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Volume 24, Number 2—February 2018

Role of Environmental Factors in Shaping Spatial Distribution of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Fiji

Ruklanthi de AlwisComments to Author , Conall Watson, Birgit Nikolay, John H. Lowry, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Kitione Rawalai, Mere Taufa, Jerimaia Coriakula, Colleen L. Lau, Eric J. Nilles, W. John Edmunds, Mike Kama, Stephen Baker, and Jorge Cano
Author affiliations: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (R. de Alwis, C. Watson, B. Nikolay, W.J. Edmunds, J. Cano); Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (R. de Alwis, N.T.V. Thieu, T.T. Van, D.T.T. Ngoc, S. Baker); Oxford University, Oxford, UK (R. de Alwis, S. Baker); University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji (J.H. Lowry); Project Heaven, Suva (K. Rawalai); Ministry of Health and Medical Services, Suva (M. Taufa, M. Kama); Fiji National University, Suva (J. Coriakula); Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (C.L. Lau); World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, Suva (E.J. Nilles); Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (E.J. Nilles); Harvard Medical School, Boston (E.J. Nilles)

Main Article

Table 2

Association between social and environmental factors and typhoid fever seroimmune status in multivariable multilevel model, Fiji*

Variable Odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Annual rainfall, by quintiles
1.26 (1.12–1.42)
Distance to major rivers and major creeks, km 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 0.031
Distance to modeled flood-risk areas, by quintiles
0.80 (0.69–0.92)
Age of participant, y 1.03 (1.02–1.03) <0.001
Vaccination status
1.62 (1.02–2.57)
Type of toilet at home NA NA
Flush 1.0 (referent) NA
Water seal/pour flush 1.66 (1.16–2.38) 0.006
Pit (with or without slab) and bucket 1.51 (0.91–2.52) 0.110

*Multivariable model was run by using 1,338 observations in 61 communities. NA, not applicable.

Main Article

Page created: January 17, 2018
Page updated: January 17, 2018
Page reviewed: January 17, 2018
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