Volume 23, Number 8—August 2017
Influenza D Virus in Animal Species in Guangdong Province, Southern China
|Animal species and farm||Farm type†||Farm location||No. animals||Age range of animals||Sample type||No. positive/no. samples||Detection rate, %|
|Holstein dairy cattle
|A||Not all-in-all-out||Guangzhou: Tianhe||2,000||3–5 y||Nasal swab||14/86‡||16.3|
|A||Not all-in-all-out||Guangzhou: Tianhe||2,000||3–5 y||Serum||10/94‡||10.6|
|B||Not all-in-all-out||Guangzhou: Luogang||800||3–6 y||Nasal swab||6/70‡||8.57|
|B||Not all-in-all-out||Guangzhou: Luogang||800||3–6 y||Serum||5/99‡||5.05|
|American Landrace pig
|D||Not all-in-all-out||Guangzhou: Huadu||200||10–15 wks||Lung||4/10‡||40|
|E||All-in-all-out||Heyuan: Yuancheng||1,000||5–5 wks||Nasal swab||4/10‡||40|
|E||All-in-all-out||Heyuan: Yuancheng||1,000||3–5 wks||Lung||1/8‡||12.5|
|F||All-in-all-out||Jiangmen: Kaiping||800||8–20 wks||Nasal swab||3/9‡||30|
|F||All-in-all-out||Jiangmen: Kaiping||800||8–20 wks||Lung||8/27‡||29.6|
|Native hybrid white goat
|H||Not all-in-all-out||Guangzhou: Zengcheng||200||0.5–5 y||Serum||7/25‡||28|
|Native hybrid black goat
|J||Not all-in-all-out||Qingyuan: Jiangkou||150||1–3 y||Rectal swab||1/8#||12.5|
|L||Not all-in-all-out||Guangzhou: Nansha||150||3–5 y||Serum||2/26¶||7.7|
|M||Not all-in-all-out||Guangzhou: Panyu||180||3–6 y||Serum||1/25¶||4|
|Native yellow cattle
|O||Not all-in-all-out||Qingyuan: Qingxin||200||2–5 y||Nasal swab||4/55‡||7.3|
|P||Not all-in-all-out||Qingyuan: Fogang||230||1–3 y||Nasal swab||0/50§||0|
*Feeding type of farms A–G was in captivity (poor biosecurity and high density). Feeding type of farms H–K and N–P was free grazing on the hills in the daytime and in captivity (poor biosecurity and high density) in the nighttime. Feeding type of farms L and M was free grazing in wetland in the daytime and in captivity (poor biosecurity and high density) in the nighttime.
†All-in-all-out is a strategy for the control of infectious disease. The barn is emptied of all animals and the accommodation is cleaned and disinfected and then refilled, all on 1 day.
‡These animals had severe respiratory diseases with a 10%–30% mortality rate, mainly characterized by expiratory dyspnea and abdominal respiration.
§These animals were asymptomatic.
¶These animals had severe reproductive disorders with a 60%–70% abortion rate.
#These animals had severe diarrheal disease, characterized by watery diarrhea, limb weakness, and nearly dying.
1These authors contributed equally to this article.