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Issue Cover for Volume 21, Number 7—July 2015

Volume 21, Number 7—July 2015

[PDF - 37.67 MB - 192 pages]

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Disseminated Infections with Talaromyces marneffei in Non-AIDS Patients Given Monoclonal Antibodies against CD20 and Kinase Inhibitors [PDF - 919 KB - 6 pages]
J. Chan et al.

Infections with the fungus Talaromyces (formerly Penicillium) marneffei are rare in patients who do not have AIDS. We report disseminated T. marneffei infection in 4 hematology patients without AIDS who received targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies against CD20 or kinase inhibitors during the past 2 years. Clinicians should be aware of this emerging complication, especially in patients from disease-endemic regions.

EID Chan J, Chan T, Gill H, Lam F, Trendell-Smith NJ, Sridhar S, et al. Disseminated Infections with Talaromyces marneffei in Non-AIDS Patients Given Monoclonal Antibodies against CD20 and Kinase Inhibitors. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1101-1106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150138
AMA Chan J, Chan T, Gill H, et al. Disseminated Infections with Talaromyces marneffei in Non-AIDS Patients Given Monoclonal Antibodies against CD20 and Kinase Inhibitors. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1101-1106. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150138.
APA Chan, J., Chan, T., Gill, H., Lam, F., Trendell-Smith, N. J., Sridhar, S....Yuen, K. (2015). Disseminated Infections with Talaromyces marneffei in Non-AIDS Patients Given Monoclonal Antibodies against CD20 and Kinase Inhibitors. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1101-1106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150138.
Research

Macacine Herpesvirus 1 in Long-Tailed Macaques, Malaysia, 2009–2011 [PDF - 965 KB - 7 pages]
M. Lee et al.

Macacine herpesvirus 1 (MaHV1; B virus) naturally infects macaques (Macaca spp.) and can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. In Peninsular Malaysia, wild macaques are abundant, and translocation is used to mitigate human–macaque conflict. Most adult macaques are infected with MaHV1, although the risk for transmission to persons who handle them during capture and translocation is unknown. We investigated MaHV1 shedding among 392 long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) after capture and translocation by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Peninsular Malaysia, during 2009–2011. For detection of MaHV1 DNA, PCR was performed on urogenital and oropharyngeal swab samples. Overall, 39% of macaques were shedding MaHV1 DNA; rates of DNA detection did not differ between sample types. This study demonstrates that MaHV1 was shed by a substantial proportion of macaques after capture and transport and suggests that persons handling macaques under these circumstances might be at risk for exposure to MaHV1.

EID Lee M, Rostal MK, Hughes T, Sitam F, Lee C, Japning J, et al. Macacine Herpesvirus 1 in Long-Tailed Macaques, Malaysia, 2009–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1107-1113. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140162
AMA Lee M, Rostal MK, Hughes T, et al. Macacine Herpesvirus 1 in Long-Tailed Macaques, Malaysia, 2009–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1107-1113. doi:10.3201/eid2107.140162.
APA Lee, M., Rostal, M. K., Hughes, T., Sitam, F., Lee, C., Japning, J....Daszak, P. (2015). Macacine Herpesvirus 1 in Long-Tailed Macaques, Malaysia, 2009–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1107-1113. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140162.

Malaria Prevalence among Young Infants in Different Transmission Settings, Africa [PDF - 904 KB - 8 pages]
S. J. Ceesay et al.

The prevalence and consequences of malaria among infants are not well characterized and may be underestimated. A better understanding of the risk for malaria in early infancy is critical for drug development and informed decision making. In a cross-sectional survey in Guinea, The Gambia, and Benin, countries with different malaria transmission intensities, the overall prevalence of malaria among infants <6 months of age was 11.8% (Guinea, 21.7%; The Gambia, 3.7%; and Benin, 10.2%). Seroprevalence ranged from 5.7% in The Gambia to 41.6% in Guinea. Mean parasite densities in infants were significantly lower than those in children 1–9 years of age in The Gambia (p<0.0001) and Benin (p = 0.0021). Malaria in infants was significantly associated with fever or recent history of fever (p = 0.007) and anemia (p = 0.001). Targeted preventive interventions, adequate drug formulations, and treatment guidelines are needed to address the sizeable prevalence of malaria among young infants in malaria-endemic countries.

EID Ceesay SJ, Koivogui L, Nahum A, Taal M, Okebe J, Affara M, et al. Malaria Prevalence among Young Infants in Different Transmission Settings, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1114-1121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.142036
AMA Ceesay SJ, Koivogui L, Nahum A, et al. Malaria Prevalence among Young Infants in Different Transmission Settings, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1114-1121. doi:10.3201/eid2107.142036.
APA Ceesay, S. J., Koivogui, L., Nahum, A., Taal, M., Okebe, J., Affara, M....D’Alessandro, U. (2015). Malaria Prevalence among Young Infants in Different Transmission Settings, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1114-1121. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.142036.

Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles [PDF - 1.31 MB - 6 pages]
E. Lukianova-Hleb et al.

A fast, precise, noninvasive, high-throughput, and simple approach for detecting malaria in humans and mosquitoes is not possible with current techniques that depend on blood sampling, reagents, facilities, tedious procedures, and trained personnel. We designed a device for rapid (20-second) noninvasive diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a malaria patient without drawing blood or using any reagent. This method uses transdermal optical excitation and acoustic detection of vapor nanobubbles around intraparasite hemozoin. The same device also identified individual malaria parasite–infected Anopheles mosquitoes in a few seconds and can be realized as a low-cost universal tool for clinical and field diagnoses.

