Volume 23, Number 11—November 2017
Weather-Dependent Risk for Legionnaires’ Disease, United States
- Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE. Legionella and Legionnaires’ disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15:506–26.
- Fine MJ, Smith MA, Carson CA, Mutha SS, Sankey SS, Weissfeld LA, et al. Prognosis and outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. A meta-analysis. JAMA. 1996;275:134–41.
- Fraser DW, Tsai TR, Orenstein W, Parkin WE, Beecham HJ, Sharrar RG, et al. Legionnaires’ disease: description of an epidemic of pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1977;297:1189–97.
- von Baum H, Ewig S, Marre R, Suttorp N, Gonschior S, Welte T, et al.; Competence Network for Community Acquired Pneumonia Study Group. Community-acquired Legionella pneumonia: new insights from the German competence network for community acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1356–64.
- Benin AL, Benson RF, Besser RE. Trends in legionnaires disease, 1980-1998: declining mortality and new patterns of diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:1039–46.
- Heath CH, Grove DI, Looke DF. Delay in appropriate therapy of Legionella pneumonia associated with increased mortality. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996;15:286–90.
- Gacouin A, Le Tulzo Y, Lavoue S, Camus C, Hoff J, Bassen R, et al. Severe pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila: prognostic factors, impact of delayed appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Intensive Care Med. 2002;28:686–91.
- Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, Fakhran S, Balk R, Bramley AM, et al.; CDC EPIC Study Team. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. adults. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:415–27.
- Marchello C, Dale AP, Thai TN, Han DS, Ebell MH. Prevalence of atypical pathogens in patients with cough and community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Ann Fam Med. 2016;14:552–66.
- Postma DF, van Werkhoven CH, van Elden LJ, Thijsen SF, Hoepelman AI, Kluytmans JA, et al.; CAP-START Study Group. Antibiotic treatment strategies for community-acquired pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1312–23.
- Fisman DN, Lim S, Wellenius GA, Johnson C, Britz P, Gaskins M, et al. It’s not the heat, it’s the humidity: wet weather increases legionellosis risk in the greater Philadelphia metropolitan area. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:2066–73.
- Hicks LA, Rose CE Jr, Fields BS, Drees ML, Engel JP, Jenkins PR, et al. Increased rainfall is associated with increased risk for legionellosis. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:811–7.
- Gleason JA, Kratz NR, Greeley RD, Fagliano JA. Under the weather: legionellosis and meteorological factors. EcoHealth. 2016;13:293–302.
- Farnham A, Alleyne L, Cimini D, Balter S. Legionnaires’ disease incidence and risk factors, New York, New York, USA, 2002-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1795–802.
- Ricketts KD, Charlett A, Gelb D, Lane C, Lee JV, Joseph CA. Weather patterns and Legionnaires’ disease: a meteorological study. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:1003–12.
- Karagiannis I, Brandsema P, VAN DER Sande M. Warm, wet weather associated with increased Legionnaires’ disease incidence in The Netherlands. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:181–7.
- Sabria M, Alvarez J, Dominguez A, Pedrol A, Sauca G, Salleras L, et al. A community outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease: evidence of a cooling tower as the source. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:642–7.
- Katz SM, Hammel JM. The effect of drying, heat, and pH on the survival of Legionella pneumophila. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1987;17:150–6.
- Beauté J, Sandin S, Uldum SA, Rota MC, Brandsema P, Giesecke J, et al. Short-term effects of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and rainfall on notification rate of community-acquired Legionnaires’ disease in four European countries. Epidemiol Infect. 2016;•••:1–11.
- Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. NIS description of data elements. DXn–ICD-9-CM. General notes [cited 2017 Jun 27]. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/vars/dxn/nisnote.jsp
- Gershengorn HB, Keene A, Dzierba AL, Wunsch H. The association of antibiotic treatment regimen and hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with Legionella pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:e66–79.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Legionellosis --- United States, 2000-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:1083–6.
- Adams DA, Thomas KR, Jajosky RA, Foster L, Sharp P, Onweh DH, et al.; Nationally Notifiable Infectious Conditions Group. Summary of notifiable infectious diseases and conditions—United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;63:1–152.
- Neil K, Berkelman R. Increasing incidence of legionellosis in the United States, 1990-2005: changing epidemiologic trends. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:591–9.
- Stout JE, Yu VL, Best MG. Ecology of Legionella pneumophila within water distribution systems. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985;49:221–8.
- Mulazimoglu L, Yu VL. Can Legionnaires disease be diagnosed by clinical criteria? A critical review. Chest. 2001;120:1049–53.
- Yu VL, Plouffe JF, Pastoris MC, Stout JE, Schousboe M, Widmer A, et al. Distribution of Legionella species and serogroups isolated by culture in patients with sporadic community-acquired legionellosis: an international collaborative survey. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:127–8.
- Helbig JH, Uldum SA, Bernander S, Lück PC, Wewalka G, Abraham B, et al. Clinical utility of urinary antigen detection for diagnosis of community-acquired, travel-associated, and nosocomial legionnaires’ disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:838–40.
- Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, et al.; Infectious Diseases Society of America; American Thoracic Society. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(Suppl 2):S27–72.
- Garin N, Genné D, Carballo S, Chuard C, Eich G, Hugli O, et al. β-Lactam monotherapy vs β-lactam-macrolide combination treatment in moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized noninferiority trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:1894–901.
- Neuhauser MM, Weinstein RA, Rydman R, Danziger LH, Karam G, Quinn JP. Antibiotic resistance among gram-negative bacilli in US intensive care units: implications for fluoroquinolone use. JAMA. 2003;289:885–8.
- Davidson R, Cavalcanti R, Brunton JL, Bast DJ, de Azavedo JC, Kibsey P, et al. Resistance to levofloxacin and failure of treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:747–50.
- Malhotra-Kumar S, Lammens C, Coenen S, Van Herck K, Goossens H. Effect of azithromycin and clarithromycin therapy on pharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant streptococci in healthy volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Lancet. 2007;369:482–90.
- Fuller JD, Low DE. A review of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection treatment failures associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:118–21.
Page created: October 16, 2017
Page updated: October 16, 2017
Page reviewed: October 16, 2017
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.