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Issue Cover for Volume 7, Number 3—June 2001

Volume 7, Number 3—June 2001

[PDF - 2.42 MB - 129 pages]

Perspective

Seasonal Variation in Host Susceptibility and Cycles of Certain Infectious Diseases [PDF - 69 KB - 6 pages]
S. F. Dowell

Seasonal cycles of infectious diseases have been variously attributed to changes in atmospheric conditions, the prevalence or virulence of the pathogen, or the behavior of the host. Some observations about seasonality are difficult to reconcile with these explanations. These include the simultaneous appearance of outbreaks across widespread geographic regions of the same latitude; the detection of pathogens in the off-season without epidemic spread; and the consistency of seasonal changes, despite wide variations in weather and human behavior. In contrast, an increase in susceptibility of the host population, perhaps linked to the annual light/dark cycle and mediated by the pattern of melatonin secretion, might account for many heretofore unexplained features of infectious disease seasonality. Ample evidence indicates that photoperiod-driven physiologic changes are typical in mammalian species, including some in humans. If such physiologic changes underlie human resistance to infectious diseases for large portions of the year and the changes can be identified and modified, the therapeutic and preventive implications may be considerable.

EID Dowell SF. Seasonal Variation in Host Susceptibility and Cycles of Certain Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):369-374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017301
AMA Dowell SF. Seasonal Variation in Host Susceptibility and Cycles of Certain Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):369-374. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017301.
APA Dowell, S. F. (2001). Seasonal Variation in Host Susceptibility and Cycles of Certain Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 369-374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017301.
Synopses

Cryptococcus neoformans Infection in Organ Transplant Recipients: Variables Influencing Clinical Characteristics and Outcome [PDF - 69 KB - 7 pages]
S. Husain et al.

Unique clinical characteristics and other variables influencing the outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients have not been well defined. From a review of published reports, we found that C. neoformans infection was documented in 2.8% of organ transplant recipients (overall death rate 42%). The type of primary immunosuppressive agent used in transplantation influenced the predominant clinical manifestation of cryptococcosis. Patients receiving tacrolimus were significantly less likely to have central nervous system involvement (78% versus 11%, p =0.001) and more likely to have skin, soft-tissue, and osteoarticular involvement (66% versus 21%, p = 0.006) than patients receiving nontacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Renal failure at admission was the only independently significant predictor of death in these patients (odds ratio 16.4, 95% CI 1.9 - 143, p = 0.004). Hypotheses based on these data may elucidate the pathogenesis and may ultimately guide the management of C. neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients.

EID Husain S, Wagener MM, Singh N. Cryptococcus neoformans Infection in Organ Transplant Recipients: Variables Influencing Clinical Characteristics and Outcome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):375-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017302
AMA Husain S, Wagener MM, Singh N. Cryptococcus neoformans Infection in Organ Transplant Recipients: Variables Influencing Clinical Characteristics and Outcome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):375-381. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017302.
APA Husain, S., Wagener, M. M., & Singh, N. (2001). Cryptococcus neoformans Infection in Organ Transplant Recipients: Variables Influencing Clinical Characteristics and Outcome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 375-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017302.

PulseNet: The Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Bacterial Disease Surveillance, United States [PDF - 129 KB - 8 pages]
B. Swaminathan et al.

PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several state health department laboratories to facilitate subtyping bacterial foodborne pathogens for epidemiologic purposes. PulseNet, which began in 1996 with 10 laboratories typing a single pathogen (Escherichia coli O157:H7), now includes 46 state and 2 local public health laboratories and the food safety laboratories of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Four foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7; nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes, Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella) are being subtyped, and other

EID Swaminathan B, Barrett TJ, Hunter SB, Tauxe RV. PulseNet: The Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Bacterial Disease Surveillance, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):382-389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017303
AMA Swaminathan B, Barrett TJ, Hunter SB, et al. PulseNet: The Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Bacterial Disease Surveillance, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):382-389. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017303.
APA Swaminathan, B., Barrett, T. J., Hunter, S. B., & Tauxe, R. V. (2001). PulseNet: The Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Bacterial Disease Surveillance, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 382-389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017303.

Spoligotype Database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Biogeographic Distribution of Shared Types and Epidemiologic and Phylogenetic Perspectives [PDF - 102 KB - 7 pages]
C. Sola et al.

