, Castell S, Horn J, et al. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1012-1018. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150013.
APA Rübsamen, N., Castell, S., Horn, J., Karch, A., Ott, J. J., Raupach-Rosin, H....Mikolajczyk, R. T. (2015). Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1012-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150013.
Dispatches

Acute Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014 [PDF - 1.21 MB - 4 pages]
S. Park et al.

Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother–calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.

EID Park S, Wernery U, Corman VM, Wong E, Tsang A, Muth D, et al. Acute Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1019-1022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150038
AMA Park S, Wernery U, Corman VM, et al. Acute Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1019-1022. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150038.
APA Park, S., Wernery, U., Corman, V. M., Wong, E., Tsang, A., Muth, D....Drosten, C. (2015). Acute Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1019-1022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150038.

Invasion Dynamics of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus, Midwestern United States, 2012–2014 [PDF - 1.84 MB - 4 pages]
K. E. Langwig et al.

White-nose syndrome has devastated bat populations in eastern North America. In Midwestern United States, prevalence increased quickly in the first year of invasion (2012–13) but with low population declines. In the second year (2013–14), environmental contamination led to earlier infection and high population declines. Interventions must be implemented before or soon after fungal invasion to prevent population collapse.

EID Langwig KE, Feng J, Parise KL, Kath J, Kirk D, Frick WF, et al. Invasion Dynamics of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus, Midwestern United States, 2012–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1023-1026. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150123
AMA Langwig KE, Feng J, Parise KL, et al. Invasion Dynamics of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus, Midwestern United States, 2012–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1023-1026. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150123.
APA Langwig, K. E., Feng, J., Parise, K. L., Kath, J., Kirk, D., Frick, W. F....Kilpatrick, A. (2015). Invasion Dynamics of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus, Midwestern United States, 2012–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1023-1026. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150123.

Extensively Drug-Resistant New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–Encoding Bacteria in the Environment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2012 [PDF - 1.53 MB - 4 pages]
M. A. Toleman et al.

Carriage of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase variant 1 (NDM-1) enables drug resistance to move between communities and hospitals. In Bangladesh, we found the blaNDM-1 gene in 62% of environmental waters and in fermentative and nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria. Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 101 was most commonly found, reflecting a common global relationship between ST101 and NDM-1.

EID Toleman MA, Bugert JJ, Nizam SA. Extensively Drug-Resistant New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–Encoding Bacteria in the Environment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1027-1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141578
AMA Toleman MA, Bugert JJ, Nizam SA. Extensively Drug-Resistant New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–Encoding Bacteria in the Environment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1027-1030. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141578.
APA Toleman, M. A., Bugert, J. J., & Nizam, S. A. (2015). Extensively Drug-Resistant New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–Encoding Bacteria in the Environment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1027-1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141578.

Coccidioides Exposure and Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Employees, California, United States [PDF - 1004 KB - 3 pages]
M. A. de Perio et al.

Responding to a request by corrections agency management, we investigated coccidioidomycosis in prison employees in central California, a coccidioidomycosis-endemic area. We identified 103 cases of coccidioidomycosis that occurred over 4.5 years. As a result, we recommended training and other steps to reduce dust exposure among employees and thus potential exposure to Coccidioides.

EID de Perio MA, Niemeier R, Burr GA. Coccidioides Exposure and Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Employees, California, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1031-1033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141201
AMA de Perio MA, Niemeier R, Burr GA. Coccidioides Exposure and Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Employees, California, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1031-1033. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141201.
APA de Perio, M. A., Niemeier, R., & Burr, G. A. (2015). Coccidioides Exposure and Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Employees, California, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1031-1033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141201.

KPC and NDM-1 Genes in Related Enterobacteriaceae Strains and Plasmids from Pakistan and the United States [PDF - 2.34 MB - 4 pages]
M. W. Pesesky et al.

To characterize the genomic context of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), we sequenced 78 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Pakistan and the United States encoding KPC, NDM-1, or no carbapenemase. High similarities of the results indicate rapid spread of carbapenem resistance between strains, including globally disseminated pathogens.

