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Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019
Dispatch

Bat Influenza A(HL18NL11) Virus in Fruit Bats, Brazil

Angélica Cristine Almeida Campos, Luiz Gustavo Bentim Góes, Andres Moreira-Soto, Cristiano de Carvalho, Guilherme Ambar, Anna-Lena Sander, Carlo Fischer, Adriana Ruckert da Rosa, Debora Cardoso de Oliveira, Ana Paula G. Kataoka, Wagner André Pedro, Luzia Fátima A. Martorelli, Luzia Helena Queiroz, Ariovaldo P. Cruz-Neto, Edison Luiz Durigon1, and Jan Felix Drexler1Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, Berlin, Germany (A.C.A. Campos, L.G.B. Góes, A. Moreira-Soto, A.-L. Sander, C. Fischer, J.F. Drexler); Universidade de São Paulo-USP, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas-ICB, São Paulo, Brazil (A.C.A. Campos, L.G.B. Góes, E.L. Durigon); Universidade Estadual Paulista Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Araçatuba, Brazil (C. de Carvalho, W.A. Pedro, L.H. Queiroz); Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Rio Claro, Brazil (G. Ambar, A.P. Cruz-Neto); Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, São Paulo (A.R. da Rosa, D.C. de Oliveira, L.F.A. Martorelli, A.P.G. Kataoka); German Centre for Infection Research, Germany (J.F. Drexler); Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector-Borne Diseases, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia (J.F. Drexler)

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Figure 1

Bat influenza A(HL18NL11) virus detection and genomic characterization, Brazil, 2010–2014. A) Distribution of Artibeus species bats carrying HL18NL11 in Central and South America, according to the Red List of Threatened Species from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (https://www.iucnredlist.org). Orange star indicates the sampling site of an HL18NL11-positive bat in Peru (5); blue star indicates the sampling site of the HL18NL11-positive bats in Brazil for this study. Maps were

Figure 1. Bat influenza A(HL18NL11) virus detection and genomic characterization, Brazil, 2010–2014. A) Distribution of Artibeus species bats carrying HL18NL11 in Central and South America, according to the Red List of Threatened Species from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (https://www.iucnredlist.org). Orange star indicates the sampling site of an HL18NL11-positive bat in Peru (5); blue star indicates the sampling site of the HL18NL11-positive bats in Brazil for this study. Maps were created using QGIS2.14.3 (http://www.qgis.org) with data freely available from http://www.naturalearthdata.com. B) Top, schematic representation of the genome organization of A/great fruit-eating bat/Brazil/2301/2012 (HL18NL11) and amino acid exchanges (black lines) compared with A/great fruit-eating bat/Brazil/2344/2012 (HL18NL11) and Peru HL18NL11 (GenBank accession nos. CY125942–49). Nucleotide sequence identities between the concatenated HL18NL11 (Brazil), HL17NL10, and HL18NL11 (Guatemala and Peru) sequences were calculated in SSE version 1.2 (http://www.virus-evolution.org/Downloads/Software) with a sliding window of 200 and step size of 100 nt. C) Homology model of the HL protein of A/great fruit-eating bat/Brazil/2301/2012 viewed from the top, modeled on the published crystal structure retrieved from the SWISS-MODEL repository (https://www.swissmodel.expasy.org). The putative RBS is shown in blue, 3 highly conserved residues (W153, H183, and Y195) in HAs and HLs are in purple, and amino acid substitutions between Brazil strains and the Peru prototype strain are in red. D) Homology model of the NL of A/great fruit-eating bat/Brazil/2301/2012 viewed from the top, constructed as in panel C. The putative active site is shown in a blue circle, the 6 residues (R118, W178, S179, R224, E276 and E425) conserved in influenza A virus neuraminidase genes are in purple, and amino acid substitutions between Brazil strains and the Peru prototype strain are in red. HA, hemagglutinin; HL, HA-like; NL, neuraminidase-like; RBS, receptor-binding site.

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1These senior authors contributed equally to this article.

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