EID Lukianova-Hleb E, Bezek S, Szigeti R, Khodarev A, Kelley T, Hurrell A, et al. Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1122-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150089
AMA Lukianova-Hleb E, Bezek S, Szigeti R, et al. Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1122-1127. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150089.
APA Lukianova-Hleb, E., Bezek, S., Szigeti, R., Khodarev, A., Kelley, T., Hurrell, A....Lapotko, D. (2015). Transdermal Diagnosis of Malaria Using Vapor Nanobubbles. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1122-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150089.

Lack of Transmission among Close Contacts of Patient with Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Imported into the United States, 2014 [PDF - 1.42 MB - 7 pages]
L. Breakwell et al.

In May 2014, a traveler from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the first person identified with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States. To evaluate transmission risk, we determined the type, duration, and frequency of patient contact among health care personnel (HCP), household, and community contacts by using standard questionnaires and, for HCP, global positioning system (GPS) tracer tag logs. Respiratory and serum samples from all contacts were tested for MERS-CoV. Of 61 identified contacts, 56 were interviewed. HCP exposures occurred most frequently in the emergency department (69%) and among nurses (47%); some HCP had contact with respiratory secretions. Household and community contacts had brief contact (e.g., hugging). All laboratory test results were negative for MERS-CoV. This contact investigation found no secondary cases, despite case-patient contact by 61 persons, and provides useful information about MERS-CoV transmission risk. Compared with GPS tracer tag recordings, self-reported contact may not be as accurate.

EID Breakwell L, Pringle K, Chea N, Allen D, Allen S, Richards S, et al. Lack of Transmission among Close Contacts of Patient with Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Imported into the United States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1128-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150054
AMA Breakwell L, Pringle K, Chea N, et al. Lack of Transmission among Close Contacts of Patient with Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Imported into the United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1128-1134. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150054.
APA Breakwell, L., Pringle, K., Chea, N., Allen, D., Allen, S., Richards, S....Feikin, D. R. (2015). Lack of Transmission among Close Contacts of Patient with Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Imported into the United States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1128-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150054.

Monitoring of Ebola Virus Makona Evolution through Establishment of Advanced Genomic Capability in Liberia [PDF - 2.47 MB - 9 pages]
J. R. Kugelman et al.

To support Liberia’s response to the ongoing Ebola virus (EBOV) disease epidemic in Western Africa, we established in-country advanced genomic capabilities to monitor EBOV evolution. Twenty-five EBOV genomes were sequenced at the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, which provided an in-depth view of EBOV diversity in Liberia during September 2014–February 2015. These sequences were consistent with a single virus introduction to Liberia; however, shared ancestry with isolates from Mali indicated at least 1 additional instance of movement into or out of Liberia. The pace of change is generally consistent with previous estimates of mutation rate. We observed 23 nonsynonymous mutations and 1 nonsense mutation. Six of these changes are within known binding sites for sequence-based EBOV medical countermeasures; however, the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of EBOV evolution within Liberia appears to be low.

EID Kugelman JR, Wiley MR, Mate S, Ladner JT, Beitzel B, Fakoli L, et al. Monitoring of Ebola Virus Makona Evolution through Establishment of Advanced Genomic Capability in Liberia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1135-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150522
AMA Kugelman JR, Wiley MR, Mate S, et al. Monitoring of Ebola Virus Makona Evolution through Establishment of Advanced Genomic Capability in Liberia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1135-1143. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150522.
APA Kugelman, J. R., Wiley, M. R., Mate, S., Ladner, J. T., Beitzel, B., Fakoli, L....Palacios, G. (2015). Monitoring of Ebola Virus Makona Evolution through Establishment of Advanced Genomic Capability in Liberia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1135-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150522.

Medscape CME Activity
Parechovirus Genotype 3 Outbreak among Infants, New South Wales, Australia, 2013–2014 [PDF - 1.85 MB - 9 pages]
G. Cumming et al.

From October 2013 through February 2014, human parechovirus genotype 3 infection was identified in 183 infants in New South Wales, Australia. Of those infants, 57% were male and 95% required hospitalization. Common signs and symptoms were fever >38°C (86%), irritability (80%), tachycardia (68%), and rash (62%). Compared with affected infants in the Northern Hemisphere, infants in New South Wales were slightly older, both sexes were affected more equally, and rash occurred with considerably higher frequency. The New South Wales syndromic surveillance system, which uses near real-time emergency department and ambulance data, was useful for monitoring the outbreak. An alert distributed to clinicians reduced unnecessary hospitalization for patients with suspected sepsis.

EID Cumming G, Khatami A, McMullan BJ, Musto J, Leung K, Nguyen O, et al. Parechovirus Genotype 3 Outbreak among Infants, New South Wales, Australia, 2013–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1144-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141149
AMA Cumming G, Khatami A, McMullan BJ, et al. Parechovirus Genotype 3 Outbreak among Infants, New South Wales, Australia, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1144-1152. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141149.
APA Cumming, G., Khatami, A., McMullan, B. J., Musto, J., Leung, K., Nguyen, O....Sheppeard, V. (2015). Parechovirus Genotype 3 Outbreak among Infants, New South Wales, Australia, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1144-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141149.