We give an update on the worldwide spoligotype database, which now contains 3,319 spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 47 countries, with 259 shared types, i.e., identical spoligotypes shared by two or more patient isolates. The 259 shared types contained a total of 2,779 (84%) of all the isolates. Seven major genetic groups represented 37% of all clustered isolates. Two types (119 and 137) were found almost exclusively in the USA and accounted for 9% of clustered isolates. The remaining 1,517 isolates were scattered into 252 different spoligotypes. This database constitutes a tool for pattern comparison of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates for global epidemiologic studies and phylogenetic purposes.

EID Sola C, Filliol I, Gutierrez M, Mokrousov I, Vincent V, Rastogi N. Spoligotype Database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Biogeographic Distribution of Shared Types and Epidemiologic and Phylogenetic Perspectives. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):390-396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017304
AMA Sola C, Filliol I, Gutierrez M, et al. Spoligotype Database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Biogeographic Distribution of Shared Types and Epidemiologic and Phylogenetic Perspectives. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):390-396. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017304.
APA Sola, C., Filliol, I., Gutierrez, M., Mokrousov, I., Vincent, V., & Rastogi, N. (2001). Spoligotype Database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Biogeographic Distribution of Shared Types and Epidemiologic and Phylogenetic Perspectives. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 390-396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017304.
Research

Transmission of an Arenavirus in White-Throated Woodrats (Neotoma albigula), Southeastern Colorado, 1995-1999 [PDF - 74 KB - 6 pages]
C. H. Calisher et al.

From 1995 to 1999, we conducted longitudinal studies of white-throated woodrats (Neotoma albigula) in southeastern Colorado. Forty-five (42.9%) of 105 female and 15 (26.8%) of 56 male N. albigula had antibodies against Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV). Sixteen female and three male N. albigula seroconverted during the study period, most of them during July-November, when population densities are highest. Analyses of longevity data, minimum numbers alive and infected, movements, and weight data suggest that the dominant mode of WWAV transmission among white-throated woodrats in Colorado is direct contact. WWAV was recently reported to cause fatal infection in humans. Our findings will lead to better assessment of the public health threat posed by infected woodrats and may be useful in predicting periods of increased risk for human infection.

EID Calisher CH, Nabity S, Root J, Fulhorst CF, Beaty BJ. Transmission of an Arenavirus in White-Throated Woodrats (Neotoma albigula), Southeastern Colorado, 1995-1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):397-402. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017305
AMA Calisher CH, Nabity S, Root J, et al. Transmission of an Arenavirus in White-Throated Woodrats (Neotoma albigula), Southeastern Colorado, 1995-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):397-402. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017305.
APA Calisher, C. H., Nabity, S., Root, J., Fulhorst, C. F., & Beaty, B. J. (2001). Transmission of an Arenavirus in White-Throated Woodrats (Neotoma albigula), Southeastern Colorado, 1995-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 397-402. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017305.

Geographic Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Whitewater Arroyo Virus in the Southwestern United States [PDF - 86 KB - 5 pages]
C. F. Fulhorst et al.

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the arenavirus(es) associated with Neotoma species (woodrats) in the southwestern United States. Infectious arenavirus was recovered from 14 (3.3%) of 425 woodrats. The virus-positive species included N. albigula in New Mexico and Oklahoma, N. cinerea in Utah, N. mexicana in New Mexico and Utah, and N. micropus in Texas. Analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data indicated that all the isolates were strains of Whitewater Arroyo virus, an arenavirus previously known only from northwestern New Mexico. Analyses of the sequence data also indicated that there can be substantial genetic diversity among strains of Whitewater Arroyo virus from conspecific woodrats collected from different localities and substantial genetic diversity among strains from different woodrat species collected from the same locality.

EID Fulhorst CF, Charrel RN, Weaver SC, Ksiazek TG, Bradley RD, Milazzo ML, et al. Geographic Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Whitewater Arroyo Virus in the Southwestern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):403-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017306
AMA Fulhorst CF, Charrel RN, Weaver SC, et al. Geographic Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Whitewater Arroyo Virus in the Southwestern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):403-407. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017306.
APA Fulhorst, C. F., Charrel, R. N., Weaver, S. C., Ksiazek, T. G., Bradley, R. D., Milazzo, M. L....Bowen, M. D. (2001). Geographic Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Whitewater Arroyo Virus in the Southwestern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 403-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017306.

Is High Prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in Wild and Domestic Animals Associated with Disease Incidence in Humans? [PDF - 159 KB - 5 pages]
B. Gottstein et al.

