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Volume 5, Number 5—October 1999


West Nile Fever–a Reemerging Mosquito-Borne Viral Disease in Europe

Zdenek HubálekComments to Author  and Jirí Halouzka
Author affiliations: Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic

Main Article

Table 1

Isolations of West Nile virus from hematophagous arthropods (7-10)

Species No. Countries
Culex antennatusa 6 Egypt, Madagascar
decens group 8 Madagascar
ethiopicus 1 Ethiopia
guiarti 1 Côte d Ivoire
modestus 3 France, Russia
neavei 4 Senegal, South Africa
nigripes 1 Central African Republic
perexiguus 1 Israel
perfuscus group 3 Central African Republic, Senegal
pipiensa 7 South Africa, Egypt, Israel, Romania, Czechland, Bulgariab
poicilipes 29 Senegal
pruina 1 Central African Republic
quinquefasciatusa 7 India, Pakistan, Madagascar
scottii 1 Madagascar
theileria 4 South Africa
tritaeniorhynchusa 3 Pakistan, India, Madagascar
univittatusa 51 Egypt, Israel, South Africa, Madagascar
vishnuia group 6 India, Pakistan
weschei 1 Central African Republic
sp. 3 Egypt, Algeria, Central African Republic
Coquillettidia metallica 1 Uganda
microannulata 1 South Africa
richiardii 5 South Russia, Bulgariab
Mansonia uniformis 1 Ethiopia
Aedes aegyptia 1 Madagascar
africanus 1 Central African Republic
albocephalus 35 Madagascar
albothorax 1 Kenya
cantans 7 Slovakia, Ukraine, Bulgariab
caspiusa 1 Ukraine
circumluteolus 2 South Africa, Madagascar
excrucians 1 Ukraine
juppi+caballus 1 South Africa
madagascarensis 1 Madagascar
vexans 3 Senegal, Russia
Anopheles brunnipes 1 Madagascar
coustani 1 Israel
maculipalpis 1 Madagascar
maculipennis 3 Portugal, Ukraine
subpictus 1 India
sp. 1 Madagascar
Mimomyia hispida 8 Senegal
lacustris 4 Senegal
splendens 6 Senegal
sp. 2 Senegal
Aedeomyia africana 1 Senegal
Soft ticks
Argas hermannia 3 Egypt
Ornithodoros capensisa 5 Azerbaijan
Hard ticks
Hyalomma marginatum 5 Astrakhan, Azerbaijan
detritum 1 Turkmenistan
Rhipicephalus turanicus 1 Azerbaijan
muhsamae 1 Central African Republic
Amblyomma variegatum 1 Central African Republic
Dermacentor marginatusa 1 Moldavia

aExperimental transmission of the virus also demonstrated.
bDetected in mosquitoes by immunofluorescence assay.

Main Article