EID Pesesky MW, Hussain T, Wallace M, Wang B, Andleeb S, Burnham CD, et al. KPC and NDM-1 Genes in Related Enterobacteriaceae Strains and Plasmids from Pakistan and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1034-1037. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141504
AMA Pesesky MW, Hussain T, Wallace M, et al. KPC and NDM-1 Genes in Related Enterobacteriaceae Strains and Plasmids from Pakistan and the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1034-1037. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141504.
APA Pesesky, M. W., Hussain, T., Wallace, M., Wang, B., Andleeb, S., Burnham, C. D....Dantas, G. (2015). KPC and NDM-1 Genes in Related Enterobacteriaceae Strains and Plasmids from Pakistan and the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1034-1037. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141504.

Endemic Melioidosis in Residents of Desert Region after Atypically Intense Rainfall in Central Australia, 2011 [PDF - 1.01 MB - 3 pages]
T. Yip et al.

After heavy rains and flooding during early 2011 in the normally arid interior of Australia, melioidosis was diagnosed in 6 persons over a 4-month period. Although the precise global distribution of the causal bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei remains to be determined, this organism can clearly survive in harsh and even desert environments outside the wet tropics.

EID Yip T, Hewagama S, Mayo M, Price EP, Sarovich D, Bastian I, et al. Endemic Melioidosis in Residents of Desert Region after Atypically Intense Rainfall in Central Australia, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1038-1040. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141908
AMA Yip T, Hewagama S, Mayo M, et al. Endemic Melioidosis in Residents of Desert Region after Atypically Intense Rainfall in Central Australia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1038-1040. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141908.
APA Yip, T., Hewagama, S., Mayo, M., Price, E. P., Sarovich, D., Bastian, I....Currie, B. J. (2015). Endemic Melioidosis in Residents of Desert Region after Atypically Intense Rainfall in Central Australia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1038-1040. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141908.

Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus [PDF - 816 KB - 4 pages]
J. van der Linden et al.

To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles.

EID van der Linden J, Arendrup M, Warris A, Lagrou K, Pelloux H, Hauser P, et al. Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1041-1044. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140717
AMA van der Linden J, Arendrup M, Warris A, et al. Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1041-1044. doi:10.3201/eid2106.140717.
APA van der Linden, J., Arendrup, M., Warris, A., Lagrou, K., Pelloux, H., Hauser, P....Verweij, P. (2015). Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1041-1044. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140717.

Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008–2013 [PDF - 948 KB - 4 pages]
S. Le Hello et al.

Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections associated with eggs occurred in French Polynesia during 2008–2013. Molecular analysis of isolates by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat polymorphisms and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis was performed. This subtyping made defining the epidemic strain, finding the source, and decontaminating affected poultry flocks possible.

EID Le Hello S, Maillard F, Mallet H, Daudens E, Levy M, Roy V, et al. Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1045-1048. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141103
AMA Le Hello S, Maillard F, Mallet H, et al. Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1045-1048. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141103.
APA Le Hello, S., Maillard, F., Mallet, H., Daudens, E., Levy, M., Roy, V....Weill, F. (2015). Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1045-1048. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141103.

Pneumonia Outbreak Caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae among US Air Force Academy Cadets, Colorado, USA [PDF - 468 KB - 3 pages]
K. A. Fajardo et al.

During October 2013–May 2014, there were 102 cases of pneumonia diagnosed in US Air Force Academy cadets. A total of 73% of tested nasal washes contained Chlamydophila pneumoniae. This agent can be considered to be present on campus settings during outbreaks with numerous, seemingly disconnected cases of relatively mild pneumonia.

EID Fajardo KA, Zorich SC, Voss JD, Thervil JW. Pneumonia Outbreak Caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae among US Air Force Academy Cadets, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1049-1051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141394
AMA Fajardo KA, Zorich SC, Voss JD, et al. Pneumonia Outbreak Caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae among US Air Force Academy Cadets, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1049-1051. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141394.
APA Fajardo, K. A., Zorich, S. C., Voss, J. D., & Thervil, J. W. (2015). Pneumonia Outbreak Caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae among US Air Force Academy Cadets, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1049-1051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141394.

Oligoarthritis Caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014 [PDF - 483 KB - 3 pages]
M. Markowicz et al.

