Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 7, Number 3—June 2001

Seasonal Variation in Host Susceptibility and Cycles of Certain Infectious Diseases

Scott F. DowellComments to Author 
Author affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Figure 2

Seasonal variation in the incidence of poliomyelitis by latitude, 1956-57. As distance from the equator increases, a higher proportion of cases are evident in summer and fall months. Adapted from reference 9.

Figure 2. . Seasonal variation in the incidence of poliomyelitis by latitude, 1956-57. As distance from the equator increases, a higher proportion of cases are evident in summer and fall months. Adapted from reference 9.

Main Article

  1. Brownlee  J. An investigation into the periodicity of measles epidemics in London from 1703 to the present day by the method of the periodogram. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 1918;B 208:225-50.
  2. Anderson  RM, Grenfell  BT, May  RM. Oscillatory fluctuations in the incidence of infectious disease and the impact of vaccination: time series analysis. J Hyg Camb. 1984;93:587608. DOIPubMed
  3. Riedo  FX, Plikaytis  B, Broome  C. Epidemiology and prevention of meningococcal disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1995;14:64357. DOIPubMed
  4. Witte  JJ, Karchmer  A, Case  M, Herrmann  KL, Abrutyn  E, Kassanoff  I, Epidemiology of rubella. Am J Dis Child. 1969;118:10711.PubMed
  5. Török  TJ, Kilgore  PE, Clarke  MJ, Holman  RC, Bresee  JS, Glass  RI. Visualizing geographic and temporal trends in rotavirus activity in the United States, 1991 to 1996. National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System Collaborating Laboratories. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16:9416.PubMed
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Influenza activity--United States, 1999-2000 season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000;49:1737.PubMed
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Influenza activity--United States and worldwide, 1995-96 season, and composition of the 1996-97 influenza vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996;45:3269.PubMed
  8. Dowell  SF, Whitney  C, Wright  C, Schuchat  A. Seasonal changes in invasive pneumococcal disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001. In press.PubMed
  9. Paccaud  MF. World trends in poliomyelitis morbidity and mortality, 1951-1975. World Health Stat Q. 1979;32:198224.PubMed
  10. Cook  SM, Glass  R, LeBaron  C, Ho  M-S. Global seasonality of rotavirus infections. Bull World Health Organ. 1990;68:1717.PubMed
  11. Hope-Simpson  RE, Golubev  D. A new concept of the epidemic process of influenza A virus. Epidemiol Infect. 1987;99:554. DOIPubMed
  12. Blakebrough  IS, Greenwood  B, Whittle  H, Bradley  A, Gilles  H. The epidemiology of infections due to Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in a northern Nigerian community. J Infect Dis. 1982;146:62637. DOIPubMed
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: respiratory syncytial virus activity - United States, 1998-1999 Season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48:110415.PubMed
  14. Kohn  MA, Farley  T, Sundin  D, Tapia  R, McFarland  L, Arden  N. Three summertime outbreaks of influenza type A. J Infect Dis. 1995;172:2469. DOIPubMed
  15. Cox  NJ, Fukuda  K. Influenza. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998;12:2738. DOIPubMed
  16. Cox  NJ, Subbarao  K. Influenza. Lancet. 1999;354:127782. DOIPubMed
  17. Langmuir  AD, Schoenbaum  S. The epidemiology of influenza. Hosp Pract. 1976;11:4956.PubMed
  18. Hammond  GW, Raddatz  R, Gelskey  D. Impact of atmospheric dispersion and transport of viral aerosols on the epidemiology of influenza. Rev Infect Dis. 1989;11:4947. DOIPubMed
  19. Kim  PE, Musher  D, Glezen  W, Rodriguez-Barradas  M, Nahm  W, Wright  C. Association of invasive pneumococcal disease with season, atmospheric conditions, air pollution, and the isolation of respiratory viruses. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:1006. DOIPubMed