MERS-CoV in Upper Respiratory Tract and Lungs of Dromedary Camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013–2014 [PDF - 1.32 MB - 6 pages]
A. I. Khalafalla et al.

To assess the temporal dynamics of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in dromedary camels, specimens were collected at 1–2 month intervals from 2 independent groups of animals during April 2013–May 2014 in Al-Ahsa Province, Saudi Arabia, and tested for MERS-CoV RNA by reverse transcription PCR. Of 96 live camels, 28 (29.2%) nasal swab samples were positive; of 91 camel carcasses, 56 (61.5%) lung tissue samples were positive. Positive samples were more commonly found among young animals (<4 years of age) than adults (>4 years of age). The proportions of positive samples varied by month for both groups; detection peaked during November 2013 and January 2014 and declined in March and May 2014. These findings further our understanding of MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels and may help inform intervention strategies to reduce zoonotic infections.

EID Khalafalla AI, Lu X, Al-Mubarak A, Dalab AS, Al-Busadah K, Erdman DD. MERS-CoV in Upper Respiratory Tract and Lungs of Dromedary Camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1153-1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150070
AMA Khalafalla AI, Lu X, Al-Mubarak A, et al. MERS-CoV in Upper Respiratory Tract and Lungs of Dromedary Camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1153-1158. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150070.
APA Khalafalla, A. I., Lu, X., Al-Mubarak, A., Dalab, A. S., Al-Busadah, K., & Erdman, D. D. (2015). MERS-CoV in Upper Respiratory Tract and Lungs of Dromedary Camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1153-1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150070.

Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States [PDF - 506 KB - 8 pages]
J. L. Hadler et al.

Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

EID Hadler JL, Patel D, Nasci RS, Petersen LR, Hughes JM, Bradley K, et al. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1159-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140858
AMA Hadler JL, Patel D, Nasci RS, et al. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1159-1166. doi:10.3201/eid2107.140858.
APA Hadler, J. L., Patel, D., Nasci, R. S., Petersen, L. R., Hughes, J. M., Bradley, K....Engel, J. (2015). Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1159-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140858.

Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002–2012 [PDF - 1.31 MB - 7 pages]
J. W. Den Boer et al.

In 2002, the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program was implemented in the Netherlands to detect and eliminate potential sources of organisms that cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). During 2002–2012, a total of 1,991 patients with LD were reported, and 1,484 source investigations were performed. Of those sources investigated, 24.7% were positive for Legionella spp. For 266 patients with LD, 105 cluster locations were identified. A genotype match was made between a strain detected in 41 patients and a strain from a source location. Despite the systematic approach used by the program, most sources of LD infections during 2002–2012 remained undiscovered. Explorative studies are needed to identify yet undiscovered reservoirs and transmission routes for Legionella bacteria, and improved laboratory techniques are needed to detect Legionella spp. in samples with a high background of microbial flora (such as soil).

EID Den Boer JW, Euser SM, Brandsema P, Reijnen L, Bruin JP. Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1167-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141130
AMA Den Boer JW, Euser SM, Brandsema P, et al. Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1167-1173. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141130.
APA Den Boer, J. W., Euser, S. M., Brandsema, P., Reijnen, L., & Bruin, J. P. (2015). Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1167-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141130.

Seroprevalence for Hepatitis E and Other Viral Hepatitides among Diverse Populations, Malawi [PDF - 657 KB - 9 pages]
T. E. Taha et al.

Data on prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Malawi is limited. We tested blood samples from HIV-uninfected and -infected populations of women and men enrolled in research studies in Malawi during 1989–2008 to determine the seroprevalence of HEV, hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Samples were tested for IgG against HEV, total antibodies against HAV and HCV, and presence of HBV surface antigens. Of 800 samples tested, 16.5% were positive for HEV IgG, 99.6% were positive for HAV antibodies, 7.5% were positive for HBV surface antigen, and 7.1% were positive for HCV antibodies. No clear trends over time were observed in the seroprevalence of HEV, and HIV status was not associated with hepatitis seroprevalence. These preliminary data suggest that the seroprevalence of HEV is high in Malawi; the clinical effects may be unrecognized or routinely misclassified.

EID Taha TE, Rusie LK, Labrique A, Nyirenda M, Soko D, Kamanga M, et al. Seroprevalence for Hepatitis E and Other Viral Hepatitides among Diverse Populations, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1174-1182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141748
AMA Taha TE, Rusie LK, Labrique A, et al. Seroprevalence for Hepatitis E and Other Viral Hepatitides among Diverse Populations, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1174-1182. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141748.
APA Taha, T. E., Rusie, L. K., Labrique, A., Nyirenda, M., Soko, D., Kamanga, M....Kumwenda, N. (2015). Seroprevalence for Hepatitis E and Other Viral Hepatitides among Diverse Populations, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1174-1182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141748.
Policy Review

Chronic Q Fever Diagnosis—Consensus Guideline versus Expert Opinion [PDF - 1.17 MB - 6 pages]
L. M. Kampschreur et al.