We investigated a focus of highly endemic Echinococcus multilocularis infection to assess persistence of high endemicity in rural rodents, explore potential for parasite transmission to domestic carnivores, and assess (serologically) putative exposure versus infection frequency in inhabitants of the region. From spring 1993 to spring 1998, the prevalence of E. multilocularis in rodents was 9% to 39% for Arvicola terrestris and 10% to 21% for Microtus arvalis. From June 1996 to October 1997, 6 (7%) of 86 feral dogs and 1 of 33 cats living close to the region tested positive for intestinal E. multilocularis infection. Testing included egg detection by coproscopy, antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and specific parasite DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Thus, the presence of infected domestic carnivores can increase E. multilocularis exposure risk in humans. A seroepidemiologic survey of 2,943 blood donors in the area used specific Em2-ELISA. Comparative statistical analyses of seroprevalence and clinical incidence showed an increase in Em2-seroprevalence from 1986 and 1996-97 but no increase in clinical incidence of alveolar hydatid disease.

EID Gottstein B, Saucy F, Deplazes P, Reichen J, Demierre G, Busato A, et al. Is High Prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in Wild and Domestic Animals Associated with Disease Incidence in Humans?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):408-412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017307
AMA Gottstein B, Saucy F, Deplazes P, et al. Is High Prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in Wild and Domestic Animals Associated with Disease Incidence in Humans?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):408-412. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017307.
APA Gottstein, B., Saucy, F., Deplazes, P., Reichen, J., Demierre, G., Busato, A....Pugin, P. (2001). Is High Prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in Wild and Domestic Animals Associated with Disease Incidence in Humans?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 408-412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017307.

Goat-Associated Q Fever: A New Disease in Newfoundland [PDF - 151 KB - 7 pages]
T. F. Hatchette et al.

In the spring of 1999 in rural Newfoundland, abortions in goats were associated with illness in goat workers. An epidemiologic investigation and a serologic survey were conducted in April 1999 to determine the number of infections, nature of illness, and risk factors for infection. Thirty seven percent of the outbreak cohort had antibody titers to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigen >1:64, suggesting recent infection. The predominant clinical manifestation of Q fever was an acute febrile illness. Independent risk factors for infection included contact with goat placenta, smoking tobacco, and eating cheese made from pasteurized goat milk. This outbreak raises questions about management of such outbreaks, interprovincial sale and movement of domestic ungulates, and the need for discussion between public health practitioners and the dairy industry on control of this highly infectious organism.

EID Hatchette TF, Hudson RC, Schlech WF, Campbell NA, Hatchette JE, Ratnam S, et al. Goat-Associated Q Fever: A New Disease in Newfoundland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):413-419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017308
AMA Hatchette TF, Hudson RC, Schlech WF, et al. Goat-Associated Q Fever: A New Disease in Newfoundland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):413-419. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017308.
APA Hatchette, T. F., Hudson, R. C., Schlech, W. F., Campbell, N. A., Hatchette, J. E., Ratnam, S....Marrie, T. J. (2001). Goat-Associated Q Fever: A New Disease in Newfoundland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 413-419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017308.

Molecular Epidemiology of Serogroup A Meningitis in Moscow, 1969 to 1997 [PDF - 130 KB - 8 pages]
M. Achtman et al.

Molecular analysis of 103 serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated in Moscow from 1969 to 1997 showed that four independent clonal groupings were responsible for successive waves of meningococcal disease. An epidemic from 1969 to the mid-1970s was caused by genocloud 2 of subgroup III, possibly imported from China. Subsequent endemic disease through the early 1990s was caused by subgroup X and then by subgroup VI, which has also caused endemic disease elsewhere in Eastern Europe. A 1996 epidemic was part of the pandemic spread from Asia of genocloud 8 of subgroup III. Recent genocloud 8 epidemic disease in Moscow may represent an early warning for spread of these bacteria to other countries in Europe.

EID Achtman M, van der Ende A, Zhu P, Koroleva IS, Kusecek B, Morelli G, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Serogroup A Meningitis in Moscow, 1969 to 1997. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):420-427. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017309
AMA Achtman M, van der Ende A, Zhu P, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Serogroup A Meningitis in Moscow, 1969 to 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):420-427. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017309.
APA Achtman, M., van der Ende, A., Zhu, P., Koroleva, I. S., Kusecek, B., Morelli, G....Platonov, A. E. (2001). Molecular Epidemiology of Serogroup A Meningitis in Moscow, 1969 to 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 420-427. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017309.

Melioidosis: An Emerging Infection in Taiwan? [PDF - 122 KB - 6 pages]
P. Hsueh et al.

