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Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

Research

Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh

Emily S. Gurley1Comments to Author , Sonia T. Hegde2, Kamal Hossain, Hossain M.S. Sazzad, M. Jahangir Hossain3, Mahmudur Rahman, M.A. Yushuf Sharker4, Henrik Salje, M. Saiful Islam, Jonathan H. Epstein, Salah U. Khan, A. Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, and Stephen P. Luby
Author affiliations: icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh (E.S. Gurley, S.T. Hegde, K. Hossain, H.M.S. Sazzad, M.J. Hossain, M.A. Yushuf Sharker, M.S. Islam, S.U. Khan, S.P. Luby); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (S.T. Hegde, S.P. Luby); Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Bangladesh, Dhaka (M. Rahman); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (H. Salje); Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (H. Salje); EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA (J.H. Epstein, P. Daszak); University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA (S.U. Khan); University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA (A.M. Kilpatrick); Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA (S.P. Luby)

Main Article

Figure 2

Comparisons of villages with Nipah virus infections with nearby and distant control villages, Bangladesh, 2011–2013. A) Human population size, B) Pteropus medius bat population size, C) no. date palm trees, D) proportion of households with members who consume fresh date palm sap, E) average no. of persons per household who consume fresh date palm sap, and F) proportion of households that reported their residents eat bitten fruits dropped on the ground. Gray shading in violin plots indicates dist

Figure 2. Comparisons of villages with Nipah virus infections with nearby and distant control villages, Bangladesh, 2011–2013. A) Human population size, B) Pteropus medius bat population size, C) no. date palm trees, D) proportion of households with members who consume fresh date palm sap, E) average no. of persons per household who consume fresh date palm sap, and F) proportion of households that reported their residents eat bitten fruits dropped on the ground. Gray shading in violin plots indicates distribution of values for each variable. Box plots indicate 25th and 75th percentiles (bottom and top lines), medians (horizontal lines within boxes), and 95 CIs (whiskers). Red dots indicate maximum (outlier) values.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

2Current affiliation: University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

3Current affiliation: Medical Research Council, Banjul, The Gambia.

4Current affiliation: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

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