Chronic Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, has high mortality and morbidity rates if left untreated. Controversy about the diagnosis of this complex disease has emerged recently. We applied the guideline from the Dutch Q Fever Consensus Group and a set of diagnostic criteria proposed by Didier Raoult to all 284 chronic Q fever patients included in the Dutch National Chronic Q Fever Database during 2006–2012. Of the patients who had proven cases of chronic Q fever by the Dutch guideline, 46 (30.5%) would not have received a diagnosis by the alternative criteria designed by Raoult, and 14 (4.9%) would have been considered to have possible chronic Q fever. Six patients with proven chronic Q fever died of related causes. Until results from future studies are available, by which current guidelines can be modified, we believe that the Dutch literature-based consensus guideline is more sensitive and easier to use in clinical practice.

EID Kampschreur LM, Wegdam-Blans M, Wever PC, Renders N, Delsing CE, Sprong T, et al. Chronic Q Fever Diagnosis—Consensus Guideline versus Expert Opinion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1183-1188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.130955
AMA Kampschreur LM, Wegdam-Blans M, Wever PC, et al. Chronic Q Fever Diagnosis—Consensus Guideline versus Expert Opinion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1183-1188. doi:10.3201/eid2107.130955.
APA Kampschreur, L. M., Wegdam-Blans, M., Wever, P. C., Renders, N., Delsing, C. E., Sprong, T....Bleeker-Rovers, C. P. (2015). Chronic Q Fever Diagnosis—Consensus Guideline versus Expert Opinion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1183-1188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.130955.
Dispatches

Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Man, Italy, 2014 [PDF - 626 KB - 3 pages]
A. Piralla et al.

Because swine influenza virus infection is seldom diagnosed in humans, its frequency might be underestimated. We report a immunocompromised hematologic patient with swine influenza A(H3N2) virus in 2014 in Italy. Local pigs were the source of this human infection.

EID Piralla A, Moreno A, Orlandi M, Percivalle E, Chiapponi C, Vezzoli F, et al. Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Man, Italy, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1189-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140981
AMA Piralla A, Moreno A, Orlandi M, et al. Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Man, Italy, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1189-1191. doi:10.3201/eid2107.140981.
APA Piralla, A., Moreno, A., Orlandi, M., Percivalle, E., Chiapponi, C., Vezzoli, F....Baldanti, F. (2015). Swine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Man, Italy, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1189-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140981.

Severe Pediatric Adenovirus 7 Disease in Singapore Linked to Recent Outbreaks across Asia [PDF - 1.17 MB - 5 pages]
O. Ng et al.

During November 2012–July 2013, a marked increase of adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) infections associated with severe disease was documented among pediatric patients in Singapore. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close genetic links with severe Ad7 outbreaks in China, Taiwan, and other parts of Asia.

EID Ng O, Thoon K, Chua H, Tan N, Chong C, Tee N, et al. Severe Pediatric Adenovirus 7 Disease in Singapore Linked to Recent Outbreaks across Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1192-1196. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141443
AMA Ng O, Thoon K, Chua H, et al. Severe Pediatric Adenovirus 7 Disease in Singapore Linked to Recent Outbreaks across Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1192-1196. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141443.
APA Ng, O., Thoon, K., Chua, H., Tan, N., Chong, C., Tee, N....Khong, W. (2015). Severe Pediatric Adenovirus 7 Disease in Singapore Linked to Recent Outbreaks across Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1192-1196. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141443.

Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding of a Human Isolate of Influenza A(H10N8) Virus [PDF - 3.31 MB - 5 pages]
I. Ramos et al.

Three cases of influenza A(H10N8) virus infection in humans have been reported; 2 of these infected persons died. Characterization of the receptor binding pattern of H10 hemagglutinin from avian and human isolates showed that both interact weakly with human-like receptors and maintain strong affinity for avian-like receptors.

EID Ramos I, Mansour M, Wohlbold TJ, Ermler ME, Hirsh A, Runstadler JA, et al. Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding of a Human Isolate of Influenza A(H10N8) Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1197-1201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141755
AMA Ramos I, Mansour M, Wohlbold TJ, et al. Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding of a Human Isolate of Influenza A(H10N8) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1197-1201. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141755.
APA Ramos, I., Mansour, M., Wohlbold, T. J., Ermler, M. E., Hirsh, A., Runstadler, J. A....Krammer, F. (2015). Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding of a Human Isolate of Influenza A(H10N8) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1197-1201. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141755.

Schmallenberg Virus Recurrence, Germany, 2014 [PDF - 643 KB - 3 pages]
K. Wernike et al.

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, spread rapidly across Europe, and almost disappeared in 2013. However, since late summer 2014, new cases have occurred in adult cattle. Full-genome analysis revealed some amino acid substitution differences from the first SBV sample. Viremia developed in experimentally infected sheep and cattle for 4–6 days.

EID Wernike K, Hoffmann B, Conraths FJ, Beer M. Schmallenberg Virus Recurrence, Germany, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1202-1204. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150180
AMA Wernike K, Hoffmann B, Conraths FJ, et al. Schmallenberg Virus Recurrence, Germany, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1202-1204. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150180.
APA Wernike, K., Hoffmann, B., Conraths, F. J., & Beer, M. (2015). Schmallenberg Virus Recurrence, Germany, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1202-1204. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150180.

Detection of Circovirus in Foxes with Meningoencephalitis, United Kingdom, 2009–2013 [PDF - 991 KB - 4 pages]
S. Bexton et al.

A fox circovirus was identified in serum samples from foxes with unexplained neurologic signs by using viral metagenomics. Fox circovirus nucleic acid was localized in histological lesions of the cerebrum by in situ hybridization. Viruses from the family Circoviridae may have neurologic tropism more commonly than previously anticipated.