From January 1982 to May 2000, 17 infections caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei were diagnosed in 15 patients in Taiwan; almost all the infections were diagnosed from 1994 to May 2000. Of the 15 patients, 9 (60%) had underlying diseases, and 10 (67%) had bacteremic pneumonia. Thirteen (76%) episodes of infection were considered indigenous. Four patients died of melioidosis. Seventeen B. pseudomallei isolates, recovered from eight patients from November 1996 to May 2000, were analyzed to determine their in vitro susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial agents, cellular fatty acid and biochemical reaction profiles, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. Eight strains (highly related isolates) were identified. All isolates were arabinose non-assimilators and were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem. No spread of the strain was documented.

EID Hsueh P, Teng L, Lee L, Yu C, Yang P, Ho S, et al. Melioidosis: An Emerging Infection in Taiwan?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):428-433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017310
AMA Hsueh P, Teng L, Lee L, et al. Melioidosis: An Emerging Infection in Taiwan?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):428-433. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017310.
APA Hsueh, P., Teng, L., Lee, L., Yu, C., Yang, P., Ho, S....Luh, K. (2001). Melioidosis: An Emerging Infection in Taiwan?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 428-433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017310.

Outbreak of Human Monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 to 1997 [PDF - 65 KB - 5 pages]
Y. Hutin et al.

Human monkeypox is a zoonotic smallpox-like disease caused by an orthopoxvirus of interhuman transmissibility too low to sustain spread in susceptible populations. In February 1997, 88 cases of febrile pustular rash were identified for the previous 12 months in 12 villages of the Katako-Kombe Health Zone, Democratic Republic of Congo (attack rate = 22 per 1,000, case-fatality rate = 3.7%). Seven were active cases confirmed by virus isolation. Orthopoxvirus-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 54% of 72 patients who provided serum and 25% of 59 wild-caught animals, mainly squirrels. Hemagglutination-inhibition assays and Western blotting detected antibodies in 68% and 73% of patients, respectively. Vaccinia vaccination, which protects against monkeypox, ceased by 1983 after global smallpox eradication, leading to an increase in the proportion of susceptible people.

EID Hutin Y, Williams R, Malfait P, Pebody R, Loparev VN, Ropp SL, et al. Outbreak of Human Monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 to 1997. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):434-438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017311
AMA Hutin Y, Williams R, Malfait P, et al. Outbreak of Human Monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 to 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):434-438. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017311.
APA Hutin, Y., Williams, R., Malfait, P., Pebody, R., Loparev, V. N., Ropp, S. L....Esposito, J. J. (2001). Outbreak of Human Monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 to 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 434-438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017311.
Dispatches

Nipah Virus Infection in Bats (Order Chiroptera) in Peninsular Malaysia [PDF - 75 KB - 3 pages]
J. Yob et al.

Nipah virus, family Paramyxoviridae, caused disease in pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998-99. Because Nipah virus appears closely related to Hendra virus, wildlife surveillance focused primarily on pteropid bats (suborder Megachiroptera), a natural host of Hendra virus in Australia. We collected 324 bats from 14 species on peninsular Malaysia. Neutralizing antibodies to Nipah virus were demonstrated in five species, suggesting widespread infection in bat populations in peninsular Malaysia.

EID Yob J, Field H, Rashdi A, Morrissy C, van der Heide B, Rota P, et al. Nipah Virus Infection in Bats (Order Chiroptera) in Peninsular Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):439-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017312
AMA Yob J, Field H, Rashdi A, et al. Nipah Virus Infection in Bats (Order Chiroptera) in Peninsular Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):439-441. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017312.
APA Yob, J., Field, H., Rashdi, A., Morrissy, C., van der Heide, B., Rota, P....Ksiazek, T. (2001). Nipah Virus Infection in Bats (Order Chiroptera) in Peninsular Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 439-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017312.

Third-Generation Cephalosporin Resistance in Shigella sonnei, Argentina [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
M. Radice et al.

Shigella sonnei resistant to cefotaxime (but not to ceftazidime) was isolated for the first time in stool samples from a pediatric patient with vomiting and bloody diarrhea in northern Argentina. Microbiologic and biochemical tests confirmed the presence of an extended spectrum beta-lactamase displaying an apparent isoelectric point value of 8.2.

EID Radice M, González C, Power P, Vidal M, Gutkind G. Third-Generation Cephalosporin Resistance in Shigella sonnei, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):442-443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017313
AMA Radice M, González C, Power P, et al. Third-Generation Cephalosporin Resistance in Shigella sonnei, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):442-443. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017313.
APA Radice, M., González, C., Power, P., Vidal, M., & Gutkind, G. (2001). Third-Generation Cephalosporin Resistance in Shigella sonnei, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 442-443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017313.

Expanding Drug Resistance through Integron Acquisition by IncFI Plasmids of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium [PDF - 146 KB - 4 pages]
A. Carattoli et al.

