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Volume 21, Number 7—July 2015

Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States1

James L. HadlerComments to Author , Dhara Patel, Roger S. Nasci, Lyle R. Petersen, James M. Hughes, Kristy Bradley, Paul Etkind, Lilly Kan, and Jeffrey Engel
Author affiliations: Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA (J.L. Hadler); Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (D. Patel, J. Engel); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (R.S. Nasci, L.R. Petersen); Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (J.M. Hughes); Oklahoma State Department of Health, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA (K. Bradley); National Association of County and City Health Officials, Washington, DC, USA (P. Etkind, L. Kan)

Main Article

Table 3

Local health departments conducting selected WNV surveillance activities, by whether they received federal WNV surveillance funding (ELC) support, United States, 2012*

Surveillance activity No. responding LHDs (% with activity)
% Difference between no ELC and some ELC support
No ELC support ELC support
Human surveillance
Formal local-level surveillance system
15 (0)
6 (100)
To encourage reporting and suggest a high index of suspicion, did you contact
Neurologists 15 (33) 6 (83) −50
Critical care specialists 15 (47) 6 (83) −36
Infectious disease specialists 15 (47) 6 (100) −53
Emergency departments
15 (53)
6 (100)
Equine surveillance
Formal surveillance system
15 (33)
55 (39)
Designated public health veterinarian within the agency?
15 (33)
6 (50)
Avian surveillance
Formal avian death surveillance
15 (20)
6 (67)
Mosquito surveillance
Formal surveillance system 15 (67) 6 (100) −33
For larval mosquitoes? 10 (90) 3 (67) +23
For adult mosquitoes? 10 (100) 6 (100) 0
Identify trapped mosquitoes to species? 10 (90) 6 (83) +7
Calculate minimal mosquito infection rates? 10 (50) 6 (83) −33
Adequate access to entomologist in agency or by contract 14 (31) 6 (50) −19

*WNV, West Nile virus: ELC, epidemiology and laboratory capacity (received specific WNV surveillance funding through the Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity Cooperative Agreement); LHDs, local health departments.

Main Article

1A shorter version of this report has been published previously (1).

Page created: June 12, 2015
Page updated: June 12, 2015
Page reviewed: June 12, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.