EID Bexton S, Wiersma LC, Getu S, van Run PR, Verjans G, Schipper D, et al. Detection of Circovirus in Foxes with Meningoencephalitis, United Kingdom, 2009–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1205-1208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150228
AMA Bexton S, Wiersma LC, Getu S, et al. Detection of Circovirus in Foxes with Meningoencephalitis, United Kingdom, 2009–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1205-1208. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150228.
APA Bexton, S., Wiersma, L. C., Getu, S., van Run, P. R., Verjans, G., Schipper, D....Smits, S. L. (2015). Detection of Circovirus in Foxes with Meningoencephalitis, United Kingdom, 2009–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1205-1208. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150228.

Determination of Predominance of Influenza Virus Strains in the Americas [PDF - 622 KB - 4 pages]
E. Azziz-Baumgartner et al.

During 2001–2014, predominant influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) strains in South America predominated in all or most subsequent influenza seasons in Central and North America. Predominant A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) strains in North America predominated in most subsequent seasons in Central and South America. Sharing data between these subregions may improve influenza season preparedness.

EID Azziz-Baumgartner E, Garten RJ, Palekar R, Cerpa M, Mirza S, Ropero A, et al. Determination of Predominance of Influenza Virus Strains in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1209-1212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140788
AMA Azziz-Baumgartner E, Garten RJ, Palekar R, et al. Determination of Predominance of Influenza Virus Strains in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1209-1212. doi:10.3201/eid2107.140788.
APA Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Garten, R. J., Palekar, R., Cerpa, M., Mirza, S., Ropero, A....Widdowson, M. (2015). Determination of Predominance of Influenza Virus Strains in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1209-1212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140788.

Novel Arenavirus Isolates from Namaqua Rock Mice, Namibia, Southern Africa [PDF - 604 KB - 4 pages]
P. T. Witkowski et al.

Arenaviruses are feared as agents that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers. We report the identification, isolation, and genetic characterization of 2 novel arenaviruses from Namaqua rock mice in Namibia. These findings extend knowledge of the distribution and diversity of arenaviruses in Africa.

EID Witkowski PT, Kallies R, Hoveka J, Auste B, Ithete NL, Šoltys K, et al. Novel Arenavirus Isolates from Namaqua Rock Mice, Namibia, Southern Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1213-1216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141341
AMA Witkowski PT, Kallies R, Hoveka J, et al. Novel Arenavirus Isolates from Namaqua Rock Mice, Namibia, Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1213-1216. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141341.
APA Witkowski, P. T., Kallies, R., Hoveka, J., Auste, B., Ithete, N. L., Šoltys, K....Kruger, D. H. (2015). Novel Arenavirus Isolates from Namaqua Rock Mice, Namibia, Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1213-1216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141341.

Readability of Ebola Information on Websites of Public Health Agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe [PDF - 325 KB - 3 pages]
E. Castro-Sánchez et al.

Public involvement in efforts to control the current Ebola virus disease epidemic requires understandable information. We reviewed the readability of Ebola information from public health agencies in non–Ebola-affected areas. A substantial proportion of citizens would have difficulty understanding existing information, which would potentially hinder effective health-seeking behaviors.

EID Castro-Sánchez E, Spanoudakis E, Holmes AH. Readability of Ebola Information on Websites of Public Health Agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1217-1219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141829
AMA Castro-Sánchez E, Spanoudakis E, Holmes AH. Readability of Ebola Information on Websites of Public Health Agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1217-1219. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141829.
APA Castro-Sánchez, E., Spanoudakis, E., & Holmes, A. H. (2015). Readability of Ebola Information on Websites of Public Health Agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1217-1219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141829.

Evaluation of Patients under Investigation for MERS-CoV Infection, United States, January 2013–October 2014 [PDF - 923 KB - 4 pages]
E. Schneider et al.

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported from the Middle East. Evaluation and testing of patients under investigation (PUIs) for MERS are recommended. In 2013–2014, two imported cases were detected among 490 US PUIs. Continued awareness is needed for early case detection and implementation of infection control measures.

EID Schneider E, Chommanard C, Rudd JM, Whitaker BL, Lowe L, Gerber SI. Evaluation of Patients under Investigation for MERS-CoV Infection, United States, January 2013–October 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1220-1223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141888
AMA Schneider E, Chommanard C, Rudd JM, et al. Evaluation of Patients under Investigation for MERS-CoV Infection, United States, January 2013–October 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1220-1223. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141888.
APA Schneider, E., Chommanard, C., Rudd, J. M., Whitaker, B. L., Lowe, L., & Gerber, S. I. (2015). Evaluation of Patients under Investigation for MERS-CoV Infection, United States, January 2013–October 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1220-1223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141888.

Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France [PDF - 939 KB - 3 pages]
S. Lhomme et al.

Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork.

EID Lhomme S, Top S, Bertagnoli S, Dubois M, Guerin J, Izopet J. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1224-1226. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141909
AMA Lhomme S, Top S, Bertagnoli S, et al. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1224-1226. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141909.
APA Lhomme, S., Top, S., Bertagnoli, S., Dubois, M., Guerin, J., & Izopet, J. (2015). Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1224-1226. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141909.