We conducted a 30-year retrospective analysis of IncFI plasmids from Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. These plasmids have been associated with the emergence of epidemic clones of multidrug-resistant Salmonella. Molecular and genetic evidence indicates that IncFI plasmids are evolving through sequential acquisition of integrons carrying different arrays of antibiotic-resistance genes.

EID Carattoli A, Villa L, Pezzella C, Bordi E, Visca P. Expanding Drug Resistance through Integron Acquisition by IncFI Plasmids of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):444-447. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017314
AMA Carattoli A, Villa L, Pezzella C, et al. Expanding Drug Resistance through Integron Acquisition by IncFI Plasmids of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):444-447. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017314.
APA Carattoli, A., Villa, L., Pezzella, C., Bordi, E., & Visca, P. (2001). Expanding Drug Resistance through Integron Acquisition by IncFI Plasmids of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 444-447. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017314.

Decreased Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, United Kingdom [PDF - 44 KB - 3 pages]
E. Threlfall and L. R. Ward

In 1999, 23% of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates from patients in the United Kingdom exhibited decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.25-1.0 mg/L); more than half were also resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. Increasing numbers of treatment failures have been noted. Most infections have been in patients with a recent history of travel to India and Pakistan.

EID Threlfall E, Ward LR. Decreased Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):448-450. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017315
AMA Threlfall E, Ward LR. Decreased Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):448-450. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017315.
APA Threlfall, E., & Ward, L. R. (2001). Decreased Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 448-450. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017315.

The First Reported Case of California Encephalitis in More Than 50 Years [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
B. F. Eldridge et al.

A recent case of California encephalitis, a rare mosquito-borne viral disease, represents only the fourth ever reported and the first since the initial three cases in 1945. This case was diagnosed retrospectively on the basis of a rise in antibody titer between acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples.

EID Eldridge BF, Glaser C, Pedrin RE, Chiles RE. The First Reported Case of California Encephalitis in More Than 50 Years. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):451-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017316
AMA Eldridge BF, Glaser C, Pedrin RE, et al. The First Reported Case of California Encephalitis in More Than 50 Years. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):451-452. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017316.
APA Eldridge, B. F., Glaser, C., Pedrin, R. E., & Chiles, R. E. (2001). The First Reported Case of California Encephalitis in More Than 50 Years. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 451-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017316.

Reiter Syndrome Following Protracted Symptoms of Cyclospora Infection [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
B. A. Connor et al.

Two large outbreaks of diarrheal illness associated with Cyclospora cayetanensis, a coccidian parasite, provided an opportunity to evaluate clinical syndromes associated with this enteric pathogen. Reiter syndrome, a triad of ocular inflammation, inflammatory oligoarthritis, and sterile urethritis, has been associated with enteric infections. We describe the first case of Reiter syndrome following protracted symptoms of Cyclospora infection.

EID Connor BA, Johnson E, Soave R. Reiter Syndrome Following Protracted Symptoms of Cyclospora Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):453-454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017317
AMA Connor BA, Johnson E, Soave R. Reiter Syndrome Following Protracted Symptoms of Cyclospora Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):453-454. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017317.
APA Connor, B. A., Johnson, E., & Soave, R. (2001). Reiter Syndrome Following Protracted Symptoms of Cyclospora Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 453-454. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017317.

Presence of Class I Integrons in Multidrug-Resistant, Low-Prevalence Salmonella Serotypes, Italy [PDF - 49 KB - 4 pages]
A. Nastasi and C. Mammina

In 1997 to 1999, we detected class I integrons in multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum, Blockley, Brandenburg, Bredeney, Derby, Heidelberg, Livingstone, Newport, Ohio, Panama, Paratyphi B, Saintpaul, Sandiego, and Stanley.

EID Nastasi A, Mammina C. Presence of Class I Integrons in Multidrug-Resistant, Low-Prevalence Salmonella Serotypes, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):455-458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017318
AMA Nastasi A, Mammina C. Presence of Class I Integrons in Multidrug-Resistant, Low-Prevalence Salmonella Serotypes, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):455-458. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017318.
APA Nastasi, A., & Mammina, C. (2001). Presence of Class I Integrons in Multidrug-Resistant, Low-Prevalence Salmonella Serotypes, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 455-458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017318.

Risk for Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Borrelioses, and Double Infection in the Pre-Ural Region of Russia [PDF - 59 KB - 4 pages]
E. I. Korenberg et al.

