Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Issue Cover for Volume 11, Number 8—August 2005

Volume 11, Number 8—August 2005

[PDF - 6.73 MB - 175 pages]

Perspective

Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease [PDF - 271 KB - 7 pages]
E. B. Hayes et al.

From 1937 until 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) garnered scant medical attention as the cause of febrile illness and sporadic encephalitis in parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe. After the surprising detection of WNV in New York City in 1999, the virus has spread dramatically westward across the United States, southward into Central America and the Caribbean, and northward into Canada, resulting in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever reported. From 1999 to 2004, >7,000 neuroinvasive WNV disease cases were reported in the United States. In 2002, WNV transmission through blood transfusion and organ transplantation was described for the first time, intrauterine transmission was first documented, and possible transmission through breastfeeding was reported. This review highlights new information regarding the epidemiology and dynamics of WNV transmission, providing a new platform for further research into preventing and controlling WNV disease.

EID Hayes EB, Komar N, Nasci RS, Montgomery SP, O'Leary DR, Campbell GL. Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1167-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050289a
AMA Hayes EB, Komar N, Nasci RS, et al. Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1167-1173. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050289a.
APA Hayes, E. B., Komar, N., Nasci, R. S., Montgomery, S. P., O'Leary, D. R., & Campbell, G. L. (2005). Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1167-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050289a.

Virology, Pathology, and Clinical Manifestations of West Nile Virus Disease [PDF - 282 KB - 6 pages]
E. B. Hayes et al.

West Nile virus (WNV) causes epidemics of febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, and flaccid paralysis. Since it was first detected in New York City in 1999, and through 2004, 16,000 WNV disease cases have been reported in the United States. Over the past 5 years, research on WNV disease has expanded rapidly. This review highlights new information regarding the virology, clinical manifestations, and pathology of WNV disease, which will provide a new platform for further research into diagnosis, treatment, and possible prevention of WNV through vaccination.

EID Hayes EB, Sejvar JJ, Zaki SR, Lanciotti RS, Bode AV, Campbell GL. Virology, Pathology, and Clinical Manifestations of West Nile Virus Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1174-1179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050289b
AMA Hayes EB, Sejvar JJ, Zaki SR, et al. Virology, Pathology, and Clinical Manifestations of West Nile Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1174-1179. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050289b.
APA Hayes, E. B., Sejvar, J. J., Zaki, S. R., Lanciotti, R. S., Bode, A. V., & Campbell, G. L. (2005). Virology, Pathology, and Clinical Manifestations of West Nile Virus Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1174-1179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050289b.
Research

Laboratory Exposures to Brucellae and Implications for Bioterrorism [PDF - 70 KB - 6 pages]
P. Yagupsky and E. Baron

Brucellae are class 3 organisms and potential agents of bioterrorism. Because of effective public health measures, brucellosis has become a rare disease in industrialized countries, and clinical microbiology laboratories are frequently unfamiliar with the genus. A low index of suspicion by physicians or failure to notify the laboratory, equivocal Gram-stain results, misidentification of the organism by commercial systems, unsafe laboratory practices, and laboratory accidents have been responsible for numerous cases of exposure to the organism and laboratory-acquired disease in recent years. Discovery of a laboratory exposure to brucellae should prompt an exhaustive investigation of the event and its circumstances, definition of the population at risk, enforcement of safe laboratory practices, and antimicrobial drug prophylaxis for exposed persons. Inadvertent exposures to brucellae in the clinical laboratory indicate a widespread lack of preparedness to cope with eventual biologic threats involving use of the organism.

EID Yagupsky P, Baron E. Laboratory Exposures to Brucellae and Implications for Bioterrorism. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1180-1185. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041197
AMA Yagupsky P, Baron E. Laboratory Exposures to Brucellae and Implications for Bioterrorism. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1180-1185. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041197.
APA Yagupsky, P., & Baron, E. (2005). Laboratory Exposures to Brucellae and Implications for Bioterrorism. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1180-1185. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041197.

Influenza A (H3N2) Outbreak, Nepal [PDF - 332 KB - 6 pages]
L. T. Daum et al.

In July 2004, an outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) was detected at 3 Bhutanese refugee camps in southeastern Nepal. Hemagglutination inhibition showed that ≈40% of the viruses from this outbreak were antigenically distinct from the A/Wyoming/3/03 vaccine strain. Four amino acid differences were observed in most of the 26 isolates compared with the A/Wyoming/3/2003 vaccine strain. All 4 substitutions are located within or adjacent to known antibody-binding sites. Several isolates showed a lysine-to-asparagine substitution at position 145 (K145N) in the hemagglutinin molecule, which may be noteworthy since position 145 is located within a glycosylation site and adjacent to an antibody-binding site. H3N2 viruses continue to drift from the vaccine strain and may remain as the dominant strains during the 2005–2006 influenza season. Thus, the 2005–2006 Northern Hemisphere vaccine strain was changed to A/California/7/2004, a virus with all 4 amino acid substitutions observed in these Nepalese isolates.

