Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 24, Number 4—April 2018

Genetic Characterization of Enterovirus A71 Circulating in Africa

Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia1Comments to Author , Romain Volle1, Marie-Line Joffret, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ousmane Kebe, Michael R. Wiley, Manasi Majumdar, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Gustavo Palacios, Javier Martin, Francis Delpeyroux, Kader Ndiaye2, and Maël Bessaud2
Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Dakar, Senegal (M.D. Fernandez-Garcia, O. Kebe, K. Ndiaye); Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (R. Volle, M.-L. Joffret, E. Simon-Loriere, A. Sakuntabhai, F. Delpeyroux, M. Bessaud); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U994, Paris (R. Volle, M.-L. Joffret, F. Delpeyroux); Centre Pasteur, Yaoundé, Cameroon (S.A. Sadeuh-Mba); Institut Pasteur, Bangui, Central African Republic (I. Gouandjika-Vasilache); University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA (M.R. Wiley); US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland, USA (M.R. Wiley, G. Palacios); National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Hertfordshire, UK (M. Majumdar, J. Martin)

Main Article


Description of enterovirus isolates from patients with acute flaccid paralysis in Africa that were sequenced for characterization of enterovirus A71

Strain (reference) Country of isolation Patient age at diagnosis, y Year Virus Genogroup or subgenogroup Genbank accession no.
14-157 (9) Senegal 3 2014 EV-A71 C2 MG672480
14-250 (9) Mauritania 1.6 2014 EV-A71 C2 MG672481
13-365 (9) Guinea 1.7 2013 EV-A71 C2 MG672479
15-355 (this study) Senegal 2.4 2015 EV-A71 C2 MG013988
13-194 (9) Niger 1.3 2013 EV-A71 E MG672478
03-008 (7) Central African Republic 1.9 2003 EV-A71 E LT719068
08-146 (8) Cameroon 2.6 2008 EV-A71 E LT719066
08-041(8) Cameroon 1.7 2008 EV-A71 C1 LT719067
14-254 (15)
*NA, not available.

Main Article

  1. Solomon  T, Lewthwaite  P, Perera  D, Cardosa  MJ, McMinn  P, Ooi  MH. Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of enterovirus 71. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:77890. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chang  P-C, Chen  S-C, Chen  K-T. The current status of the disease caused by enterovirus 71 infections: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, and vaccine development. Vol. 13. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13:890. DOIGoogle Scholar
  3. Bessaud  M, Razafindratsimandresy  R, Nougairède  A, Joffret  ML, Deshpande  JM, Dubot-Pérès  A, et al. Molecular comparison and evolutionary analyses of VP1 nucleotide sequences of new African human enterovirus 71 isolates reveal a wide genetic diversity. PLoS One. 2014;9:e90624. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chakraborty  R, Iturriza-Gómara  M, Musoke  R, Palakudy  T, D’Agostino  A, Gray  J. An epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection among HIV-1-infected orphans in Nairobi. AIDS. 2004;18:196870. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Junttila  N, Lévêque  N, Kabue  JP, Cartet  G, Mushiya  F, Muyembe-Tamfum  JJ, et al. New enteroviruses, EV-93 and EV-94, associated with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. J Med Virol. 2007;79:393400. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Oyero  OG, Adu  FD. Non-polio enteroviruses serotypes circulating in Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2010;39(Suppl):2018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bessaud  M, Pillet  S, Ibrahim  W, Joffret  ML, Pozzetto  B, Delpeyroux  F, et al. Molecular characterization of human enteroviruses in the Central African Republic: uncovering wide diversity and identification of a new human enterovirus A71 genogroup. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:16508. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Sadeuh-Mba  SA, Bessaud  M, Massenet  D, Joffret  ML, Endegue  MC, Njouom  R, et al. High frequency and diversity of species C enteroviruses in Cameroon and neighboring countries. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:75970. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fernandez-Garcia  MD, Kebe  O, Fall  AD, Dia  H, Diop  OM, Delpeyroux  F, et al. Enterovirus A71 genogroups C and E in children with acute flaccid paralysis, West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:7535. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Sadeuh-Mba  SA, Bessaud  M, Joffret  ML, Endegue Zanga  MC, Balanant  J, Mpoudi Ngole  E, et al. Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e3052. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Faleye  TO, Adewumi  MO, Coker  BA, Nudamajo  FY, Adeniji  JA. Direct detection and identification of enteroviruses from faeces of healthy Nigerian children using a cell-culture independent RT-seminested PCR assay. Adv Virol. 2016;2016:1412838.
  12. McWilliam Leitch  EC, Cabrerizo  M, Cardosa  J, Harvala  H, Ivanova  OE, Koike  S, et al. The association of recombination events in the founding and emergence of subgenogroup evolutionary lineages of human enterovirus 71. J Virol. 2012;86:267685. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Yoke-Fun  C, AbuBakar  S. Phylogenetic evidence for inter-typic recombination in the emergence of human enterovirus 71 subgenotypes. BMC Microbiol. 2006;6:74. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kugelman  JR, Wiley  MR, Mate  S, Ladner  JT, Beitzel  B, Fakoli  L, et al.; US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; National Institutes of Health; Integrated Research Facility–Frederick Ebola Response Team 2014–2015. National Institutes of Health; Integrated Research Facility–Frederick Ebola Response Team 2014–2015. Monitoring of Ebola virus Makona evolution through establishment of advanced genomic capability in Liberia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:113543. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fernandez-Garcia  MD, Kebe  O, Fall  AD, Ndiaye  K. Identification and molecular characterization of non-polio enteroviruses from children with acute flaccid paralysis in West Africa, 2013-2014. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3808. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

1These first authors contributed equally to this article.

2These senior authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: March 19, 2018
Page updated: March 19, 2018
Page reviewed: March 19, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.