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Volume 26, Number 4—April 2020

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Humans and Livestock, Pakistan, 2015–2017

Ali Zohaib, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad A. Athar, Muhammad H. Hussain, Awais-ur-Rahman Sial, Muhammad H. Tayyab, Murrafa Batool, Halima Sadia, Zeeshan Taj, Usman Tahir, Muhammad Y. Jakhrani, Jawad Tayyab, Muhammad A. Kakar, Muhammad F. Shahid, Tahir Yaqub, Jingyuan Zhang, Qiaoli Wu, Fei Deng, Victor M. Corman, Shu Shen, Iahtasham Khan, and Zheng-Li ShiComments to Author 
Author affiliations: National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan (A. Zohaib); Wuhan Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China (A. Zohaib, J. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Deng, S. Shen, Z.-L. Shi); University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan (M. Saqib, M.H. Tayyab, M. Batool); University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan (M.A. Athar); Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Muscat, Oman (M.H. Hussain); PMAS Aird Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan (A. Sial, J. Tayyab); Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Punjab, Pakistan (H. Sadia, U. Tahir); Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad (Z. Taj); Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Sakrand, Sindh, Pakistan (M.Y. Jakhrani); Livestock & Dairy Development Department Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan (M.A. Kakar); University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan (M.F. Shahid, T. Yaqub, I. Khan); National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan (Q. Wu, F. Deng, S. Shen); Humboldt-University and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany (V.M. Corman); German Centre for Infection Research, Berlin (V.M. Corman)

Main Article

Table 2

Univariate analyses of 1,838 livestock samples positive for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus by ELISA, Pakistan, 2017–2018

Category No. positive/no. tested Prevalence, % (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Species <0.001
Camel 272/480 56.7 (52.1–61.2) 5.6 (4.2–7.6)
Cattle 81/183 44.3 (36.9–51.8) 3.4 (2.3–5.0)
Sheep 138/424 32.6 (28.1–37.2) 2.1 (1.5–2.8)
Buffalo 92/311 29.6 (24.6–35.0) 1.8 (1.3–2.5)
18.9 (15.3–22.8)

Province <0.001
Balochistan 213/359 59.3 (54.1–64.5) 7.6 (5.4–10.6)
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 230/439 52.4 (47.6–57.1) 5.7 (4.1–7.9)
Punjab 159/644 24.7 (21.4–28.2) 1.7 (1.2–2.40)
16.2 (12.7–20.2)

Sex 0.377
F 552/1,504 36.7 (34.3–39.2) 1.1 (0.9–1.4)
34.1 (29.1–39.5)

Age, y

<5 332/1,121 29.6 (27–32.4) 1.0
>5 334/717 46.6 (42.9–50.3) 2.1 (1.7–2.5)

Main Article

Page created: March 17, 2020
Page updated: March 17, 2020
Page reviewed: March 17, 2020
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.