EID Daum LT, Shaw M, Klimov AI, Canas LC, Macias EA, Niemeyer D, et al. Influenza A (H3N2) Outbreak, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1186-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050302
AMA Daum LT, Shaw M, Klimov AI, et al. Influenza A (H3N2) Outbreak, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1186-1191. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050302.
APA Daum, L. T., Shaw, M., Klimov, A. I., Canas, L. C., Macias, E. A., Niemeyer, D....Gould, P. (2005). Influenza A (H3N2) Outbreak, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1186-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050302.

Cephalosporin-resistant Pneumococci and Sickle Cell Disease [PDF - 144 KB - 5 pages]
M. L. Miller et al.

Sickle cell anemia patients have 600 times the risk for invasive pneumococcal disease than their healthy peers. High-level cephalosporin resistance was described in the 1990s in healthy children from Tennessee, but its prevalence in sickle cell disease patients is unknown. Pneumococcal isolates from sickle cell disease patients from Tennessee were subjected to multilocus sequence typing to characterize antimicrobial drug–resistant strains. Twenty-one percent of strains were resistant to cefotaxime and penicillin. Of the 14 cephalosporin-resistant strains, 9 were sequence types previously described as highly cephalosporin resistant, while resistance was found for the first time in 3 clones: Maryland6B, ST660, and a novel clone, ST1753. High-level cephalosporin resistance exists in more settings than initially recognized, and its high prevalence in sickle cell disease patients may decrease the efficacy of third-generation cephalosporins in invasive pneumococcal disease.

EID Miller ML, Obert CA, Gao G, Daw NC, Flynn P, Tuomanen E. Cephalosporin-resistant Pneumococci and Sickle Cell Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1192-1196. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050152
AMA Miller ML, Obert CA, Gao G, et al. Cephalosporin-resistant Pneumococci and Sickle Cell Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1192-1196. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050152.
APA Miller, M. L., Obert, C. A., Gao, G., Daw, N. C., Flynn, P., & Tuomanen, E. (2005). Cephalosporin-resistant Pneumococci and Sickle Cell Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1192-1196. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050152.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Fluoroquinolone Use [PDF - 270 KB - 4 pages]
C. MacDougall et al.

Few long-term multicenter investigations have evaluated the relationships between aggregate antimicrobial drug use in hospitals and bacterial resistance. We measured fluoroquinolone use from 1999 through 2003 in a network of US hospitals. The percentages of fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained from yearly antibiograms at each hospital. Univariate linear regression showed significant associations between a hospital's volume of fluoroquinolone use and percent resistance in most individual study years (1999–2001 for P. aeruginosa, 1999–2002 for S. aureus). When the method of generalized estimating equations was used, a population-averaged longitudinal model incorporating total fluoroquinolone use and the previous year's resistance (to account for autocorrelation) did not show a significant effect of fluoroquinolone use on percent resistance for most drug-organism combinations, except for the relationship between levofloxacin use and percent MRSA. The ecologic relationship between fluoroquinolone use and resistance is complex and requires further study.

EID MacDougall C, Harpe SE, Powell J, Johnson CK, Edmond MB, Polk RE. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Fluoroquinolone Use. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1197-1210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050116
AMA MacDougall C, Harpe SE, Powell J, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Fluoroquinolone Use. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1197-1210. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050116.
APA MacDougall, C., Harpe, S. E., Powell, J., Johnson, C. K., Edmond, M. B., & Polk, R. E. (2005). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Fluoroquinolone Use. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1197-1210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050116.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Hawaii, 2000–2002 [PDF - 139 KB - 6 pages]
F. Li et al.

The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has generated considerable concern among medical and public health professionals. We used a statewide, population-based antimicrobial resistance surveillance system to examine epidemiologic trends for MRSA from outpatients and inpatients in Hawaii. Pediatric and adult patient populations were compared to assess characteristics of MRSA isolates specific for each group. From 2000 to 2002, 8,206 (26%) of 31,482 total S. aureus isolates were MRSA. During this period, the proportion of MRSA isolates increased in both outpatient and inpatient clinical settings (p<0.01). When stratified by age, annual trends showed a significant increase in the proportion of MRSA in adult patients (from 24% to 30%, p<0.01) but not in pediatric patients (from 25% to 27%, p>0.05). Although MRSA isolates from adults demonstrated high resistance to most non–β-lactams, most MRSA isolates from pediatric outpatients remained susceptible to most non–β-lactams.

EID Li F, Park SY, Ayers TL, Miller F, MacFadden R, Nakata M, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Hawaii, 2000–2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1205-1210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050164
AMA Li F, Park SY, Ayers TL, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Hawaii, 2000–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1205-1210. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050164.
APA Li, F., Park, S. Y., Ayers, T. L., Miller, F., MacFadden, R., Nakata, M....Effler, P. V. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Hawaii, 2000–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1205-1210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050164.

