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Volume 7, Number 2—April 2001
4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections

State of the Art

Engineering out the Risk of Infection with Urinary Catheters

Dennis G. Maki*Comments to Author  and Paul A. Tambyah†
Author affiliations: *University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; †National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore

Main Article

Table 3

Risk factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, based on prospective studies and use of multivariable statistical modeling (2730)

Factor Relative risk
Prolonged catheterization >6 days 5.1-6.8
Female gender 2.5-3.7
Catheter insertion outside operating room 2.0-5.3
Urology service 2.0-4.0
Other active sites of infection 2.3-2.4
Diabetes 2.2-2.3
Malnutrition 2.4
Azotemia (creatinine >2.0 mg/dL 2.1-2.6
Ureteral stent 2.5
Monitoring of urine output 2.0
Drainage tube below level of bladder and above collection bag 1.9
Antimicrobial-drug therapy 0.1-0.4

Main Article