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Issue Cover for Volume 14, Number 10—October 2008

Volume 14, Number 10—October 2008

[PDF - 6.34 MB - 179 pages]

Perspective

Rise and Persistence of Global M1T1 Clone of Streptococcus pyogenes [PDF - 166 KB - 7 pages]
R. K. Aziz and M. Kotb

The resurgence of severe invasive group A streptococcal infections in the 1980s is a typical example of the reemergence of an infectious disease. We found that this resurgence is a consequence of the diversification of particular strains of the bacteria. Among these strains is a highly virulent subclone of serotype M1T1 that has exhibited unusual epidemiologic features and virulence, unlike all other streptococcal strains. This clonal strain, commonly isolated from both noninvasive and invasive infection cases, is most frequently associated with severe invasive diseases. Because of its unusual prevalence, global spread, and increased virulence, we investigated the unique features that likely confer its unusual properties. In doing so, we found that the increased virulence of this clonal strain can be attributed to its diversification through phage mobilization and its ability to sense and adapt to different host environments; accordingly, the fittest members of this diverse bacterial community are selected to survive and invade host tissue.

EID Aziz RK, Kotb M. Rise and Persistence of Global M1T1 Clone of Streptococcus pyogenes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1511-1517. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071660
AMA Aziz RK, Kotb M. Rise and Persistence of Global M1T1 Clone of Streptococcus pyogenes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1511-1517. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071660.
APA Aziz, R. K., & Kotb, M. (2008). Rise and Persistence of Global M1T1 Clone of Streptococcus pyogenes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1511-1517. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071660.
Research

Pandemic Influenza and Excess Intensive-Care Workload [PDF - 325 KB - 8 pages]
R. E. Nap et al.

In the Netherlands a major part of preparedness planning for an epidemic or pandemic consists of maintaining essential public services, e.g., by the police, fire departments, army personnel, and healthcare workers. We provide estimates for peak demand for healthcare workers, factoring in healthcare worker absenteeism and using estimates from published epidemiologic models on the expected evolution of pandemic influenza in relation to the impact on peak surge capacity of healthcare facilities and intensive care units (ICUs). Using various published scenarios, we estimate their effect in increasing the availability of healthcare workers for duty during a pandemic. We show that even during the peak of the pandemic, all patients requiring hospital and ICU admission can be served, including those who have non–influenza-related conditions. For this rigorous task differentiation, clear hierarchical management, unambiguous communication, and discipline are essential and we recommend informing and training non-ICU healthcare workers for duties in the ICU.

EID Nap RE, Andriessen MP, Meessen NE, Miranda Dd, van der Werf TS. Pandemic Influenza and Excess Intensive-Care Workload. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1518-1525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080440
AMA Nap RE, Andriessen MP, Meessen NE, et al. Pandemic Influenza and Excess Intensive-Care Workload. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1518-1525. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080440.
APA Nap, R. E., Andriessen, M. P., Meessen, N. E., Miranda, D. d., & van der Werf, T. S. (2008). Pandemic Influenza and Excess Intensive-Care Workload. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1518-1525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080440.

Risk Factors for Nipah Virus Encephalitis in Bangladesh [PDF - 173 KB - 7 pages]
J. M. Montgomery et al.

Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus that causes severe encephalitis in humans. During January 2004, twelve patients with NiV encephalitis (NiVE) were identified in west-central Bangladesh. A case–control study was conducted to identify factors associated with NiV infection. NiVE patients from the outbreak were enrolled in a matched case-control study. Exact odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using a matched analysis. Climbing trees (83% of cases vs. 51% of controls, OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.25–∞) and contact with another NiVE patient (67% of cases vs. 9% of controls, OR 21.4, 95% CI 2.78–966.1) were associated with infection. We did not identify an increased risk for NiV infection among persons who had contact with a potential intermediate host. Although we cannot rule out person-to-person transmission, case-patients were likely infected from contact with fruit bats or their secretions.