Coxiella burnetii Genotyping [PDF - 428 KB - 7 pages]
O. Glazunova et al.

Coxiella burnetii is a strict intracellular bacterium with potential as a bioterrorism agent. To characterize different isolates of C. burnetii at the molecular level, we performed multispacer sequence typing (MST). MST is based on intergenic region sequencing. These regions are potentially variable since they are subject to lower selection pressure than the adjacent genes. We screened 68 spacers in 14 isolates and selected the 10 that exhibited the most variation. These spacers were then tested in 159 additional isolates obtained from different geographic areas or different hosts or were implicated in different manifestations of human disease caused by C. burnetii. The sequence analysis yielded 30 different allelic combinations. Phylogenic analysis showed 3 major clusters. MST allows easy comparison and exchange of results obtained in different laboratories and could be a useful tool for identifying bacterial strains.

EID Glazunova O, Roux V, Freylikman O, Sekeyova Z, Fournous G, Tyczka J, et al. Coxiella burnetii Genotyping. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1211-1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041354
AMA Glazunova O, Roux V, Freylikman O, et al. Coxiella burnetii Genotyping. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1211-1217. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041354.
APA Glazunova, O., Roux, V., Freylikman, O., Sekeyova, Z., Fournous, G., Tyczka, J....Raoult, D. (2005). Coxiella burnetii Genotyping. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1211-1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041354.

Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Extremity Infections in Soldiers [PDF - 160 KB - 7 pages]
K. A. Davis et al.

War wound infection and osteomyelitis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter species have been prevalent during the 2003–2005 military operations in Iraq. Twenty-three soldiers wounded in Iraq and subsequently admitted to our facility from March 2003 to May 2004 had wound cultures positive for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex. Eighteen had osteomyelitis, 2 burn infection, and 3 deep wound infection. Primary therapy for these infections was directed antimicrobial agents for an average of 6 weeks. All soldiers initially improved, regardless of the specific type of therapy. Patients were followed up to 23 months after completing therapy, and none had recurrent infection with Acinetobacter species. Despite the drug resistance that infecting organisms demonstrated in this series, a regimen of carefully selected extended antimicrobial-drug therapy appears effective for osteomyelitis caused by MDR Acinetobacter spp.

EID Davis KA, Moran KA, McAllister C, Gray PJ. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Extremity Infections in Soldiers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1218-1224. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050103
AMA Davis KA, Moran KA, McAllister C, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Extremity Infections in Soldiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1218-1224. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050103.
APA Davis, K. A., Moran, K. A., McAllister, C., & Gray, P. J. (2005). Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Extremity Infections in Soldiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1218-1224. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050103.

Human Coronavirus NL63, France [PDF - 240 KB - 5 pages]
A. Vabret et al.

The human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first identified in the Netherlands, and its circulation in France has not been investigated. We studied HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections. From November 2002 to April 2003, we evaluated 300 respiratory specimens for HCoV-NL63. Of the 300 samples, 28 (9.3%) were positive for HCoV-NL63. The highest prevalence was found in February (18%). The main symptoms were fever (61%), rhinitis (39%), bronchiolitis (39%), digestive problems (33%), otitis (28%), pharyngitis (22%), and conjunctivitis (17%). A fragment of the spike protein gene was sequenced to determine the variety of circulating HCoV-NL63. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strains with different genetic markers cocirculate in France.

EID Vabret A, Mourez T, Dina J, van der Hoek L, Gouarin S, Petitjean J, et al. Human Coronavirus NL63, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1225-1229. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050110
AMA Vabret A, Mourez T, Dina J, et al. Human Coronavirus NL63, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1225-1229. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050110.
APA Vabret, A., Mourez, T., Dina, J., van der Hoek, L., Gouarin, S., Petitjean, J....Freymuth, F. (2005). Human Coronavirus NL63, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1225-1229. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050110.

HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Antenatal Cohort, Canada [PDF - 104 KB - 5 pages]
B. S. Akouamba et al.

We studied HIV genetic diversity in a cohort of 127 pregnant, HIV-infected women who received prenatal care at Sainte-Justine Hospital in Montreal, Canada, between 1999 and 2003. Clade assignments were derived by phylogenetic analysis of amplified pol sequences. Genotyping was successful in 103 of 127 women, 59 (57.3%) of whom were infected with clade B HIV-1, and 44 (42.7%) with nonclade B viruses, including subtypes A, C, D, F, G, and H. Four sequences remained unassigned. Forty-three of 44 women infected with non-clade B viruses were newcomers from sub-Saharan Africa, and subtype identity was consistent with those circulating in their countries of origin. These results highlight the epidemiologic importance of non-B HIV-1 in antenatal populations in a large North American urban center, underscore the influence of population movements on clade intermixing, and identify a group of patients who could be targeted for surveillance and drug therapy followup.