We assessed the risk for human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), ixodid tick-borne borrelioses, and double infection from 1994 to 1998 in Perm, which has among the highest rates of reported cases in Russia. We studied 3,473 unfed adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected from vegetation in natural foci and 62,816 ticks removed from humans. TBE virus and Borrelia may coexist in ticks.

EID Korenberg EI, Gorban' La, Kovalevskii YV, Frizen VI, Karavanov AS. Risk for Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Borrelioses, and Double Infection in the Pre-Ural Region of Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):459-462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017319
AMA Korenberg EI, Gorban' La, Kovalevskii YV, et al. Risk for Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Borrelioses, and Double Infection in the Pre-Ural Region of Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):459-462. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017319.
APA Korenberg, E. I., Gorban', L. a., Kovalevskii, Y. V., Frizen, V. I., & Karavanov, A. S. (2001). Risk for Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Borrelioses, and Double Infection in the Pre-Ural Region of Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 459-462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017319.

Outbreak of Influenza in Highly Vaccinated Crew of U.S. Navy Ship [PDF - 41 KB - 3 pages]
K. C. Earhart et al.

An outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) occurred aboard a U.S. Navy ship in February 1996, despite 95% of the crew's having been appropriately vaccinated. Virus isolated from ill crew members was antigenicly distinct from the vaccination strain. With an attack rate of 42%, this outbreak demonstrates the potential for rapid spread of influenza in a confined population and the impact subsequent illness may have upon the workplace.

EID Earhart KC, Beadle C, Miller LK, Pruss MW, Gray GC, Ledbetter EK, et al. Outbreak of Influenza in Highly Vaccinated Crew of U.S. Navy Ship. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):463-465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017320
AMA Earhart KC, Beadle C, Miller LK, et al. Outbreak of Influenza in Highly Vaccinated Crew of U.S. Navy Ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):463-465. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017320.
APA Earhart, K. C., Beadle, C., Miller, L. K., Pruss, M. W., Gray, G. C., Ledbetter, E. K....Wallace, M. R. (2001). Outbreak of Influenza in Highly Vaccinated Crew of U.S. Navy Ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 463-465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017320.

HIV-1 Group O Infection in Cameroon, 1986 to 1998 [PDF - 35 KB - 2 pages]
A. Ayouba et al.

We report a survey of HIV-1 group O infection in Cameroon during 1986 to 1998. The prevalence of HIV-1/O decreased from 0.6% to 0.4%, while HIV-1/M increased from 19.2% to 31.5% from 1994 to 1998. We concluded that HIV-1/O infection is stable in Cameroon and may be declining slightly.

EID Ayouba A, Mauclère P, Martin P, Cunin P, Mfoupouendoun J, Njinku B, et al. HIV-1 Group O Infection in Cameroon, 1986 to 1998. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):466-467. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017321
AMA Ayouba A, Mauclère P, Martin P, et al. HIV-1 Group O Infection in Cameroon, 1986 to 1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):466-467. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017321.
APA Ayouba, A., Mauclère, P., Martin, P., Cunin, P., Mfoupouendoun, J., Njinku, B....Simon, F. (2001). HIV-1 Group O Infection in Cameroon, 1986 to 1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 466-467. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017321.

VEB-1-like Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Kuwait [PDF - 55 KB - 3 pages]
L. Poirel et al.

Two clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients in intensive care units in Kuwait were resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and showed a synergistic effect between ceftazidime and clavulanic acid. This is the first report of extended-spectrum enzymes from nosocomial isolates from the Middle East.

EID Poirel L, Rotimi VO, Mokaddas EM, Karim A, Nordmann P. VEB-1-like Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Kuwait. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):468-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017322
AMA Poirel L, Rotimi VO, Mokaddas EM, et al. VEB-1-like Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Kuwait. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):468-470. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017322.
APA Poirel, L., Rotimi, V. O., Mokaddas, E. M., Karim, A., & Nordmann, P. (2001). VEB-1-like Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Kuwait. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 468-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017322.

Borrelia lonestari DNA in Adult Amblyomma americanum Ticks, Alabama [PDF - 49 KB - 3 pages]
T. R. Burkot et al.

Polymerase chain reaction analysis of 204 Amblyomma americanum and 28 A. maculatum ticks collected in August 1999 near the homes of patients with southern tick-associated rash illness and in control areas in Choctaw County, Alabama, showed Borrelia lonestari flagellin gene sequence from two adult A. americanum. The presence of B. lonestari in A. americanum ticks from Alabama suggests that this suspected pathogen may be widespread in the southeastern United States.