EID Montgomery JM, Hossain MJ, Gurley E, Carroll D, Croisier A, Bertherat E, et al. Risk Factors for Nipah Virus Encephalitis in Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1526-1532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.060507
AMA Montgomery JM, Hossain MJ, Gurley E, et al. Risk Factors for Nipah Virus Encephalitis in Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1526-1532. doi:10.3201/eid1410.060507.
APA Montgomery, J. M., Hossain, M. J., Gurley, E., Carroll, D., Croisier, A., Bertherat, E....Breiman, R. (2008). Risk Factors for Nipah Virus Encephalitis in Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1526-1532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.060507.

Deforestation and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae Giles Mosquitoes in Malaria Transmission, Kenya [PDF - 185 KB - 6 pages]
Y. A. Afrane et al.

We investigated the effects of deforestation on microclimates and sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in an area of the western Kenyan highland prone to malaria epidemics. An. gambiae mosquitoes were fed with P. falciparum–infected blood through membrane feeders. Fed mosquitoes were placed in houses in forested and deforested areas in a highland area (1,500 m above sea level) and monitored for parasite development. Deforested sites had higher temperatures and relative humidities, and the overall infection rate of mosquitoes was increased compared with that in forested sites. Sporozoites appeared on average 1.1 days earlier in deforested areas. Vectorial capacity was estimated to be 77.7% higher in the deforested site than in the forested site. We showed that deforestation changes microclimates, leading to more rapid sporogonic development of P. falciparum and to a marked increase of malaria risk in the western Kenyan highland.

EID Afrane YA, Little TJ, Lawson BW, Githeko AK, Lo E. Deforestation and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae Giles Mosquitoes in Malaria Transmission, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1533-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.070781
AMA Afrane YA, Little TJ, Lawson BW, et al. Deforestation and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae Giles Mosquitoes in Malaria Transmission, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1533-1538. doi:10.3201/eid1410.070781.
APA Afrane, Y. A., Little, T. J., Lawson, B. W., Githeko, A. K., & Lo, E. (2008). Deforestation and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae Giles Mosquitoes in Malaria Transmission, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1533-1538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.070781.

Ecologic Factors Associated with West Nile Virus Transmission, Northeastern United States [PDF - 191 KB - 7 pages]
H. E. Brown et al.

Since 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) disease has affected the northeastern United States. To describe the spatial epidemiology and identify risk factors for disease incidence, we analyzed 8 years (1999–2006) of county-based human WNV disease surveillance data. Among the 56.6 million residents in 8 northeastern states sharing primary enzootic vectors, we found 977 cases. We controlled for population density and potential bias from surveillance and spatial proximity. Analyses demonstrated significant spatial spreading from 1999 through 2004 (p<0.01, r2 = 0.16). A significant trend was apparent among increasingly urban counties; county quartiles with the least (<38%) forest cover had 4.4-fold greater odds (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–13.2, p = 0.01) of having above-median disease incidence (>0.75 cases/100,000 residents) than counties with the most (>70%) forest cover. These results quantify urbanization as a risk factor for WNV disease incidence and are consistent with knowledge of vector species in this area.

EID Brown HE, Childs JE, Diuk-Wasser MA, Fish D. Ecologic Factors Associated with West Nile Virus Transmission, Northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1539-1545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071396
AMA Brown HE, Childs JE, Diuk-Wasser MA, et al. Ecologic Factors Associated with West Nile Virus Transmission, Northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1539-1545. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071396.
APA Brown, H. E., Childs, J. E., Diuk-Wasser, M. A., & Fish, D. (2008). Ecologic Factors Associated with West Nile Virus Transmission, Northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1539-1545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071396.

Deaths from Norovirus among the Elderly, England and Wales [PDF - 280 KB - 9 pages]
J. P. Harris et al.