EID Akouamba BS, Viel J, Charest H, Merindol N, Samson J, Lapointe N, et al. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Antenatal Cohort, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1230-1234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040877
AMA Akouamba BS, Viel J, Charest H, et al. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Antenatal Cohort, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1230-1234. doi:10.3201/eid1108.040877.
APA Akouamba, B. S., Viel, J., Charest, H., Merindol, N., Samson, J., Lapointe, N....Soudeyns, H. (2005). HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Antenatal Cohort, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1230-1234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040877.

Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in Four Animal Facilities [PDF - 215 KB - 7 pages]
J. G. Wright et al.

In 1999 and 2000, 3 state health departments reported 4 outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in employees, clients, and client animals from 3 companion animal veterinary clinics and 1 animal shelter. More than 45 persons and companion animals became ill. Four independent investigations resulted in the testing of 19 human samples and >200 animal samples; 18 persons and 36 animals were culture-positive for S. Typhimurium. One outbreak was due to multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium R-type ACKSSuT, while the other 3 were due to multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium R-type ACSSuT DT104. This report documents nosocomial transmission of S. Typhimurium and demonstrates that companion animal facilities may serve as foci of transmission for salmonellae between animals and humans if adequate precautions are not followed.

EID Wright JG, Tengelsen LA, Smith KE, Bender JB, Frank RK, Grendon JH, et al. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in Four Animal Facilities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1235-1241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050111
AMA Wright JG, Tengelsen LA, Smith KE, et al. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in Four Animal Facilities. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1235-1241. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050111.
APA Wright, J. G., Tengelsen, L. A., Smith, K. E., Bender, J. B., Frank, R. K., Grendon, J. H....Angulo, F. J. (2005). Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in Four Animal Facilities. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1235-1241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050111.

Spoligotyping and Mycobacterium tuberculosis [PDF - 224 KB - 7 pages]
A. Gori et al.

We evaluated the clinical usefulness of spoligotyping, a polymerase chain reaction–based method for simultaneous detection and typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, with acid-fast bacilli–positive slides from clinical specimens or mycobacterial cultures. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 95% for the detection of M. tuberculosis and 98% and 96% when used with clinical specimens. Laboratory turnaround time of spoligotyping was less than that for culture identification by a median of 20 days. In comparison with IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, spoligotyping overestimated the number of isolates with identical DNA fingerprints by ≈50%, but showed a 100% negative predictive value. Spoligotyping resulted in the modification of ongoing antimycobacterial treatment in 40 cases and appropriate therapy in the absence of cultures in 11 cases. The rapidity of this method in detection and typing could make it useful in the management of tuberculosis in a clinical setting.

EID Gori A, Bandera A, Marchetti G, Esposti A, Catozzi L, Nardi G, et al. Spoligotyping and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1242-1248. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040982
AMA Gori A, Bandera A, Marchetti G, et al. Spoligotyping and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1242-1248. doi:10.3201/eid1108.040982.
APA Gori, A., Bandera, A., Marchetti, G., Esposti, A., Catozzi, L., Nardi, G....Franzetti, F. (2005). Spoligotyping and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1242-1248. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040982.

Modeling Control Strategies of Respiratory Pathogens [PDF - 295 KB - 8 pages]
B. Pourbohloul et al.

Effectively controlling infectious diseases requires quantitative comparisons of quarantine, infection control precautions, case identification and isolation, and immunization interventions. We used contact network epidemiology to predict the effect of various control policies for a mildly contagious disease, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, and a moderately contagious disease, such as smallpox. The success of an intervention depends on the transmissibility of the disease and the contact pattern between persons within a community. The model predicts that use of face masks and general vaccination will only moderately affect the spread of mildly contagious diseases. In contrast, quarantine and ring vaccination can prevent the spread of a wide spectrum of diseases. Contact network epidemiology can provide valuable quantitative input to public health decisionmaking, even before a pathogen is well characterized.

EID Pourbohloul B, Meyers L, Skowronski DM, Krajden M, Patrick DM, Brunham RC. Modeling Control Strategies of Respiratory Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1249-1256. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040449
AMA Pourbohloul B, Meyers L, Skowronski DM, et al. Modeling Control Strategies of Respiratory Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1249-1256. doi:10.3201/eid1108.040449.
APA Pourbohloul, B., Meyers, L., Skowronski, D. M., Krajden, M., Patrick, D. M., & Brunham, R. C. (2005). Modeling Control Strategies of Respiratory Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1249-1256. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040449.

Estimating Foodborne Gastroenteritis, Australia [PDF - 230 KB - 8 pages]
G. Hall et al.

We estimated for Australia the number of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths due to foodborne gastroenteritis in a typical year, circa 2000. The total amount of infectious gastroenteritis was measured by using a national telephone survey. The foodborne proportion was estimated from Australian data on each of 16 pathogens. To account for uncertainty, we used simulation techniques to calculate 95% credibility intervals (CrI). The estimate of incidence of gastroenteritis in Australia is 17.2 million (95% confidence interval 14.5–19.9 million) cases per year. We estimate that 32% (95% CrI 24%–40%) are foodborne, which equals 0.3 (95% CrI 0.2–0.4) episodes per person, or 5.4 million (95% CrI 4.0–6.9 million) cases annually in Australia. Norovirus, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. cause the most illnesses. In addition, foodborne gastroenteritis causes ≈15,000 (95% CrI 11,000–18,000) hospitalizations and 80 (95% CrI 40–120) deaths annually. This study highlights global public health concerns about foodborne diseases and the need for standardized methods, including assessment of uncertainty, for international comparison.