  20. Checkley  W, Epstein  L, Gilman  R, Figueroa  D, Cama  RI, Patz  JA. Effects of El Niño and ambient temperature on hospital admissions for diarrheal diseases in Peruvian children. Lancet. 2000;355:44250.PubMed
  21. Chew  FT, Doraisingham  S, Ling  A, Kumarasinghe  G, Lee  B. Seasonal trends of viral respiratory tract infections in the tropics. Epidemiol Infect. 1998;121:1218. DOIPubMed
  22. Sung  RY, Murray  H, Chan  R, Davies  D, French  G. Seasonal patterns of respiratory syncytial virus infection in Hong Kong: a preliminary report. J Infect Dis. 1987;156:5278. DOIPubMed
  23. Nathanson  N, Martin  J. The epidemiology of poliomyelitis: enigmas surrounding its appearance, epidemicity, and disappearance. Am J Epidemiol. 1979;110:67292.PubMed
  24. Greenwood  B. The epidemiology of acute bacterial meningitis in tropical Africa. Bacterial Meningitis. London: Academic Press; 1987. p. 61-91.
  25. Greenwood  BM, Blakebrough  I, Bradley  A, Wali  S, Whittle  H. Meningococcal disease and season in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet. 1984;i:133942. DOIPubMed
  26. Diermayer  M, Hedberg  K, Hoesly  F, Fischer  M, Perkins  B, Reeves  M, Epidemic serogroup B meningococcal disease in Oregon: the evolving epidemiology of the ET-5 strain. JAMA. 1999;281:14937. DOIPubMed
  27. D'Alessio  D, Minor  T, Allen  C, Tsiatis  A, Nelson  D. A study of the proportions of swimmers among well controls and children with enterovirus-like illness shedding or not shedding an enterovirus. Am J Epidemiol. 1981;113:53341.PubMed
  28. Hawley  HB, Morin  D, Geraghty  M, Tomkow  J, Phillips  C. Coxsackievirus B epidemic at a boys' summer camp: isolation of virus from swimming water. JAMA. 1973;226:336. DOIPubMed
  29. Hamer  W. Epidemic disease in England--the evidence of variability and persistency of type. Lancet. 1906;11:7339.
  30. Fine  PE, Clarkson  J. Measles in England and Wales - I: an analysis of factors underlying seasonal patterns. Int J Epidemiol. 1982;11:514. DOIPubMed
  31. Rojansky  N, Brzezinski  A, Schenker  J. Seasonality in human reproduction: an update. Hum Reprod. 1992;7:73545.PubMed
  32. Wehr  TA, Moul  D, Barbato  G, Giesen  HA, Seidel  JA, Barker  C, Conservation of photoperiod-responsive mechanisms in humans. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:R84657.PubMed
  33. Carlson  LL, Zimmermann  A, Lynch  G. Geographic differences for delay of sexual maturation in Peromyscus leukopus: effects of photoperiod, pinealectomy, and melatonin. Biol Reprod. 1989;41:100413. DOIPubMed
  34. Lincoln  GA. Reproductive seasonality and maturation throughout the complete life-cycle in the mouflon ram (ovis musimon). Anim Reprod Sci. 1998;53:87105. DOIPubMed
  35. Rhind  SM, McMillen  S, Duff  E, Hirst  D, Wright  S. Seasonality of meal patterns and hormonal correlates in red deer. Physiol Behav. 1998;65:295302. DOIPubMed
  36. Herndon  JG, Bein  M, Nordmeyer  D, Turner  J. Seasonal testicular function in male rhesus monkeys. Horm Behav. 1996;30:26671. DOIPubMed
  37. Chan  PJ, Hutz  R, Dukelow  W. Nonhuman primate in vitro fertilization: seasonality, cumulus cells, cyclic nucleotides, ribonucleic acid, and viability assays. Fertil Steril. 1982;38:60915.PubMed
  38. Löscher  W, Fiedler  M. The role of technical, biological and pharmacological factors in the laboratory evaluation of anticonvulsant drugs. VI. Seasonal influences on maximal electroshock and pentylentetrazol seizure thresholds. Epilepsy Res. 1996;25:310. DOIPubMed
  39. Sargeant  JM, Shoukri  M, Martin  S, Leslie  K, Lissemore  K. Investigating potential risk factors for seasonal variation: an example using graphical and spectral analysis methods based on the production of milk components in dairy cattle. Prev Vet Med. 1998;36:16778. DOIPubMed
  40. Yellon  SM, Fagoaga  O, Nehlsen-Cannarella  S. Influence of photoperiod on immune cell functions in the male Siberian hamster. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:R97102.PubMed
