Lessons Learned from a Decade of Investigations of Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Outbreaks Linked to Leafy Greens, United States and Canada
Katherine E. Marshall , April Hexemer, Sharon L. Seelman, Marianne K. Fatica, Tyann Blessington, Maha Hajmeer, Hannah Kisselburgh, Robin Atkinson, Kristin Hill, Davendra Sharma, Michael Needham, Vi Peralta, Jeffrey Higa, Karen Blickenstaff, Ian T. Williams, Michael A. Jhung, Matthew Wise, and Laura Gieraltowski
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (K.E. Marshall, H. Kisselburgh, I.T. Williams, M.A. Jhung, M. Wise, L. Gieraltowski); Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (A. Hexemer); Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland, USA (S.L. Seelman, M.K. Fatica, T. Blessington, K. Blickenstaff); California Department of Public Health, Sacramento, California, USA (M. Hajmeer, M. Needham); California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA (V. Peralta); California Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, USA (J. Higa); Canada Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa (R. Atkinson, K. Hill, D. Sharma)
Figure 1. Number of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli outbreaks (n = 40) linked to leafy greens in the United States, Canada, or both countries, and all outbreak-related illnesses (n = 1,212), by year of first illness onset, 2009–2018.
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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