EID Hall G, Kirk MD, Becker N, Gregory JE, Unicomb L, Millard G, et al. Estimating Foodborne Gastroenteritis, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1257-1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041367
AMA Hall G, Kirk MD, Becker N, et al. Estimating Foodborne Gastroenteritis, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1257-1264. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041367.
APA Hall, G., Kirk, M. D., Becker, N., Gregory, J. E., Unicomb, L., Millard, G....Lalor, K. (2005). Estimating Foodborne Gastroenteritis, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1257-1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041367.

Optimizing Treatment of Antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae [PDF - 283 KB - 9 pages]
K. Roy et al.

The increasing prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae has required replacing inexpensive oral ciprofloxacin treatment with more expensive injectable ceftriaxone. Further, monitoring antimicrobial resistance requires culture testing, but nonculture gonorrhea tests are rapidly replacing culture. Since the strategies were similar in effectiveness (>99%), we evaluated, from the healthcare system perspective, cost-minimizing strategies for both diagnosis (culture followed by antimicrobial susceptibility tests versus nonculture-based tests) and treatment (ciprofloxacin versus ceftriaxone) of gonorrhea in women. Our results indicate that switching from ciprofloxacin to ceftriaxone is cost-minimizing (i.e., optimal) when the prevalence of gonorrhea is >3% and prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance is >5%. Similarly, culture-based testing and susceptibility surveillance are optimal when the prevalence of gonorrhea is <13%; nonculture-based testing is optimal (cost-minimizing) when gonorrhea prevalence is ≥13%.

EID Roy K, Wang SA, Meltzer MI. Optimizing Treatment of Antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1265-1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050157
AMA Roy K, Wang SA, Meltzer MI. Optimizing Treatment of Antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1265-1273. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050157.
APA Roy, K., Wang, S. A., & Meltzer, M. I. (2005). Optimizing Treatment of Antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1265-1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050157.

Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France [PDF - 223 KB - 6 pages]
S. Philippe et al.

Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor.

EID Philippe S, Ducrot C, Roy P, Remontet L, Jarrige N, Calavas D. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1274-1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041223
AMA Philippe S, Ducrot C, Roy P, et al. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1274-1279. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041223.
APA Philippe, S., Ducrot, C., Roy, P., Remontet, L., Jarrige, N., & Calavas, D. (2005). Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1274-1279. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041223.
Dispatches

Cost-Benefit of Stockpiling Drugs for Influenza Pandemic [PDF - 51 KB - 3 pages]
R. D. Balicer et al.

We analyzed strategies for the use of stockpiled antiviral drugs in the context of a future influenza pandemic and estimated cost-benefit ratios. Current stockpiling of oseltamivir appears to be cost-saving to the economy under several treatment strategies, including therapeutic treatment of patients and postexposure prophylactic treatment of patients' close contacts.

EID Balicer RD, Huerta M, Davidovitch N, Grotto I. Cost-Benefit of Stockpiling Drugs for Influenza Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1280-1282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041156
AMA Balicer RD, Huerta M, Davidovitch N, et al. Cost-Benefit of Stockpiling Drugs for Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1280-1282. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041156.
APA Balicer, R. D., Huerta, M., Davidovitch, N., & Grotto, I. (2005). Cost-Benefit of Stockpiling Drugs for Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1280-1282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041156.

Staphylococcus lugdunensis Pacemaker-related Infection [PDF - 217 KB - 4 pages]
H. Seifert et al.

We report the first known case of a device-related bloodstream infection involving Staphylococcus lugdunensis small-colony variants. Recurrent pacemaker-related bloodstream infection within a period of 10 months illustrates the poor clinical and microbiologic response even to prolonged antimicrobial drug therapy in a patient infected with this staphylococcal subpopulation.

EID Seifert H, Oltmanns D, Becker K, Wisplinghoff H, von Eiff C. Staphylococcus lugdunensis Pacemaker-related Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1283-1286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041177
AMA Seifert H, Oltmanns D, Becker K, et al. Staphylococcus lugdunensis Pacemaker-related Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1283-1286. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041177.
APA Seifert, H., Oltmanns, D., Becker, K., Wisplinghoff, H., & von Eiff, C. (2005). Staphylococcus lugdunensis Pacemaker-related Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1283-1286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041177.

Bartonella quintana in Domestic Cat [PDF - 123 KB - 3 pages]
V. La et al.

We recovered Bartonella quintana DNA from dental pulp of a domestic cat. This study, the first to detect B. quintana in a nonhuman mammal, changes our understanding of the epidemiology of this infection and proposes that cats may be an emerging source of human infection.