  41. Demas  GE, Nelson  R. Exogenous melatonin enhances cell-mediated, but not humoral, immune function in adult male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). J Biol Rhythms. 1998;13:24552. DOIPubMed
  42. Feigin  RD, San Joaquin  VH, Haymond  MW, Wyatt  RG. Daily periodicity of susceptibility of mice to pneumococcal infection. Nature. 1969;224:37980. DOIPubMed
  43. Shackelford  PG, Feigin  RD. Periodicity of susceptibility to pneumococcal infection: influence of light and adrenocortical secretions. Science. 1973;182:2857. DOIPubMed
  44. Wongwiwat  M, Sukapanit  S, Triyanond  C, Sawyer  WD. Circadian rhythm of the resistance of mice to acute pneumococcal infection. Infect Immun. 1972;5:4428.PubMed
  45. Sack  RL, Brandes  R, Kendall  A, Lewy  A. Entrainment of free-running circadian rhythms by melatonin in blind people. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:10707. DOIPubMed
  46. Sher  L, Goldman  D, Ozaki  N, Rosenthal  N. The role of genetic factors in the etiology of seasonal affective disorder. J Affect Disord. 1999;53:20310. DOIPubMed
  47. Eastman  CI, Young  M, Fogg  L, Liu  L, Meaden  P. Bright light treatment of winter depression: a placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:8839. DOIPubMed
  48. Pell  JP, Cobbe  S. Seasonal variations in coronary heart disease. QJM. 1999;92:68996. DOIPubMed
  49. Ownby  HE, Frederick  J, Mortensen  R, Ownby  D, Russo  J. Seasonal variations in tumor size at diagnosis and immunological responses in human breast cancer. Invasion Metastasis. 1986;6:24656.PubMed
  50. Calvo  JR, Rafil-El-Idrissi  M, Pozo  D, Guerrero  J. Immunomodulatory role of melatonin: specific binding sites in human and rodent lymphoid cells. J Pineal Res. 1995;18:11926. DOIPubMed
  51. Boctor  FN, Charmy  R, Cooper  E. Seasonal differences in the rhythmicity of human male and female lymphocyte blastogenic responses. Immunol Invest. 1989;18:77584. DOIPubMed
  52. Maes  M, Stevens  W, Scharpe  S, Bosmans  E, De Meyer  F, D'Hondt  P, Seasonal variation in peripheral blood leukocyte subsets and in serum interleukin-6, and soluble interleukin-2 and -6 receptor concentrations in normal volunteers. Experientia. 1994;50:8219. DOIPubMed
  53. Nelson  RJ, Drazen  D. Melatonin mediates seasonal adjustments in immune function. Reprod Nutr Dev. 1999;39:38398. DOIPubMed
  54. Paigen  B, Ward  E, Reilly  A, Houten  L, Gurtoo  HL, Minowada  J, Seasonal variation of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in human lymphocytes. Cancer Res. 1981;41:275761.PubMed
  55. Shadrin  AS, Marinich  I, Taros  L. Experimental and epidemiological estimation of seasonal and climato-geographical features of non-specific resistance of the organism to influenza. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1977;21:15561.PubMed
  56. Schulman  JL, Kilbourne  E. Experimental transmission of influenza virus infection in mice. II. Some factors affecting the incidence of transmitted infections. J Exp Med. 1963;118:26775. DOIPubMed
  57. Swartz  TA, Skalska  P, Gerichter  C. Routine administration of oral polio vaccine in a subtropical area. Factors possibly influencing sero-conversion rates. J Hyg Camb. 1972;70:71926. DOIPubMed
  58. World Health Organization Collaborative Study Group on Oral Poliovirus V. Factors affecting the immunogenicity of oral poliovirus vaccine: a prospective evaluation in Brazil and the Gambia. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:1097106.PubMed
  59. Deming  MS, Linkins  R, Jaitch  K, Hull  H. The clinical efficacy of trivalent oral polio vaccine in the Gambia by season of vaccine administration. J Infect Dis. 1997;175(suppl1):S2547. DOIPubMed
  60. Schonberger  LB, McGowan  JJ, Gregg  M. Vaccine-associated poliomyelitis in the United States, 1961-1972. Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104:20211.PubMed

Main Article

Page created: April 26, 2012
Page updated: April 26, 2012
Page reviewed: April 26, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.