Volume 23, Number 1—January 2017
CME ACTIVITY - Research
Epidemiology of Hospitalizations Associated with Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–20121
- Kullberg BJ, Arendrup MC. Invasive Candidiasis. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1445–56.
- Pappas PG. Invasive candidiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006;20:485–506.
- Wisplinghoff H, Ebbers J, Geurtz L, Stefanik D, Major Y, Edmond MB, et al. Nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Candida spp. in the USA: species distribution, clinical features and antifungal susceptibilities. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2014;43:78–81.
- Magill SS, Edwards JR, Bamberg W, Beldavs ZG, Dumyati G, Kainer MA, et al.; Emerging Infections Program Healthcare-Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use Prevalence Survey Team. Multistate point-prevalence survey of health care-associated infections. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1198–208.
- Yapar N. Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive candidiasis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014;10:95–105.
- Doi AM, Pignatari AC, Edmond MB, Marra AR, Camargo LF, Siqueira RA, et al. Epidemiology and microbiologic characterization of nosocomial candidemia from a Brazilian national surveillance program. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0146909.
- Pfaller MA, Andes DR, Diekema DJ, Horn DL, Reboli AC, Rotstein C, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis due to non-albicans species of Candida in 2,496 patients: data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) registry 2004-2008. PLoS One. 2014;9:e101510.
- Gudlaugsson O, Gillespie S, Lee K, Vande Berg J, Hu J, Messer S, et al. Attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia, revisited. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1172–7.
- Wisplinghoff H, Bischoff T, Tallent SM, Seifert H, Wenzel RP, Edmond MB. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:309–17.
- Eggimann P, Garbino J, Pittet D. Epidemiology of Candida species infections in critically ill non-immunosuppressed patients. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3:685–702.
- Diekema D, Arbefeville S, Boyken L, Kroeger J, Pfaller M. The changing epidemiology of healthcare-associated candidemia over three decades. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;73:45–8.
- Myerowitz RL, Pazin GJ, Allen CM. Disseminated candidiasis. Changes in incidence, underlying diseases, and pathology. Am J Clin Pathol. 1977;68:29–38.
- Cleveland AA, Farley MM, Harrison LH, Stein B, Hollick R, Lockhart SR, et al. Changes in incidence and antifungal drug resistance in candidemia: results from population-based laboratory surveillance in Atlanta and Baltimore, 2008-2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1352–61.
- Wilson LS, Reyes CM, Stolpman M, Speckman J, Allen K, Beney J. The direct cost and incidence of systemic fungal infections. Value Health. 2002;5:26–34.
- Cleveland AA, Harrison LH, Farley MM, Hollick R, Stein B, Chiller TM, et al. Declining incidence of candidemia and the shifting epidemiology of Candida resistance in two US metropolitan areas, 2008-2013: results from population-based surveillance. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0120452.
- Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. State Inpatient Databases, 2002–2012. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [cited 2016 Apr 14]. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/sidoverview.jsp
- Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) for ICD-9-CM, 2002–2012. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [cited 2016 Apr 14]. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/ccs/ccs.jsp
- Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Cost-to-charge files, 2002–2012. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [cited 2016 Apr 14]. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/state/costtocharge.jsp
- Finkler SA. The distinction between cost and charges. Ann Intern Med. 1982;96:102–9.
- US Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Chained consumer price index for all urban consumers (C-CPI-U) 2002–2015, medical care [cited 2016 Apr 14]. http://www.bls.gov/data/
- Clancy CJ, Nguyen MH. Undiagnosed invasive candidiasis: incorporating non-culture diagnostics into rational prophylactic and preemptive antifungal strategies. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2014;12:731–4.
- Asti L, Newland J, Zerr D, Elward A, Leckerman K, Guth R, et al. Multi-center validation of ICD-9 codes for candidemia in a pediatric population. In: Abstracts of the 48th Infectious Disease Society of America Meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Oct 22–24. Arlington (VA): Infectious Diseases Society of America; 2010. Abstract 561.
- Clancy CJ, Nguyen MH. Finding the “missing 50%” of invasive candidiasis: how nonculture diagnostics will improve understanding of disease spectrum and transform patient care. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1284–92.
- Walker TA, Derado G, Cleveland AA, Beldavs ZG, Farley LH. Socioeconomic determinants of racial disparities in candidemia incidence using geocoded data from the Emerging Infections Program (EIP), 2008–2014. In: Abstracts of the 65th Annual Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Conference, Atlanta; May 2–5, 2016. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2016. Abstract P2.11.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: central line-associated blood stream infections—United States, 2001, 2008, and 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:243–8.
- Zaoutis TE, Argon J, Chu J, Berlin JA, Walsh TJ, Feudtner C. The epidemiology and attributable outcomes of candidemia in adults and children hospitalized in the United States: a propensity analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1232–9.
1Preliminary results from this study were presented at the IDWeek 2015 Conference; October 7–11, 2015; San Diego, California, USA.
2Current affiliation: American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Page created: December 14, 2016
Page updated: December 14, 2016
Page reviewed: December 14, 2016
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.