EID La V, Tran-Hung L, Aboudharam G, Raoult D, Drancourt M. Bartonella quintana in Domestic Cat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1287-1289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050101
AMA La V, Tran-Hung L, Aboudharam G, et al. Bartonella quintana in Domestic Cat. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1287-1289. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050101.
APA La, V., Tran-Hung, L., Aboudharam, G., Raoult, D., & Drancourt, M. (2005). Bartonella quintana in Domestic Cat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1287-1289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050101.

Malaria and Irrigated Crops, Accra, Ghana [PDF - 311 KB - 4 pages]
E. Klinkenberg et al.

We investigated the prevalence of malaria and associated risk factors in children living in urban Ghana. Malaria prevalence was associated with low hemoglobin concentration, low socioeconomic status, and higher age. Our findings indicate that African urban poor are seriously affected by malaria and that irrigated agriculture may increase this risk.

EID Klinkenberg E, McCall P, Hastings IM, Wilson MR, Amerasinghe FP, Donnelly MJ. Malaria and Irrigated Crops, Accra, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1290-1293. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041095
AMA Klinkenberg E, McCall P, Hastings IM, et al. Malaria and Irrigated Crops, Accra, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1290-1293. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041095.
APA Klinkenberg, E., McCall, P., Hastings, I. M., Wilson, M. R., Amerasinghe, F. P., & Donnelly, M. J. (2005). Malaria and Irrigated Crops, Accra, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1290-1293. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041095.

West Nile Virus Detection in Urine [PDF - 72 KB - 3 pages]
J. H. Tonry et al.

We report West Nile virus (WNV) RNA in urine collected from a patient with encephalitis 8 days after symptom onset. Viral RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the PCR product to have ≥99% similarity to the WNV strain NY 2000-crow3356.

EID Tonry JH, Brown CB, Cropp CB, Co J, Bennett SN, Nerurkar VR, et al. West Nile Virus Detection in Urine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1294-1296. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050238
AMA Tonry JH, Brown CB, Cropp CB, et al. West Nile Virus Detection in Urine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1294-1296. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050238.
APA Tonry, J. H., Brown, C. B., Cropp, C. B., Co, J., Bennett, S. N., Nerurkar, V. R....Gubler, D. J. (2005). West Nile Virus Detection in Urine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1294-1296. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050238.

Posttraumatic Stress after SARS [PDF - 173 KB - 4 pages]
K. K. Wu et al.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can arise in patients with medical illness. We used 2 Chinese self-report measures to examine features of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in 131 survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome at 1 month and 3 months after discharge from the hospital. Risk factors associated with psychological distress were identified.

EID Wu KK, Chan SK, Ma TM. Posttraumatic Stress after SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1297-1300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041083
AMA Wu KK, Chan SK, Ma TM. Posttraumatic Stress after SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1297-1300. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041083.
APA Wu, K. K., Chan, S. K., & Ma, T. M. (2005). Posttraumatic Stress after SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1297-1300. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041083.

Evaluating Antibiograms To Monitor Drug Resistance [PDF - 22 KB - 2 pages]
M. El-Azizi et al.

We used hospital antibiograms to assess predominant pathogens and their patterns of in vitro antimicrobial resistance in central Illinois, USA. We found a lack of information about national guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing and differences in interpretation among laboratories in the region.

EID El-Azizi M, Mushtaq A, Drake C, Lawhorn J, Barenfanger J, Verhulst S, et al. Evaluating Antibiograms To Monitor Drug Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1301-1302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050135
AMA El-Azizi M, Mushtaq A, Drake C, et al. Evaluating Antibiograms To Monitor Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1301-1302. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050135.
APA El-Azizi, M., Mushtaq, A., Drake, C., Lawhorn, J., Barenfanger, J., Verhulst, S....Khardori, N. (2005). Evaluating Antibiograms To Monitor Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1301-1302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050135.

Influenza A H5N1 Detection [PDF - 95 KB - 3 pages]
E. Ng et al.

We developed a sensitive and rapid real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect influenza A H5N1 virus in clinical samples. This assay was evaluated with samples from H5N1-infected patients and demonstrated greater sensitivity and faster turnaround time than nested RT-PCR.

EID Ng E, Cheng P, Ng A, Hoang T, Lim W. Influenza A H5N1 Detection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1303-1305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041317
AMA Ng E, Cheng P, Ng A, et al. Influenza A H5N1 Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1303-1305. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041317.
APA Ng, E., Cheng, P., Ng, A., Hoang, T., & Lim, W. (2005). Influenza A H5N1 Detection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1303-1305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041317.

Drug-resistant Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, Mexico [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
T. Estrada-García et al.

Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli isolates from 45 (73%) of 62 hospitalized patients were resistant to common antimicrobial drugs. Sixty-two percent were multidrug resistant, and >70% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin. Ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were uniformly active. Effective and safe oral agents are needed to treat children with bacterial diarrhea.