Asymptomatic Malaria and Other Infections in Children Adopted from Ethiopia, United States, 2006–2011 [PDF - 758 KB - 3 pages]
S. M. Adebo et al.

We screened 52 children adopted from Ethiopia for malaria because they had previously lived in a disease-endemic region or had past or current hepatomegaly or splenomegaly. Seven (13.5%) children had asymptomatic malaria parasitemia by microscopy (n = 2) or PCR (n = 5). Our findings suggest that adoptees at risk for asymptomatic malaria should be screened, preferably by PCR.

EID Adebo SM, Eckerle JK, Andrews ME, Howard CR, John CC. Asymptomatic Malaria and Other Infections in Children Adopted from Ethiopia, United States, 2006–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1227-1229. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141933
AMA Adebo SM, Eckerle JK, Andrews ME, et al. Asymptomatic Malaria and Other Infections in Children Adopted from Ethiopia, United States, 2006–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1227-1229. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141933.
APA Adebo, S. M., Eckerle, J. K., Andrews, M. E., Howard, C. R., & John, C. C. (2015). Asymptomatic Malaria and Other Infections in Children Adopted from Ethiopia, United States, 2006–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1227-1229. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141933.

Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates [PDF - 787 KB - 4 pages]
M. Sasaki et al.

Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife.

EID Sasaki M, Orba Y, Anindita PD, Ishii A, Ueno K, Hang’ombe BM, et al. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1230-1233. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141969
AMA Sasaki M, Orba Y, Anindita PD, et al. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1230-1233. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141969.
APA Sasaki, M., Orba, Y., Anindita, P. D., Ishii, A., Ueno, K., Hang’ombe, B. M....Sawa, H. (2015). Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1230-1233. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141969.

Geographic Range Expansion for Rat Lungworm in North America [PDF - 369 KB - 3 pages]
E. M. York et al.

Using quantitative PCR analysis and DNA sequencing, we provide evidence for the presence of rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in Oklahoma, USA, and identified a potentially novel rat host (Sigmodon hispidus). Our results indicate a geographic range expansion for this medically and ecologically relevant parasite in North America.

EID York EM, Creecy JP, Lord WD, Caire W. Geographic Range Expansion for Rat Lungworm in North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1234-1236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141980
AMA York EM, Creecy JP, Lord WD, et al. Geographic Range Expansion for Rat Lungworm in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1234-1236. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141980.
APA York, E. M., Creecy, J. P., Lord, W. D., & Caire, W. (2015). Geographic Range Expansion for Rat Lungworm in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1234-1236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141980.

Slow Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in Severe Pediatric Malaria, Uganda, 2011–2013 [PDF - 805 KB - 3 pages]
M. Hawkes et al.

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives is emerging in Asia. We examined molecular markers of resistance in 78 children in Uganda who had severe malaria and were treated with intravenous artesunate. We observed in the K13-propeller domain, A578S, a low-frequency (3/78), nonsynonymous, single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with prolonged parasite clearance.

EID Hawkes M, Conroy AL, Opoka RO, Namasopo S, Zhong K, Liles W, et al. Slow Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in Severe Pediatric Malaria, Uganda, 2011–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1237-1239. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150213
AMA Hawkes M, Conroy AL, Opoka RO, et al. Slow Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in Severe Pediatric Malaria, Uganda, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1237-1239. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150213.
APA Hawkes, M., Conroy, A. L., Opoka, R. O., Namasopo, S., Zhong, K., Liles, W....Kain, K. C. (2015). Slow Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in Severe Pediatric Malaria, Uganda, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1237-1239. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150213.

Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus GII.17, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015 [PDF - 531 KB - 3 pages]
J. Lu et al.

In the past decade, the most prevalent norovirus genotype causing viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide, including China, has been GII.4. In winter 2014–15, norovirus outbreaks in Guangdong, China, increased. Sequence analysis indicated that 82% of the outbreaks were caused by a norovirus GII.17 variant.

EID Lu J, Sun L, Fang L, Yang F, Mo Y, Lao J, et al. Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus GII.17, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1240-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150226
AMA Lu J, Sun L, Fang L, et al. Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus GII.17, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1240-1242. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150226.
APA Lu, J., Sun, L., Fang, L., Yang, F., Mo, Y., Lao, J....Hui, L. (2015). Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus GII.17, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1240-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150226.

Ebola Virus Stability on Surfaces and in Fluids in Simulated Outbreak Environments [PDF - 1.27 MB - 4 pages]
R. J. Fischer et al.

We evaluated the stability of Ebola virus on surfaces and in fluids under simulated environmental conditions for the climate of West Africa and for climate-controlled hospitals. This virus remains viable for a longer duration on surfaces in hospital conditions than in African conditions and in liquid than in dried blood.

EID Fischer RJ, Judson SD, Miazgowicz K, Bushmaker T, Prescott JB, Munster VJ. Ebola Virus Stability on Surfaces and in Fluids in Simulated Outbreak Environments. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1243-1246. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150253
AMA Fischer RJ, Judson SD, Miazgowicz K, et al. Ebola Virus Stability on Surfaces and in Fluids in Simulated Outbreak Environments. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1243-1246. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150253.
APA Fischer, R. J., Judson, S. D., Miazgowicz, K., Bushmaker, T., Prescott, J. B., & Munster, V. J. (2015). Ebola Virus Stability on Surfaces and in Fluids in Simulated Outbreak Environments. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1243-1246. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150253.

