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Volume 5, Number 5—October 1999

West Nile Fever–a Reemerging Mosquito-Borne Viral Disease in Europe

Zdenek HubálekComments to Author  and Jirí Halouzka
Author affiliations: Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic

Main Article

Table 2

West Nile Virus in Europe, 1960-1998

Country Year Species infected HIa (%) Neutralization (%) Ref.
Portugal, southern 1967-1970 Cattle, sheep 15 26, 35
Horses 29
Humans mosquitoes (1 isolate) 3
Wild birds 5
Spain, northern 1979 Rodents 3

Northwestern 1960s Humans 17 17 26

Doñana National Park Humans +

Ebro Delta 1979 Epidemic of influenza-like illness 8-30
France, southern 1962 Humans, 10 severe cases (2 isolates) 19 25,32,46
Horses, 50 encephalomyelitis cases (1 isolate) 9 30

Camargue 1962-1965 Mosquitoes (2 isolates)
Wild birds 6
1975-1980 Humans 5
Horses 2

Corsica 1965 Humans 30 55
Italy, Tuscany 1998 Horses, 14 cases, 2 fatal (1 isolate) 40 47

Northeastern 1965-1969 Migrating birds 10
Humans 5 b

Northwestern Humans 23

Central Humans 2-8
Domestic mammals 8
Rodents 8
Chickens 20

Southern Humans 2-5
Goats 2-13
1981 Rodents 1
Former Yugoslavia

Serbia Humans 1-8 48

Croatia Humans 1-3

Montenegro Humans 1

Bosnia, Kosovo Humans 1
Albania 1958 Humans 2 31,49
Domestic animals
Greece 1970-1978 Humans 1-27 1 50,51
Domestic animals 7
Rabbits 4
Birds 22
Bulgaria 1960-1970 Humans 3 52,53

Eastern Wetland birds 2 10
Domestic animals 1
1978 Mosquitoes (virus detected)
Romania 1-3,42,54,55

Bucharest, SE lowlands 1996 Humans, 453 clin. cases, 9% fatality rate (1 isolate) 17
1997 Human, 14 cases, 2 fatal
Domestic & wild mammals 2-23 c
Dogs 45
Wild birds 22
1966-70 Mosquitoes (1 isolate)

Banat (SW) Humans (cases) 17

Southern 1980-1995 Humans 2-12
Hungary 1970s Rodents (2 isolates) 39,56
Cattle 4-9
Humans 4-6
Slovakia 1972 Mosquitoes (1 isolate) 16, 36, 57-60
1970-1973 Migrating birds (4 isolates) 1-13
Game animals 1-8
Cattle, dogs 8
Sheep 1
Pigeons 5
Humans 1-4
Austria 1964-1977 Wetland passerines 1-3 61,62
ReptilesWild mammals
Domestic animals 7-33
Humans 1-6
Czechland 1978 Domestic animals 2 40,45,63-67

Southern Bohemia 1978 Hares 5

Southern Moravia 1980s Game animals 8
1985 Wetland birds 4-10
1990 Cormorants 10
1997 Mosquitoes (1 isolate)
Humans (5 cases) 2
Poland, near Warsaw 1996 Sparrows 3-12 68
Belarus 1977 Humans (cases in Brest area) 1 43
1972-1973 Wild birds 3
Ukraine 38,44,69

Southern, western Birds (7 isolates), mosquitoes (3 isolates)

Southern 1970s Human cases (4 isolates)

Western 1985 Humans, 38 cases, encephalitis in 16
Moldavia 1970s Ticks, mosquitoes (several isolates) 37, 70
Humans 3
Russia, 33,34,41,55

Volga Delta 1963-1968 Humans (>10 cases, 3 isolates) 7-31
Ticks (4 isolates)
Water birds (2 isolates) 4-59 2-11
Mosquitoes (2 isolates)

aHemagglutination inhibition.
bQ. Ferrari, R. Lelli, pers. comm.
c C. Ceianu, pers. comm.

Main Article

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