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Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

Research

Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh

Emily S. Gurley1Comments to Author , Sonia T. Hegde2, Kamal Hossain, Hossain M.S. Sazzad, M. Jahangir Hossain3, Mahmudur Rahman, M.A. Yushuf Sharker4, Henrik Salje, M. Saiful Islam, Jonathan H. Epstein, Salah U. Khan, A. Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, and Stephen P. Luby
Author affiliations: icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh (E.S. Gurley, S.T. Hegde, K. Hossain, H.M.S. Sazzad, M.J. Hossain, M.A. Yushuf Sharker, M.S. Islam, S.U. Khan, S.P. Luby); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (S.T. Hegde, S.P. Luby); Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Bangladesh, Dhaka (M. Rahman); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (H. Salje); Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (H. Salje); EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA (J.H. Epstein, P. Daszak); University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA (S.U. Khan); University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA (A.M. Kilpatrick); Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA (S.P. Luby)

Main Article

Table 2

Odds ratios from logistic regression models estimating associations between village characteristics and Nipah virus spillovers, Bangladesh, 2011–2013*

Characteristic OR (95% CI) for villages with NiV infections vs. nearby control villages p value OR (95% CI) for villages with NiV infections vs. distant control villages p value
Per each order of magnitude increase in no. persons in village 1.36 (0.90–2.07) 0.14 1.57 (0.90–2.6) 0.12
Per each order of magnitude increase in no. bats <5 km from village 1.00 (0.86–1.16) 0.97 1.18 (1.02–1.37) 0.029
Per each order of magnitude increase in no. date palm sap trees <5 km from village 0.75 (0.49–1.12) 0.16 .69 (0.45–1.04) 0.078
Per each 10% increase in households reporting that someone consumed raw date palm sap during the harvest season 6.39 (1.61–25.40) 0.008 26.97 (5.98–121.67) <0.001
Per each 1% increase in villages reporting that someone hunts bats NA NA 1.80 (0.80–4.06) 0.16

*CIs were calculated by using robust variance. NA, not applicable; NiV, Nipah virus; OR, odds ratio.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

2Current affiliation: University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

3Current affiliation: Medical Research Council, Banjul, The Gambia.

4Current affiliation: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

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