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Volume 27, Number 9—September 2021

Multicenter Epidemiologic Study of Coronavirus Disease–Associated Mucormycosis, India

Atul Patel1, Ritesh Agarwal12, Shivaprakash M. Rudramurthy, Manoj Shevkani, Immaculata Xess, Ratna Sharma, Jayanthi Savio, Nandini Sethuraman, Surabhi Madan, Prakash Shastri, Deepak Thangaraju, Rungmei Marak, Karuna Tadepalli, Pratik Savaj, Ayesha Sunavala, Neha Gupta, Tanu Singhal, Valliappan Muthu, Arunaloke Chakrabarti2Comments to Author , and MucoCovi Network3
Author affiliations: Sterling Hospital, Ahmedabad, India (A Patel); Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India (R. Agarwal, S.M. Rudramurthy, V. Muthu, A. Chakrabarti); Avaron Hospital, Ahmedabad (M. Shevkani); All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi, India (I. Xess); Apollo Hospital, Hyderabad, India (R. Sharma); St. John’s Medical College, Bengaluru, India (J. Savio); Apollo Hospital, Chennai, India (N. Sethuraman); Care Institute of Medical Sciences, Ahmedabad (S. Madan); Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi (P. Shastri); Kovai Medical Centre and Hospital, Coimbatore, India (D. Thangaraju); Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India (R. Marak); All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, India (K. Tadepalli); Venus Hospital, Surat, India (P. Savaj); Hinduja Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India (A. Sunavala); Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, India (N. Gupta); Kokilaben Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India (T. Singhal)

Main Article

Table 4

Multivariate analysis of factors predicting the development of late CAM among COVID-19 patients, India*

Variables Early CAM, n = 29† Late CAM, n = 158‡ Odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Mean age, y (SD)
51.8 (14.2)
57.8 (11.9)
1.02 (0.96–1.07)
M 20 (69.0) 130 (82.3) 0.25 (0.06–1.10) 0.07
9 (31.0)
28 (17.7)

Underlying disease
Isolated COVID-19 11 (23.7) 50 (17.3) 1.71 (0.25–11.96) 0.59
  Diabetes mellitus 16 (61.6) 97 (64.5) 5.84 (0.70–48.89) 0.10
2 (4.5)
11 (3.6)

Hypoxemia due to COVID-19
9 (31.0)
65 (41.1)
11.84 (1.43–98.06)
Glucocorticoid usage N = 17 N = 133
  Appropriate 11 (64.7) 44 (33.1) Referent
  Not indicated 4 (23.5) 46 (34.6) 66.93 (7.05–635.19) 0.0001
  Indicated, but inappropriately high dose 2 (11.8) 43 (32.3) 9.91 (1.39–70.77) 0.02

*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. Bold text indicates statistical significance. CAM, COVID-19–associated mucormycosis; COVID-19, coronavirus disease. †Early CAM is considered mucormycosis diagnosed <7 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. ‡Late CAM is mucormycosis diagnosed >8 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. §Includes traumatic inoculation, cirrhosis, immunosuppression, renal transplantation, and hematological malignancy

Main Article

1These first authors contributed equally to this article.

2These senior authors contributed equally to this article.

3Members are listed at the end of this article.

Page created: June 02, 2021
Page updated: August 17, 2021
Page reviewed: August 17, 2021
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