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Volume 28, Number 8—August 2022
Etymologia

Etymologia: Anopheles culicifacies

Gaurav KumarComments to Author 
Author affiliation: National Institute of Malaria Research, Delhi, India

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Anopheles culicifacies [′ə′ nɒfɨliːz′ kyü-lə cifā-sh(ē-)ēz]

Figure 1

Anopheles culicifacies mosquito. Photograph courtesy Gaurav Kumar.

Figure 1. Anopheles culicifacies mosquito. Photograph courtesy Gaurav Kumar.

Figure 2

Wing morphology of Anopheles culicifacies mosquito showing the dark third vein (arrow). The length of the wing on the right is 2.5 mm. Photograph courtesy Gaurav Kumar.

Figure 2. Wing morphology of Anopheles culicifacies mosquito showing the dark third vein (arrow). The length of the wing on the right is 2.5 mm. Photograph courtesy Gaurav Kumar.

In 1901, George Michael James Giles, a lieutenant-colonel and physician in the Indian Medical Service, described Anopheles culicifacies, which he collected from his guest house in Hoshangabad, India (Figure 1). This mosquito mimicked Culex spp. in facial appearance and resting posture (body angled to the surface they are resting on), prompting Giles to name it Anopheles culicifacies because of its culex (culici)‒like appearance (facies) (Figure 2).

An. culicifacies is the principle vector of malaria in India, contributing to >60% of malaria cases in this country annually. Therefore, ≈80% of the budget for malaria control in India is spent on control of this mosquito. Adults can be identified based on characteristic wing morphology (dark third vein) and palpi ornamentation (apical pale band is nearly equal to the pre-apical dark band).

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Acknowledgment

I thank the Director of the National Institute of Malaria Research, Delhi, India, for providing encouragement to write this etymologia.

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References

  1. Giles  GM. Description of four new species of Anopheles from India. Entomol Mon Mag. 1901;37:1968.
  2. Ramachandra Rao  T. The anophelines of India. New Delhi: Oxford; 1984. p. 365–419.
  3. Sharma  VP, Dev  V. Biology and control of Anopheles culicifacies Giles 1901. Indian J Med Res. 2015;141:52536.

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Figures

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Cite This Article

DOI: 10.3201/eid2808.211875

Original Publication Date: July 08, 2022

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Gaurav Kumar, India Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector 8, Dwarka, Delhi, India

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Page created: July 08, 2022
Page updated: July 21, 2022
Page reviewed: July 21, 2022
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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