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Volume 23, Number 3—March 2017

Dispatch

Increase in Tuberculosis Cases among Prisoners, Brazil, 2009–20141

Paul M. Bourdillon, Crhistinne C.M. Gonçalves, Daniele Maria Pelissari, Denise Arakaki-Sanchez, Albert I. Ko, Julio Croda, and Jason R. Andrews
Author affiliations: Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA (P.M. Bourdillon, A.I. Ko); Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Brazil (C.C.M. Gonçalves, J. Croda); University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (D.M. Pelissari); Ministry of Health of Brazil, Brasília, Brazil (D.M. Pelissari, D. Arakaki-Sanchez); Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Campo Grande and Salvador, Brazil (J Croda, A.I. Ko); Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA (J.R. Andrews)

Main Article

Table

Annual average data for tuberculosis notifications, by incarceration status and gender, Brazil, 2009–2014

Category
General Population
Prisoners p value, men vs. women*
All
Men
Women
All
Men
Women
Population, thousands 194,898 96,546 98,352 490 459 31 <0.0001
Annual no. cases 81,370 53,138 28,227 6,388 5,869 519 <0.0001
Notification rate, cases/100,000 population 42 55 29 1,307 1,281 1,703 0.001
HIV status reported, %† 66.1 66.6 65.3 65.9 65.9 66.0 0.97
HIV co-infection, %‡ 17.4 18.2 15.8 15.9 15.2 24.1 0.003
Smear positive, % 55.5 57.2 52.2 65.5 66.4 55.2 <0.0001
Extrapulmonary, % 17.5 16.4 19.5 8.2 7.4 16.7 0.0002
Treatment success, % 66.6 64.4 70.9 69.5 69.8 66.0 0.09

*p values calculated with the Welch t-test comparing prisoners’ annual data by sex.
†HIV status based on a positive or negative status result or AIDS diagnosis from the time of tuberculosis notification.
‡% HIV co-infection calculated as percentage positive HIV+ results among those with HIV status reported.

Main Article

1Preliminary results from this study were presented at the 46th Union World Conference on Lung Health, December 2–6, 2016, Cape Town, South Africa.

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