EID Burkot TR, Mullen GR, Anderson R, Schneider BS, Happ CM, Zeidner NS. Borrelia lonestari DNA in Adult Amblyomma americanum Ticks, Alabama. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):471-473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017323
AMA Burkot TR, Mullen GR, Anderson R, et al. Borrelia lonestari DNA in Adult Amblyomma americanum Ticks, Alabama. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):471-473. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017323.
APA Burkot, T. R., Mullen, G. R., Anderson, R., Schneider, B. S., Happ, C. M., & Zeidner, N. S. (2001). Borrelia lonestari DNA in Adult Amblyomma americanum Ticks, Alabama. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 471-473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017323.

Physicians' Database Searches as a Tool for Early Detection of Epidemics [PDF - 57 KB - 3 pages]
V. Jormanainen et al.

We analyzed retrospectively the use of Physician Desk Reference Database searches to identify epidemics of tularemia, nephropathy, Pogosta disease, and Lyme disease and compared the searches with mandatory laboratory reports to the National Infectious Diseases Register in Finland during 1995. Continuous recording of such searches may be a tool for early detection of epidemics.

EID Jormanainen V, Jousimaa J, Kunnamo I, Ruutu P. Physicians' Database Searches as a Tool for Early Detection of Epidemics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):474-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017324
AMA Jormanainen V, Jousimaa J, Kunnamo I, et al. Physicians' Database Searches as a Tool for Early Detection of Epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):474-476. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017324.
APA Jormanainen, V., Jousimaa, J., Kunnamo, I., & Ruutu, P. (2001). Physicians' Database Searches as a Tool for Early Detection of Epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 474-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017324.

Filamentous Phage Associated with Recent Pandemic Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
T. Iida et al.

A group of pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has recently appeared in Asia and North America. We demonstrate that a filamentous phage is specifically associated with the pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains. An open reading frame unique to the phage is a useful genetic marker to identify these strains.

EID Iida T, Hattori A, Tagomori K, Nasu H, Naim R, Honda T. Filamentous Phage Associated with Recent Pandemic Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):477-478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017325
AMA Iida T, Hattori A, Tagomori K, et al. Filamentous Phage Associated with Recent Pandemic Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):477-478. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017325.
APA Iida, T., Hattori, A., Tagomori, K., Nasu, H., Naim, R., & Honda, T. (2001). Filamentous Phage Associated with Recent Pandemic Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 477-478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017325.
Letters

Candida dubliniensis Candidemia in Australia [PDF - 37 KB - 1 page]
D. Marriott et al.
EID Marriott D, Laxton M, Harkness J. Candida dubliniensis Candidemia in Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017326
AMA Marriott D, Laxton M, Harkness J. Candida dubliniensis Candidemia in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):479. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017326.
APA Marriott, D., Laxton, M., & Harkness, J. (2001). Candida dubliniensis Candidemia in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017326.

Characterization of a Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis-like Agent from Ixodes scapularis, Ontario, Canada
M. A. Drebot et al.
EID Drebot MA, Lindsay R, Barker IK, Artsob H. Characterization of a Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis-like Agent from Ixodes scapularis, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):479-480. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017327
AMA Drebot MA, Lindsay R, Barker IK, et al. Characterization of a Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis-like Agent from Ixodes scapularis, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):479-480. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017327.
APA Drebot, M. A., Lindsay, R., Barker, I. K., & Artsob, H. (2001). Characterization of a Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis-like Agent from Ixodes scapularis, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 479-480. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017327.

High Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus in Rodent Populations, Central Utah: A Consequence of Human Disturbance? [PDF - 49 KB - 3 pages]
R. Mackelprang et al.
EID Mackelprang R, Dearing M, St. Jeor S. High Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus in Rodent Populations, Central Utah: A Consequence of Human Disturbance?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):480-482. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017328
AMA Mackelprang R, Dearing M, St. Jeor S. High Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus in Rodent Populations, Central Utah: A Consequence of Human Disturbance?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):480-482. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017328.
APA Mackelprang, R., Dearing, M., & St. Jeor, S. (2001). High Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus in Rodent Populations, Central Utah: A Consequence of Human Disturbance?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 480-482. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017328.