EID Estrada-García T, Cerna JF, Paheco-Gil L, Velázquez RF, Ochoa TJ, Torres J, et al. Drug-resistant Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1306-1308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050192
AMA Estrada-García T, Cerna JF, Paheco-Gil L, et al. Drug-resistant Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1306-1308. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050192.
APA Estrada-García, T., Cerna, J. F., Paheco-Gil, L., Velázquez, R. F., Ochoa, T. J., Torres, J....DuPont, H. L. (2005). Drug-resistant Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1306-1308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050192.

Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6, Europe [PDF - 36 KB - 2 pages]
J. Martinez-Urtaza et al.
EID Martinez-Urtaza J, Simental L, Velasco D, DePaola A, Ishibashi M, Nakaguchi Y, et al. Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1319-1320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050322
AMA Martinez-Urtaza J, Simental L, Velasco D, et al. Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1319-1320. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050322.
APA Martinez-Urtaza, J., Simental, L., Velasco, D., DePaola, A., Ishibashi, M., Nakaguchi, Y....Pousa, A. (2005). Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1319-1320. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050322.
Letters

Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction To Diagnose Lymphogranuloma Venereum [PDF - 76 KB - 2 pages]
S. A. Morré et al.
EID Morré SA, Spaargaren J, Fennema J, de Vries H, Coutinho RA, Peña A. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction To Diagnose Lymphogranuloma Venereum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1311-1312. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050535
AMA Morré SA, Spaargaren J, Fennema J, et al. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction To Diagnose Lymphogranuloma Venereum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1311-1312. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050535.
APA Morré, S. A., Spaargaren, J., Fennema, J., de Vries, H., Coutinho, R. A., & Peña, A. (2005). Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction To Diagnose Lymphogranuloma Venereum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1311-1312. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050535.

SARS Vaccine Protective in Mice [PDF - 54 KB - 3 pages]
K. Stadler et al.
EID Stadler K, Roberts A, Becker S, Vogel L, Eickmann M, Kolesnikova L, et al. SARS Vaccine Protective in Mice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1312-1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041003
AMA Stadler K, Roberts A, Becker S, et al. SARS Vaccine Protective in Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1312-1314. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041003.
APA Stadler, K., Roberts, A., Becker, S., Vogel, L., Eickmann, M., Kolesnikova, L....Subbarao, K. (2005). SARS Vaccine Protective in Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1312-1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041003.

Echinococcosis, Ningxia, China [PDF - 49 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Yang et al.
EID Yang Y, Sun T, Li Z, Li X, Zhao R, Cheng L, et al. Echinococcosis, Ningxia, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1314-1316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041179
AMA Yang Y, Sun T, Li Z, et al. Echinococcosis, Ningxia, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1314-1316. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041179.
APA Yang, Y., Sun, T., Li, Z., Li, X., Zhao, R., Cheng, L....McManus, D. P. (2005). Echinococcosis, Ningxia, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1314-1316. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041179.

Mycobacterium neoaurum Contamination [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
G. A. Heckman et al.
EID Heckman GA, Hawkins C, Morris A, Burrows LL, Bergeron C, Han XY. Mycobacterium neoaurum Contamination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1316-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040861
AMA Heckman GA, Hawkins C, Morris A, et al. Mycobacterium neoaurum Contamination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1316-1317. doi:10.3201/eid1108.040861.
APA Heckman, G. A., Hawkins, C., Morris, A., Burrows, L. L., Bergeron, C., & Han, X. Y. (2005). Mycobacterium neoaurum Contamination. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1316-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040861.

Yersinia pestis Genotyping [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
D. Raoult et al.
EID Raoult D, Drancourt M, Fournier P, Ogata H, Vergnaud G. Yersinia pestis Genotyping. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1317-1319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040942
AMA Raoult D, Drancourt M, Fournier P, et al. Yersinia pestis Genotyping. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1317-1319. doi:10.3201/eid1108.040942.
APA Raoult, D., Drancourt, M., Fournier, P., Ogata, H., & Vergnaud, G. (2005). Yersinia pestis Genotyping. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1317-1319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.040942.

Q Fever and the US Military [PDF - 42 KB - 3 pages]
A. D. Anderson et al.
EID Anderson AD, Smoak B, Shuping E, Ockenhouse C, Petruccelli B. Q Fever and the US Military. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1320-1322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050314
AMA Anderson AD, Smoak B, Shuping E, et al. Q Fever and the US Military. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1320-1322. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050314.
APA Anderson, A. D., Smoak, B., Shuping, E., Ockenhouse, C., & Petruccelli, B. (2005). Q Fever and the US Military. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1320-1322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050314.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Sardinia, Italy [PDF - 87 KB - 3 pages]
A. Alberti et al.
EID Alberti A, Addis M, Sparagano O, Zobba R, Chessa B, Cubeddu T, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Sardinia, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1322-1324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050085
AMA Alberti A, Addis M, Sparagano O, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Sardinia, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1322-1324. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050085.
APA Alberti, A., Addis, M., Sparagano, O., Zobba, R., Chessa, B., Cubeddu, T....Pittau, M. (2005). Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Sardinia, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1322-1324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050085.