The number of deaths in England and Wales associated with gastrointestinal pathogens, norovirus in particular, in persons >65 years was estimated for 2001–2006. Regression analysis was used to model monthly counts of gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from infected patients against monthly counts of deaths from infectious and noninfectious intestinal diseases. Data came from the Office of National Statistics (death registrations from local registrars) and from the Health Protection Agency (laboratory results). Model results suggest that 20% (13.3%–26.8%) of deaths in persons >65 years of age caused by infectious intestinal disease other than Clostridium difficile were associated with norovirus infection in this period and that 13% (7.5%–18.5%) of deaths caused by noninfectious intestinal disease were associated with norovirus. An estimated 80 deaths each year in this age group may be associated with norovirus infection.

EID Harris JP, Edmunds W, Pebody RG, Brown DW, Lopman BA. Deaths from Norovirus among the Elderly, England and Wales. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1546-1552. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080188
AMA Harris JP, Edmunds W, Pebody RG, et al. Deaths from Norovirus among the Elderly, England and Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1546-1552. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080188.
APA Harris, J. P., Edmunds, W., Pebody, R. G., Brown, D. W., & Lopman, B. A. (2008). Deaths from Norovirus among the Elderly, England and Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1546-1552. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080188.

Norwalk Virus Shedding after Experimental Human Infection [PDF - 160 KB - 5 pages]
R. L. Atmar et al.

Noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in the United States. To determine the magnitude and duration of virus shedding in feces, we evaluated persons who had been experimentally infected with Norwalk virus. Of 16 persons, clinical gastroenteritis (watery diarrhea and/or vomiting) developed in 11; symptomatic illness lasted 1–2 days. Virus shedding was first detected by reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR) 18 hours after participant inoculation and lasted a median of 28 days after inoculation (range 13–56 days). The median peak amount of virus shedding was 95 × 109 (range 0.5–1,640 ×109) genomic copies/g feces as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Virus shedding was first detected by antigen ELISA ≈33 hours (median 42 hours) after inoculation and lasted 10 days (median 7 days) after inoculation. Understanding of the relevance of prolonged fecal norovirus excretion must await the development of sensitive methods to measure virus infectivity.

EID Atmar RL, Opekun AR, Gilger MA, Estes MK, Crawford SE, Neill FH, et al. Norwalk Virus Shedding after Experimental Human Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1553-1557. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080117
AMA Atmar RL, Opekun AR, Gilger MA, et al. Norwalk Virus Shedding after Experimental Human Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1553-1557. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080117.
APA Atmar, R. L., Opekun, A. R., Gilger, M. A., Estes, M. K., Crawford, S. E., Neill, F. H....Graham, D. Y. (2008). Norwalk Virus Shedding after Experimental Human Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1553-1557. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080117.

Prophylaxis after Exposure to Coxiella burnetii [PDF - 177 KB - 9 pages]
C. E. Moodie et al.

Coxiella burnetii is a category B bioterrorism agent. We numerically evaluated the risks and benefits from postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) after an intentional release of C. burnetii to the general population, pregnant women, and other high-risk populations. For each group, we constructed a decision tree to estimate illness and deaths averted by use of PEP/100,000 population. We calculated the threshold points at which the number of PEP-related adverse events was equal to the cases averted. PEP was defined as doxycycline (100 mg 2×/day for 5 days), except for pregnant women, where we assumed a PEP of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg 2×/day) for the duration of the pregnancy. PEP would begin 8–12 days postexposure. On the basis of upper-bound probability estimates of PEP-related adverse events for doxycycline, we concluded that the risk for Q fever illness outweighs the risk for antimicrobial drug–related adverse events when the probability of C. burnetii exposure is >7% (pregnant women using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole = 16%).

EID Moodie CE, Thompson HA, Meltzer MI, Swerdlow DL. Prophylaxis after Exposure to Coxiella burnetii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1558-1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080576
AMA Moodie CE, Thompson HA, Meltzer MI, et al. Prophylaxis after Exposure to Coxiella burnetii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1558-1566. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080576.
APA Moodie, C. E., Thompson, H. A., Meltzer, M. I., & Swerdlow, D. L. (2008). Prophylaxis after Exposure to Coxiella burnetii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1558-1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080576.

Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes and Clinical Manifestations in Children, Peru [PDF - 139 KB - 8 pages]
V. A. Cama et al.

To determine whether clinical manifestations are associated with genotypes or subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., we studied a 4-year longitudinal birth cohort of 533 children in Peru. A total of 156 infection episodes were found in 109 children. Data from first infections showed that C. hominis was associated with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, general malaise, and increased oocyst shedding intensity and duration. In contrast, C. parvum, C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis were associated with diarrhea only. C. hominis subtype families were identified (Ia, Ib, Id, and Ie); all were associated with diarrhea. Ib was also associated with nausea, vomiting, and general malaise. All C. parvum specimens belonged to subtype family IIc. Analysis of risk factors did not show associations with specific Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes or subtypes. These findings strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations in children.

EID Cama VA, Bern C, Roberts J, Cabrera L, Sterling CR, Ortega Y, et al. Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes and Clinical Manifestations in Children, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1567-1574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071273
AMA Cama VA, Bern C, Roberts J, et al. Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes and Clinical Manifestations in Children, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1567-1574. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071273.
APA Cama, V. A., Bern, C., Roberts, J., Cabrera, L., Sterling, C. R., Ortega, Y....Xiao, L. (2008). Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes and Clinical Manifestations in Children, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1567-1574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071273.

Endemic and Epidemic Lineages of Escherichia coli that Cause Urinary Tract Infections [PDF - 244 KB - 9 pages]
A. R. Manges et al.

Women with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in California, USA (1999–2001), were infected with closely related or indistinguishable strains of Escherichia coli (clonal groups), which suggests point source dissemination. We compared strains of UTI-causing E. coli in California with strains causing such infections in Montréal, Québec, Canada. Urine specimens from women with community-acquired UTIs in Montréal (2006) were cultured for E. coli. Isolates that caused 256 consecutive episodes of UTI were characterized by antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus 2 PCR, serotyping, XbaI and NotI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and phylogenetic typing. We confirmed the presence of drug-resistant, genetically related, and temporally clustered E. coli clonal groups that caused community-acquired UTIs in unrelated women in 2 locations and 2 different times. Two clonal groups were identified in both locations. Epidemic transmission followed by endemic transmission of UTI-causing clonal groups may explain these clusters of UTI cases.

EID Manges AR, Tabor H, Tellis P, Vincent C, Tellier P. Endemic and Epidemic Lineages of Escherichia coli that Cause Urinary Tract Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1575-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080102
AMA Manges AR, Tabor H, Tellis P, et al. Endemic and Epidemic Lineages of Escherichia coli that Cause Urinary Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1575-1583. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080102.
APA Manges, A. R., Tabor, H., Tellis, P., Vincent, C., & Tellier, P. (2008). Endemic and Epidemic Lineages of Escherichia coli that Cause Urinary Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1575-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080102.

Medscape CME Activity
Microbial Interactions during Upper Respiratory Tract Infections [PDF - 155 KB - 8 pages]
M. M. Pettigrew et al.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus often colonize the nasopharynx. Children are susceptible to bacterial infections during or soon after upper respiratory tract infection (URI). We describe colonization with these 4 bacteria species alone or in combination during URI. Data were from a prospective cohort of healthy children 6 to 36 months of age followed up for 1 year. Analyses of 968 swabs from 212 children indicated that S. pneumoniae colonization is negatively associated with colonization by H. influenzae. Competitive interactions shifted when H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis colonized together. In this situation, the likelihood of colonization with all 3 species is higher. Negative associations were identified between S. pneumoniae and S. aureus and between H. influenzae and S. aureus. Polymicrobial interactions differed by number and species of bacteria present. Antimicrobial therapy and vaccination strategies targeting specific bacterial species may alter the flora in unforeseen ways.