Hantavirus Seroconversion of Wild-Caught Peromyscus During Quarantine [PDF - 42 KB - 2 pages]
M. Camaioni et al.
EID Camaioni M, Botten J, Hjelle B, Loew SS. Hantavirus Seroconversion of Wild-Caught Peromyscus During Quarantine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):482-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017329
AMA Camaioni M, Botten J, Hjelle B, et al. Hantavirus Seroconversion of Wild-Caught Peromyscus During Quarantine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):482-483. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017329.
APA Camaioni, M., Botten, J., Hjelle, B., & Loew, S. S. (2001). Hantavirus Seroconversion of Wild-Caught Peromyscus During Quarantine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 482-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017329.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates of Beijing Genotype in Thailand [PDF - 43 KB - 2 pages]
W. M. Prodinger et al.
EID Prodinger WM, Bunyaratvej P, Prachaktam R, Pavlic M. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates of Beijing Genotype in Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):483-484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017330
AMA Prodinger WM, Bunyaratvej P, Prachaktam R, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates of Beijing Genotype in Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):483-484. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017330.
APA Prodinger, W. M., Bunyaratvej, P., Prachaktam, R., & Pavlic, M. (2001). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates of Beijing Genotype in Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 483-484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017330.

Jungle Yellow Fever, Rio de Janeiro [PDF - 42 KB - 2 pages]
A. Filippis et al.
EID Filippis A, Schatzmayr HG, Nicolai C, Baran M, Miagostovich MP, Sequeira PC, et al. Jungle Yellow Fever, Rio de Janeiro. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):484-485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017331
AMA Filippis A, Schatzmayr HG, Nicolai C, et al. Jungle Yellow Fever, Rio de Janeiro. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):484-485. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017331.
APA Filippis, A., Schatzmayr, H. G., Nicolai, C., Baran, M., Miagostovich, M. P., Sequeira, P. C....Nogueira, R. (2001). Jungle Yellow Fever, Rio de Janeiro. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 484-485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017331.

Emergence of Metronidazole-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis, India [PDF - 43 KB - 2 pages]
R. Chaudhry et al.
EID Chaudhry R, Mathur P, Dhawan B, Kumar L. Emergence of Metronidazole-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):485-486. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017332
AMA Chaudhry R, Mathur P, Dhawan B, et al. Emergence of Metronidazole-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):485-486. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017332.
APA Chaudhry, R., Mathur, P., Dhawan, B., & Kumar, L. (2001). Emergence of Metronidazole-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 485-486. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017332.

Proper Nomenclature for the HGE Agent [PDF - 37 KB - 1 page]
J. S. Bakken and J. Dumler
EID Bakken JS, Dumler J. Proper Nomenclature for the HGE Agent. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):486. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017333
AMA Bakken JS, Dumler J. Proper Nomenclature for the HGE Agent. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):486. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017333.
APA Bakken, J. S., & Dumler, J. (2001). Proper Nomenclature for the HGE Agent. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 486. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017333.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Structural Genes
J. M. Musser and R. Fleischmann
EID Musser JM, Fleischmann R. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Structural Genes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):486-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017334
AMA Musser JM, Fleischmann R. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Structural Genes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):486-487. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017334.
APA Musser, J. M., & Fleischmann, R. (2001). Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Structural Genes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 486-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017334.

Will Avilamycin Convert Ziracine into Zerocine? [PDF - 52 KB - 2 pages]
T. R. Shryock and P. Courvalin
EID Shryock TR, Courvalin P. Will Avilamycin Convert Ziracine into Zerocine?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):488-489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017336
AMA Shryock TR, Courvalin P. Will Avilamycin Convert Ziracine into Zerocine?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):488-489. doi:10.3201/eid0703.017336.
APA Shryock, T. R., & Courvalin, P. (2001). Will Avilamycin Convert Ziracine into Zerocine?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 488-489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017336.
About the Cover

Detail from La Primavera (Spring) (circa 1475-1478) [PDF - 157 KB - 1 page]
EID Detail from La Primavera (Spring) (circa 1475-1478). Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.ac0703
AMA Detail from La Primavera (Spring) (circa 1475-1478). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):492. doi:10.3201/eid0703.ac0703.
APA (2001). Detail from La Primavera (Spring) (circa 1475-1478). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.ac0703.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 6, No. 5 [PDF - 32 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 6, No. 5. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.c10703
AMA Correction: Vol. 6, No. 5. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):491. doi:10.3201/eid0703.c10703.
APA (2001). Correction: Vol. 6, No. 5. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.c10703.

Correction: Vol. 7, No. 1 [PDF - 32 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 7, No. 1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.c20703
AMA Correction: Vol. 7, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):491. doi:10.3201/eid0703.c20703.
APA (2001). Correction: Vol. 7, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.c20703.

Correction: Vol. 7, No. 1 [PDF - 32 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 7, No. 1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(3):941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.c30703
AMA Correction: Vol. 7, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(3):941. doi:10.3201/eid0703.c30703.
APA (2001). Correction: Vol. 7, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(3), 941. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.c30703.
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Page updated: April 26, 2012
Page reviewed: April 26, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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