Williamsia muralis Pulmonary Infection [PDF - 64 KB - 2 pages]
M. del Mar Tomas et al.
EID del Mar Tomas M, Moure R, Nieto J, Fojon S, Fernandez A, Diaz M, et al. Williamsia muralis Pulmonary Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1324-1325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050439
AMA del Mar Tomas M, Moure R, Nieto J, et al. Williamsia muralis Pulmonary Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1324-1325. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050439.
APA del Mar Tomas, M., Moure, R., Nieto, J., Fojon, S., Fernandez, A., Diaz, M....Bou, G. (2005). Williamsia muralis Pulmonary Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1324-1325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050439.

Neisseria meningitidis Endotoxin and Capsule Transmission by Transplantation [PDF - 50 KB - 2 pages]
N. Roubinian et al.
EID Roubinian N, Kirkpatrick BD, Lynn F, Zenilman J, Bash M. Neisseria meningitidis Endotoxin and Capsule Transmission by Transplantation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1326-1327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050086
AMA Roubinian N, Kirkpatrick BD, Lynn F, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Endotoxin and Capsule Transmission by Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1326-1327. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050086.
APA Roubinian, N., Kirkpatrick, B. D., Lynn, F., Zenilman, J., & Bash, M. (2005). Neisseria meningitidis Endotoxin and Capsule Transmission by Transplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1326-1327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050086.

Surveillance of Human Calicivirus in Spain [PDF - 75 KB - 3 pages]
A. Sánchez-Fauquier et al.
EID Sánchez-Fauquier A, Wilhelmi I, Roman E, Colomina J, Montero V, Negredo A. Surveillance of Human Calicivirus in Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1327-1329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041166
AMA Sánchez-Fauquier A, Wilhelmi I, Roman E, et al. Surveillance of Human Calicivirus in Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1327-1329. doi:10.3201/eid1108.041166.
APA Sánchez-Fauquier, A., Wilhelmi, I., Roman, E., Colomina, J., Montero, V., & Negredo, A. (2005). Surveillance of Human Calicivirus in Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1327-1329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041166.
Another Dimension

Trepid and Intrepid Travelers [PDF - 84 KB - 2 pages]
E. V. Granowitz
EID Granowitz EV. Trepid and Intrepid Travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1309-1310. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050534
AMA Granowitz EV. Trepid and Intrepid Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1309-1310. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050534.
APA Granowitz, E. V. (2005). Trepid and Intrepid Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1309-1310. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050534.
Books and Media

Cellular Microbiology, 2nd ed. [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
F. Quinn
EID Quinn F. Cellular Microbiology, 2nd ed.. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050592
AMA Quinn F. Cellular Microbiology, 2nd ed.. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1330. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050592.
APA Quinn, F. (2005). Cellular Microbiology, 2nd ed.. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050592.

Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus [PDF - 24 KB - 1 page]
J. Liu
EID Liu J. Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050611
AMA Liu J. Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1331. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050611.
APA Liu, J. (2005). Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050611.

Biology of Disease Vectors, 2nd ed.
J. Goddard
EID Goddard J. Biology of Disease Vectors, 2nd ed.. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1330-1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050610
AMA Goddard J. Biology of Disease Vectors, 2nd ed.. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1330-1331. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050610.
APA Goddard, J. (2005). Biology of Disease Vectors, 2nd ed.. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1330-1331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.050610.
About the Cover

Ancient Myths and Avian Pestilence [PDF - 87 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Ancient Myths and Avian Pestilence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1332-1333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.ac1108
AMA Potter P. Ancient Myths and Avian Pestilence. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1332-1333. doi:10.3201/eid1108.ac1108.
APA Potter, P. (2005). Ancient Myths and Avian Pestilence. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1332-1333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.ac1108.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Cephalosporin [PDF - 33 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Cephalosporin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.et1108
AMA Etymologia: Cephalosporin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1191. doi:10.3201/eid1108.et1108.
APA (2005). Etymologia: Cephalosporin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.et1108.
Corrections

Correction, vol. 11, no. 6 [PDF - 25 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction, vol. 11, no. 6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.c11108
AMA Correction, vol. 11, no. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1329. doi:10.3201/eid1108.c11108.
APA (2005). Correction, vol. 11, no. 6. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(8), 1329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.c11108.
Page created: April 23, 2012
Page updated: May 04, 2012
Page reviewed: May 04, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
edit_01 Submit ManuscriptExternal Link
Issue Select
GO
GO

Notice to Readers

Emerging Infectious Diseases will no longer print copies of the journal after Volume 25. Printable PDF versions of issues, and articles, will still be available online. Visit EID Subscriptions to sign up for monthly email notifications for the table of contents, and for specific article types and disease topics.

Get Email Updates

To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:

file_external