Outbreak of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei Associated with Travel to Vietnam, Republic of Korea [PDF - 1.52 MB - 4 pages]
J. Kim et al.

We investigated an October 2014 outbreak of illness caused by Shigella sonnei in a daycare center in the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The outbreak strain was resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and was traced to a child who had traveled to Vietnam. Improved hygiene and infection control practices are needed for prevention of shigellosis.

EID Kim J, Kim J, Kim S, Jeon S, Seo K, Choi J, et al. Outbreak of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei Associated with Travel to Vietnam, Republic of Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1247-1250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150363
AMA Kim J, Kim J, Kim S, et al. Outbreak of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei Associated with Travel to Vietnam, Republic of Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1247-1250. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150363.
APA Kim, J., Kim, J., Kim, S., Jeon, S., Seo, K., Choi, J....Kim, J. (2015). Outbreak of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella sonnei Associated with Travel to Vietnam, Republic of Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1247-1250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150363.

Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses [PDF - 367 KB - 2 pages]
J. S. Hall et al.

The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

EID Hall JS, Dusek RJ, Spackman E. Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1251-1252. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150403
AMA Hall JS, Dusek RJ, Spackman E. Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1251-1252. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150403.
APA Hall, J. S., Dusek, R. J., & Spackman, E. (2015). Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1251-1252. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150403.

Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia [PDF - 689 KB - 4 pages]
T. G. Nyenswah et al.

Lack of trust in government-supported services after the death of a health care worker with symptoms of Ebola resulted in ongoing Ebola transmission in 2 Liberia counties. Ebola transmission was facilitated by attempts to avoid cremation of the deceased patient and delays in identifying and monitoring contacts.

EID Nyenswah TG, Fallah M, Calvert GM, Duwor S, Hamilton E, Mokashi V, et al. Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1253-1256. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150511
AMA Nyenswah TG, Fallah M, Calvert GM, et al. Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1253-1256. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150511.
APA Nyenswah, T. G., Fallah, M., Calvert, G. M., Duwor, S., Hamilton, E., Mokashi, V....Moonan, P. K. (2015). Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1253-1256. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150511.
Letters

Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Reassortant, Southern China, 2014 [PDF - 249 KB - 2 pages]
H. Shen et al.
EID Shen H, Wu B, Chen Y, Bi Y, Xie Q. Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Reassortant, Southern China, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1261-1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140838
AMA Shen H, Wu B, Chen Y, et al. Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Reassortant, Southern China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1261-1262. doi:10.3201/eid2107.140838.
APA Shen, H., Wu, B., Chen, Y., Bi, Y., & Xie, Q. (2015). Influenza A(H5N6) Virus Reassortant, Southern China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1261-1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.140838.

Characterization of 3 Megabase-Sized Circular Replicons from Vibrio cholerae [PDF - 280 KB - 2 pages]
K. Okada et al.
EID Okada K, Natakuathung W, Na-Ubol M, Roobthaisong A, Wongboot W, Maruyama F, et al. Characterization of 3 Megabase-Sized Circular Replicons from Vibrio cholerae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1262-1263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141055
AMA Okada K, Natakuathung W, Na-Ubol M, et al. Characterization of 3 Megabase-Sized Circular Replicons from Vibrio cholerae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1262-1263. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141055.
APA Okada, K., Natakuathung, W., Na-Ubol, M., Roobthaisong, A., Wongboot, W., Maruyama, F....Hamada, S. (2015). Characterization of 3 Megabase-Sized Circular Replicons from Vibrio cholerae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1262-1263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141055.

Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam [PDF - 287 KB - 2 pages]
P. Ringwald and A. M. Dondorp
EID Ringwald P, Dondorp AM. Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1264-1265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141448
AMA Ringwald P, Dondorp AM. Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1264-1265. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141448.
APA Ringwald, P., & Dondorp, A. M. (2015). Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1264-1265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141448.

Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam [PDF - 219 KB - 1 page]
N. Van Hong et al.
EID Van Hong N, Amambua-Ngwa A, Tuan N, Cuong D, Giang N, Van Dung N, et al. Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150402
AMA Van Hong N, Amambua-Ngwa A, Tuan N, et al. Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1265. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150402.
APA Van Hong, N., Amambua-Ngwa, A., Tuan, N., Cuong, D., Giang, N., Van Dung, N....Erhart, A. (2015). Severe Malaria Not Responsive to Artemisinin Derivatives in Man Returning from Angola to Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1265. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150402.

Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats, Southern Vietnam [PDF - 305 KB - 2 pages]
P. Anh et al.
EID Anh P, Van Cuong N, Son N, Tue N, Kosoy MY, Woolhouse M, et al. Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats, Southern Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1266-1267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141760
AMA Anh P, Van Cuong N, Son N, et al. Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats, Southern Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1266-1267. doi:10.3201/eid2107.141760.
APA Anh, P., Van Cuong, N., Son, N., Tue, N., Kosoy, M. Y., Woolhouse, M....Rabaa, M. A. (2015). Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats, Southern Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1266-1267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.141760.