A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions.

EID Markowicz M, Ladstätter S, Schötta AM, Reiter M, Pomberger G, Stanek G. Oligoarthritis Caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1052-1054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141516
AMA Markowicz M, Ladstätter S, Schötta AM, et al. Oligoarthritis Caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1052-1054. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141516.
APA Markowicz, M., Ladstätter, S., Schötta, A. M., Reiter, M., Pomberger, G., & Stanek, G. (2015). Oligoarthritis Caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1052-1054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141516.

European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii [PDF - 886 KB - 4 pages]
D. González-Barrio et al.

We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii.

EID González-Barrio D, Maio E, Vieira-Pinto M, Ruiz-Fons F. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1055-1058. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141537
AMA González-Barrio D, Maio E, Vieira-Pinto M, et al. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1055-1058. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141537.
APA González-Barrio, D., Maio, E., Vieira-Pinto, M., & Ruiz-Fons, F. (2015). European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1055-1058. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141537.

Mycobacterium bovis in Panama, 2013 [PDF - 473 KB - 3 pages]
F. Acosta et al.

Panama remains free of zoonotic tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, DNA fingerprinting of 7 M. bovis isolates from a 2013 bovine tuberculosis outbreak indicated minimal homology with strains previously circulating in Panama. M. bovis dispersion into Panama highlights the need for enhanced genotype testing to track zoonotic infections.

EID Acosta F, Chernyaeva E, Mendoza L, Sambrano D, Correa R, Rotkevich M, et al. Mycobacterium bovis in Panama, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1059-1061. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141821
AMA Acosta F, Chernyaeva E, Mendoza L, et al. Mycobacterium bovis in Panama, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1059-1061. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141821.
APA Acosta, F., Chernyaeva, E., Mendoza, L., Sambrano, D., Correa, R., Rotkevich, M....Goodridge, A. (2015). Mycobacterium bovis in Panama, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1059-1061. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141821.

Drug Resistance–Associated Mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in Female Sex Workers, Japan [PDF - 541 KB - 3 pages]
T. Deguchi et al.

Mycoplasma genitalium was detected in 21 (14.1%) of 149 vaginal swab samples and in 1 (0.7%) of 149 throat washing samples from female sex workers during 2013–2014 in Japan. Prevalences of M. genitalium with macrolide resistance–associated 23S rRNA mutations and fluoroquinolone resistance–associated parC alterations were 47.1% and 36.8%, respectively.

EID Deguchi T, Yasuda M, Horie K, Seike K, Kikuchi M, Mizutani K, et al. Drug Resistance–Associated Mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in Female Sex Workers, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1062-1064. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.142013
AMA Deguchi T, Yasuda M, Horie K, et al. Drug Resistance–Associated Mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in Female Sex Workers, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1062-1064. doi:10.3201/eid2106.142013.
APA Deguchi, T., Yasuda, M., Horie, K., Seike, K., Kikuchi, M., Mizutani, K....Hoshina, S. (2015). Drug Resistance–Associated Mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in Female Sex Workers, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1062-1064. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.142013.

Lack of Protection Against Ebola Virus from Chloroquine in Mice and Hamsters [PDF - 877 KB - 3 pages]
D. Falzarano et al.

The antimalarial drug chloroquine has been suggested as a treatment for Ebola virus infection. Chloroquine inhibited virus replication in vitro, but only at cytotoxic concentrations. In mouse and hamster models, treatment did not improve survival. Chloroquine is not a promising treatment for Ebola. Efforts should be directed toward other drug classes.

EID Falzarano D, Safronetz D, Prescott JB, Marzi A, Feldmann F, Feldmann H. Lack of Protection Against Ebola Virus from Chloroquine in Mice and Hamsters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1065-1067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150176
AMA Falzarano D, Safronetz D, Prescott JB, et al. Lack of Protection Against Ebola Virus from Chloroquine in Mice and Hamsters. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1065-1067. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150176.
APA Falzarano, D., Safronetz, D., Prescott, J. B., Marzi, A., Feldmann, F., & Feldmann, H. (2015). Lack of Protection Against Ebola Virus from Chloroquine in Mice and Hamsters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1065-1067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150176.
Letters

Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Bacteremia Associated with Myiasis, United Kingdom [PDF - 316 KB - 2 pages]
L. Campisi et al.
EID Campisi L, Mahobia N, Clayton JJ. Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Bacteremia Associated with Myiasis, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1068-1069. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140007
AMA Campisi L, Mahobia N, Clayton JJ. Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Bacteremia Associated with Myiasis, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1068-1069. doi:10.3201/eid2106.140007.
APA Campisi, L., Mahobia, N., & Clayton, J. J. (2015). Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Bacteremia Associated with Myiasis, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1068-1069. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140007.

Response to Detection of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–Producing Bacteria, Brazil [PDF - 289 KB - 3 pages]
L. Andrade and A. Darini
EID Andrade L, Darini A. Response to Detection of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–Producing Bacteria, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1069-1071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140113
AMA Andrade L, Darini A. Response to Detection of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–Producing Bacteria, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1069-1071. doi:10.3201/eid2106.140113.
APA Andrade, L., & Darini, A. (2015). Response to Detection of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–Producing Bacteria, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1069-1071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.140113.

Histoplasmosis in Idaho and Montana, USA, 2012–2013 [PDF - 311 KB - 2 pages]
R. J. Nett et al.
EID Nett RJ, Skillman D, Riek L, Davis B, Blue SR, Sundberg EE, et al. Histoplasmosis in Idaho and Montana, USA, 2012–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1071-1072. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141367
AMA Nett RJ, Skillman D, Riek L, et al. Histoplasmosis in Idaho and Montana, USA, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1071-1072. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141367.
APA Nett, R. J., Skillman, D., Riek, L., Davis, B., Blue, S. R., Sundberg, E. E....Park, B. (2015). Histoplasmosis in Idaho and Montana, USA, 2012–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1071-1072. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141367.

Seroconversions to Rickettsiae in US Military Personnel in South Korea [PDF - 306 KB - 2 pages]
J. Jiang et al.
EID Jiang J, Myers TE, Rozmajzl PJ, Graf P, Chretien J, Gaydos JC, et al. Seroconversions to Rickettsiae in US Military Personnel in South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1073-1074. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141487
AMA Jiang J, Myers TE, Rozmajzl PJ, et al. Seroconversions to Rickettsiae in US Military Personnel in South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1073-1074. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141487.
APA Jiang, J., Myers, T. E., Rozmajzl, P. J., Graf, P., Chretien, J., Gaydos, J. C....Richards, A. L. (2015). Seroconversions to Rickettsiae in US Military Personnel in South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1073-1074. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141487.

MRSA spa t1081, a Highly Transmissible Strain Endemic to Hong Kong, China, in the Netherlands [PDF - 681 KB - 2 pages]
P. Gruteke et al.
EID Gruteke P, Ho P, Haenen A, Lo W, Lin C, de Neeling AJ. MRSA spa t1081, a Highly Transmissible Strain Endemic to Hong Kong, China, in the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1074-1076. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141597
AMA Gruteke P, Ho P, Haenen A, et al. MRSA spa t1081, a Highly Transmissible Strain Endemic to Hong Kong, China, in the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1074-1076. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141597.
APA Gruteke, P., Ho, P., Haenen, A., Lo, W., Lin, C., & de Neeling, A. J. (2015). MRSA spa t1081, a Highly Transmissible Strain Endemic to Hong Kong, China, in the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1074-1076. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141597.

Multibacillary Leprosy in an Active Duty Military Member [PDF - 910 KB - 2 pages]
C. M. Berjohn et al.
EID Berjohn CM, DuPlessis CA, Tieu K, Maves RC. Multibacillary Leprosy in an Active Duty Military Member. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1077-1078. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141666
AMA Berjohn CM, DuPlessis CA, Tieu K, et al. Multibacillary Leprosy in an Active Duty Military Member. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1077-1078. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141666.
APA Berjohn, C. M., DuPlessis, C. A., Tieu, K., & Maves, R. C. (2015). Multibacillary Leprosy in an Active Duty Military Member. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1077-1078. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141666.