Seropositivity for Avian Influenza H6 Virus among Humans, China [PDF - 329 KB - 3 pages]
L. Xin et al.
EID Xin L, Bai T, Zhou J, Chen Y, Li X, Zhu W, et al. Seropositivity for Avian Influenza H6 Virus among Humans, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1267-1269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150135
AMA Xin L, Bai T, Zhou J, et al. Seropositivity for Avian Influenza H6 Virus among Humans, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1267-1269. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150135.
APA Xin, L., Bai, T., Zhou, J., Chen, Y., Li, X., Zhu, W....Shu, Y. (2015). Seropositivity for Avian Influenza H6 Virus among Humans, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1267-1269. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150135.

Absence of MERS-Coronavirus in Bactrian Camels, Southern Mongolia, November 2014 [PDF - 293 KB - 3 pages]
S. Chan et al.
EID Chan S, Damdinjav B, Perera R, Chu D, Khishgee B, Enkhbold B, et al. Absence of MERS-Coronavirus in Bactrian Camels, Southern Mongolia, November 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1269-1271. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150178
AMA Chan S, Damdinjav B, Perera R, et al. Absence of MERS-Coronavirus in Bactrian Camels, Southern Mongolia, November 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1269-1271. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150178.
APA Chan, S., Damdinjav, B., Perera, R., Chu, D., Khishgee, B., Enkhbold, B....Hakawi, A. M. (2015). Absence of MERS-Coronavirus in Bactrian Camels, Southern Mongolia, November 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1269-1271. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150178.

Oligella ureolytica Bacteremia in Elderly Woman, United States [PDF - 327 KB - 3 pages]
T. Simmons et al.
EID Simmons T, Fennelly E, Loughran D. Oligella ureolytica Bacteremia in Elderly Woman, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1271-1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150242
AMA Simmons T, Fennelly E, Loughran D. Oligella ureolytica Bacteremia in Elderly Woman, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1271-1273. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150242.
APA Simmons, T., Fennelly, E., & Loughran, D. (2015). Oligella ureolytica Bacteremia in Elderly Woman, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1271-1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150242.

Estimating Ebola Treatment Needs, United States [PDF - 319 KB - 3 pages]
G. Rainisch et al.
EID Rainisch G, Asher J, George D, Clay M, Smith TL, Kosmos C, et al. Estimating Ebola Treatment Needs, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1273-1275. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150286
AMA Rainisch G, Asher J, George D, et al. Estimating Ebola Treatment Needs, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1273-1275. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150286.
APA Rainisch, G., Asher, J., George, D., Clay, M., Smith, T. L., Kosmos, C....Meltzer, M. I. (2015). Estimating Ebola Treatment Needs, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1273-1275. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150286.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Poultry, Nigeria, 2015 [PDF - 3.48 MB - 3 pages]
I. Monne et al.
EID Monne I, Meseko C, Joannis T, Shittu I, Ahmed M, Tassoni L, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Poultry, Nigeria, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1275-1277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150421
AMA Monne I, Meseko C, Joannis T, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Poultry, Nigeria, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1275-1277. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150421.
APA Monne, I., Meseko, C., Joannis, T., Shittu, I., Ahmed, M., Tassoni, L....Cattoli, G. (2015). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Poultry, Nigeria, 2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1275-1277. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150421.
Another Dimension

The Past Is Never Dead—Measles Epidemic, Boston, Massachusetts, 1713 [PDF - 622 KB - 4 pages]
D. M. Morens
EID Morens DM. The Past Is Never Dead—Measles Epidemic, Boston, Massachusetts, 1713. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1257-1260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150397
AMA Morens DM. The Past Is Never Dead—Measles Epidemic, Boston, Massachusetts, 1713. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1257-1260. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150397.
APA Morens, D. M. (2015). The Past Is Never Dead—Measles Epidemic, Boston, Massachusetts, 1713. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1257-1260. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150397.
Books and Media

Pulmonary Complications of HIV [PDF - 192 KB - 1 page]
S. Cribbs
EID Cribbs S. Pulmonary Complications of HIV. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150500
AMA Cribbs S. Pulmonary Complications of HIV. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1278. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150500.
APA Cribbs, S. (2015). Pulmonary Complications of HIV. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150500.

The Emergence of Tropical Medicine in France [PDF - 382 KB - 2 pages]
C. McKnight
EID McKnight C. The Emergence of Tropical Medicine in France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1278-1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150521
AMA McKnight C. The Emergence of Tropical Medicine in France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1278-1279. doi:10.3201/eid2107.150521.
APA McKnight, C. (2015). The Emergence of Tropical Medicine in France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1278-1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.150521.
About the Cover

Portrait of the Coveted Cinchona [PDF - 1.40 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove and P. M. Arguin
EID Breedlove B, Arguin PM. Portrait of the Coveted Cinchona. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1280-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.ac2107
AMA Breedlove B, Arguin PM. Portrait of the Coveted Cinchona. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1280-1281. doi:10.3201/eid2107.ac2107.
APA Breedlove, B., & Arguin, P. M. (2015). Portrait of the Coveted Cinchona. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1280-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.ac2107.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Quinine [PDF - 391 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Quinine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.et2107
AMA Etymologia: Quinine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1127. doi:10.3201/eid2107.et2107.
APA (2015). Etymologia: Quinine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.et2107.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 21, No. 3 [PDF - 346 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 21, No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(7):1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.c12107
AMA Correction: Vol. 21, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(7):1279. doi:10.3201/eid2107.c12107.
APA (2015). Correction: Vol. 21, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(7), 1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2107.c12107.
Page created: July 14, 2015
Page updated: July 14, 2015
Page reviewed: July 14, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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