Tickborne Relapsing Fever in Southern Iran, 2011–2013 [PDF - 449 KB - 3 pages]
S. Naddaf et al.
EID Naddaf S, Ghazinezhad B, Sedaghat M, Asl H, Cutler S. Tickborne Relapsing Fever in Southern Iran, 2011–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1078-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141715
AMA Naddaf S, Ghazinezhad B, Sedaghat M, et al. Tickborne Relapsing Fever in Southern Iran, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1078-1080. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141715.
APA Naddaf, S., Ghazinezhad, B., Sedaghat, M., Asl, H., & Cutler, S. (2015). Tickborne Relapsing Fever in Southern Iran, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1078-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141715.

Reducing the Risk for Waterborne Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis [PDF - 298 KB - 2 pages]
J. S. Cervia
EID Cervia JS. Reducing the Risk for Waterborne Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1080-1081. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141779
AMA Cervia JS. Reducing the Risk for Waterborne Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1080-1081. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141779.
APA Cervia, J. S. (2015). Reducing the Risk for Waterborne Nosocomial Neonatal Legionellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1080-1081. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141779.

Carnobacterium divergens Bacteremia in Woman [PDF - 310 KB - 2 pages]
M. Smati et al.
EID Smati M, Palacios C, Cohen Y, Méchaï F, Tankovic J, Le Flèche-Mateos A, et al. Carnobacterium divergens Bacteremia in Woman. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1081-1082. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141799
AMA Smati M, Palacios C, Cohen Y, et al. Carnobacterium divergens Bacteremia in Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1081-1082. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141799.
APA Smati, M., Palacios, C., Cohen, Y., Méchaï, F., Tankovic, J., Le Flèche-Mateos, A....Gonzalez, F. (2015). Carnobacterium divergens Bacteremia in Woman. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1081-1082. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141799.

Fatal Nosocomial MDR TB Identified through Routine Genetic Analysis and Whole-Genome Sequencing [PDF - 386 KB - 3 pages]
O. Williams et al.
EID Williams O, Abeel T, Casali N, Cohen K, Pym AS, Mungall SB, et al. Fatal Nosocomial MDR TB Identified through Routine Genetic Analysis and Whole-Genome Sequencing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1082-1084. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141903
AMA Williams O, Abeel T, Casali N, et al. Fatal Nosocomial MDR TB Identified through Routine Genetic Analysis and Whole-Genome Sequencing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1082-1084. doi:10.3201/eid2106.141903.
APA Williams, O., Abeel, T., Casali, N., Cohen, K., Pym, A. S., Mungall, S. B....Cooke, G. S. (2015). Fatal Nosocomial MDR TB Identified through Routine Genetic Analysis and Whole-Genome Sequencing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1082-1084. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141903.

Fatal Bacteremia Caused by Campylobacter gracilis, United States [PDF - 311 KB - 2 pages]
T. Shinha
EID Shinha T. Fatal Bacteremia Caused by Campylobacter gracilis, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1084-1085. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.142043
AMA Shinha T. Fatal Bacteremia Caused by Campylobacter gracilis, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1084-1085. doi:10.3201/eid2106.142043.
APA Shinha, T. (2015). Fatal Bacteremia Caused by Campylobacter gracilis, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1084-1085. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.142043.

Induction of Influenza (H5N8) Antibodies by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara H5N1 Vaccine [PDF - 470 KB - 3 pages]
R. D. de Vries et al.
EID de Vries RD, De Gruyter H, Bestebroer TM, Pronk M, Fouchier R, Osterhaus A, et al. Induction of Influenza (H5N8) Antibodies by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara H5N1 Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1086-1088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150021
AMA de Vries RD, De Gruyter H, Bestebroer TM, et al. Induction of Influenza (H5N8) Antibodies by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara H5N1 Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1086-1088. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150021.
APA de Vries, R. D., De Gruyter, H., Bestebroer, T. M., Pronk, M., Fouchier, R., Osterhaus, A....Rimmelzwaan, G. F. (2015). Induction of Influenza (H5N8) Antibodies by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara H5N1 Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1086-1088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150021.

Klebsiella pneumoniae Co-Producing NDM-5 and OXA-181 Carbapenemases, South Korea [PDF - 402 KB - 2 pages]
S. Cho et al.
EID Cho S, Huh H, Baek J, Chung N, Ryu J, Ki C, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Co-Producing NDM-5 and OXA-181 Carbapenemases, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1088-1089. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150048
AMA Cho S, Huh H, Baek J, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Co-Producing NDM-5 and OXA-181 Carbapenemases, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1088-1089. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150048.
APA Cho, S., Huh, H., Baek, J., Chung, N., Ryu, J., Ki, C....Song, J. (2015). Klebsiella pneumoniae Co-Producing NDM-5 and OXA-181 Carbapenemases, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1088-1089. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150048.

Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A Infections in Travelers Returning from Cambodia, United States [PDF - 460 KB - 3 pages]
M. Judd et al.
EID Judd M, Grass J, Mintz ED, Bicknese A, Mahon B. Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A Infections in Travelers Returning from Cambodia, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1089-1091. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150088
AMA Judd M, Grass J, Mintz ED, et al. Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A Infections in Travelers Returning from Cambodia, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1089-1091. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150088.
APA Judd, M., Grass, J., Mintz, E. D., Bicknese, A., & Mahon, B. (2015). Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A Infections in Travelers Returning from Cambodia, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1089-1091. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150088.

Candida auris Candidemia in Kuwait, 2014 [PDF - 982 KB - 2 pages]
M. Emara et al.
EID Emara M, Ahmad S, Khan Z, Joseph L, Al-Obaid I, Purohit P, et al. Candida auris Candidemia in Kuwait, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1091-1092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150270
AMA Emara M, Ahmad S, Khan Z, et al. Candida auris Candidemia in Kuwait, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1091-1092. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150270.
APA Emara, M., Ahmad, S., Khan, Z., Joseph, L., Al-Obaid, I., Purohit, P....Bafna, R. (2015). Candida auris Candidemia in Kuwait, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1091-1092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150270.
Books and Media

The Antibiotic Era: Reform, Resistance, and the Pursuit of a Rational Therapeutics [PDF - 682 KB - 1 page]
J. A. Poupard
EID Poupard JA. The Antibiotic Era: Reform, Resistance, and the Pursuit of a Rational Therapeutics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1093. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150212
AMA Poupard JA. The Antibiotic Era: Reform, Resistance, and the Pursuit of a Rational Therapeutics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1093. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150212.
APA Poupard, J. A. (2015). The Antibiotic Era: Reform, Resistance, and the Pursuit of a Rational Therapeutics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1093. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.150212.
About the Cover

Light, Reflection, Illumination [PDF - 3.42 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. Light, Reflection, Illumination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1094-1095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.ac2106
AMA Breedlove B. Light, Reflection, Illumination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1094-1095. doi:10.3201/eid2106.ac2106.
APA Breedlove, B. (2015). Light, Reflection, Illumination. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1094-1095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.ac2106.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Coccidioides [PDF - 401 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Coccidioides. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(6):1031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.et2106
AMA Etymologia: Coccidioides. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(6):1031. doi:10.3201/eid2106.et2106.
APA (2015). Etymologia: Coccidioides. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(6), 1031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.et2106.
Online Reports

Consensus on the Development of Vaccines against Naturally Acquired Melioidosis [PDF - 2.15 MB - 7 pages]
D. Limmathurotsakul et al.

Several candidates for a vaccine against Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causal bacterium of melioidosis, have been developed, and a rational approach is now needed to select and advance candidates for testing in relevant nonhuman primate models and in human clinical trials. Development of such a vaccine was the topic of a meeting in the United Kingdom in March 2014 attended by international candidate vaccine developers, researchers, and government health officials. The focus of the meeting was advancement of vaccines for prevention of natural infection, rather than for protection from the organism’s known potential for use as a biological weapon. A direct comparison of candidate vaccines in well-characterized mouse models was proposed. Knowledge gaps requiring further research were identified. Recommendations were made to accelerate the development of an effective vaccine against melioidosis.

Page created: October 06, 2015
Page updated: October 06, 2015
Page reviewed: October 06, 2015
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