EID Pettigrew MM, Gent JF, Revai K, Patel JA, Chonmaitree T. Microbial Interactions during Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1584-1591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080119
AMA Pettigrew MM, Gent JF, Revai K, et al. Microbial Interactions during Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1584-1591. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080119.
APA Pettigrew, M. M., Gent, J. F., Revai, K., Patel, J. A., & Chonmaitree, T. (2008). Microbial Interactions during Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1584-1591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080119.

Pyogenic Liver Abscess as Endemic Disease, Taiwan [PDF - 212 KB - 9 pages]
F. Tsai et al.

Pyogenic liver abscess has become a health problem in Taiwanese society. However, the extent of this problem has remained unclear because of the lack of a population-based study. We therefore performed a nationwide analysis of pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan from 1996 through 2004. We analyzed 29,703 cases from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database and 506 cases from National Taiwan University Hospital. Our analysis showed that the annual incidence of pyogenic liver abscess increased steadily from 11.15/100,000 population in 1996 to 17.59/100,000 in 2004. Diabetes, malignancy, renal disease, and pneumonia were associated with a higher risk for the disease. By contrast, death due to pyogenic liver abscess decreased over time, although population-based abscess-related death increased slightly. Renal disease, malignancy, pneumonia, and heart disease correlated with higher death rates; Klebsiella pneumoniae infection and therapeutic procedures were related to lower death rates. Diabetes did not significantly change death rates for the 506 patients from the hospital.

EID Tsai F, Huang Y, Chang L, Wang J. Pyogenic Liver Abscess as Endemic Disease, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1592-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071254
AMA Tsai F, Huang Y, Chang L, et al. Pyogenic Liver Abscess as Endemic Disease, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1592-1600. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071254.
APA Tsai, F., Huang, Y., Chang, L., & Wang, J. (2008). Pyogenic Liver Abscess as Endemic Disease, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1592-1600. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071254.

Estimating Community Incidence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections, Australia [PDF - 186 KB - 9 pages]
G. Hall et al.

To estimate multipliers linking surveillance of salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections to community incidence, we used data from a gastroenteritis survey and other sources. Multipliers for severe (bloody stool/long duration) and milder cases were estimated from the component probabilities of doctor visit, stool test, sensitivity of laboratory test, and reporting to surveillance system. Pathogens were classified by the same severity criteria and appropriate multipliers applied. Precision of estimates was quantified by using simulation techniques to construct 95% credible intervals (CrIs). The multiplier for salmonellosis was estimated at 7 (95% CrI 4–16), for campylobacteriosis at 10 (95% CrI 7–22), and for STEC at 8 (95% CrI 3–75). Australian annual community incidence rates per 100,000 population were estimated as 262 (95% CrI 150–624), 1,184 (95% CrI 756–2,670), and 23 (95% CrI 13–54), respectively. Estimation of multipliers allows assessment of the true effects of these diseases and better understanding of public health surveillance.

EID Hall G, Yohannes K, Raupach J, Becker N, Kirk M. Estimating Community Incidence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1601-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071042
AMA Hall G, Yohannes K, Raupach J, et al. Estimating Community Incidence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1601-1609. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071042.
APA Hall, G., Yohannes, K., Raupach, J., Becker, N., & Kirk, M. (2008). Estimating Community Incidence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1601-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071042.
Dispatches

Automatic Outbreak Detection Algorithm versus Electronic Reporting System [PDF - 85 KB - 3 pages]
M. Straetemans et al.

To determine efficacy of automatic outbreak detection algorithms (AODAs), we analyzed 3,582 AODA signals and 4,427 reports of outbreaks caused by Campylobacter spp. or norovirus during 2005–2006 in Germany. Local health departments reported local outbreaks with higher sensitivity and positive predictive value than did AODAs.

EID Straetemans M, Altmann D, Eckmanns T, Krause G. Automatic Outbreak Detection Algorithm versus Electronic Reporting System. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1610-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071354
AMA Straetemans M, Altmann D, Eckmanns T, et al. Automatic Outbreak Detection Algorithm versus Electronic Reporting System. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1610-1612. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071354.
APA Straetemans, M., Altmann, D., Eckmanns, T., & Krause, G. (2008). Automatic Outbreak Detection Algorithm versus Electronic Reporting System. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1610-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071354.

Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
M. E. Eremeeva et al.

Rickettsia typhi (prevalence 1.9%) and R. felis (prevalence 24.8%) DNA were detected in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collected from mice on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The low prevalence of R. typhi on Oahu suggests that R. felis may be a more common cause of rickettsiosis than R. typhi in Hawaii.

EID Eremeeva ME, Warashina WR, Sturgeon MM, Buchholz AE, Olmsted GK, Park SY, et al. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1613-1615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080571
AMA Eremeeva ME, Warashina WR, Sturgeon MM, et al. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1613-1615. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080571.
APA Eremeeva, M. E., Warashina, W. R., Sturgeon, M. M., Buchholz, A. E., Olmsted, G. K., Park, S. Y....Karpathy, S. E. (2008). Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in Rat Fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1613-1615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080571.

New Hosts for Equine Herpesvirus 9 [PDF - 357 KB - 4 pages]
M. D. Schrenzel et al.

Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy’s zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders.

EID Schrenzel MD, Tucker TA, Donovan TA, Busch MD, Wise AG, Maes RK, et al. New Hosts for Equine Herpesvirus 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1616-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080703
AMA Schrenzel MD, Tucker TA, Donovan TA, et al. New Hosts for Equine Herpesvirus 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1616-1619. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080703.
APA Schrenzel, M. D., Tucker, T. A., Donovan, T. A., Busch, M. D., Wise, A. G., Maes, R. K....Kiupel, M. (2008). New Hosts for Equine Herpesvirus 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1616-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080703.

Extended Sequence Typing of Campylobacter spp., United Kingdom [PDF - 110 KB - 3 pages]
K. E. Dingle et al.

Supplementing Campylobacter spp. multilocus sequence typing with nucleotide sequence typing of 3 antigen genes increased the discriminatory index achieved from 0.975 to 0.992 among 620 clinical isolates from Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. This enhanced typing scheme enabled identification of clusters and retained data required for long-range epidemiologic comparisons of isolates.

EID Dingle KE, McCarthy ND, Cody AJ, Peto TE, Maiden MC. Extended Sequence Typing of Campylobacter spp., United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1620-1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071109
AMA Dingle KE, McCarthy ND, Cody AJ, et al. Extended Sequence Typing of Campylobacter spp., United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1620-1622. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071109.
APA Dingle, K. E., McCarthy, N. D., Cody, A. J., Peto, T. E., & Maiden, M. C. (2008). Extended Sequence Typing of Campylobacter spp., United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1620-1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071109.

Chikungunya Outbreak, South India, 2006 [PDF - 125 KB - 3 pages]
P. Kaur et al.

We investigated chikungunya outbreaks in South India and observed a high attack rate, particularly among adults and women. Transmission was facilitated by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in peridomestic water containers, as indicated by a high Breteau index. We recommended vector control measures and health education to promote safe water storage practices.

EID Kaur P, Ponniah M, Murhekar MV, Ramachandran V, Ramachandran R, Raju HK, et al. Chikungunya Outbreak, South India, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1623-1625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.070569
AMA Kaur P, Ponniah M, Murhekar MV, et al. Chikungunya Outbreak, South India, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1623-1625. doi:10.3201/eid1410.070569.
APA Kaur, P., Ponniah, M., Murhekar, M. V., Ramachandran, V., Ramachandran, R., Raju, H. K....Gupte, M. D. (2008). Chikungunya Outbreak, South India, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1623-1625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.070569.

Control Strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis [PDF - 173 KB - 3 pages]
D. Hegglin and P. Deplazes

Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of zoonotic alveolar echinococcosis, can be controlled effectively by the experimental delivery of anthelminthic baits for urban foxes. Monthly baiting over a 45-month period was effective for long-lasting control. Trimonthly baiting intervals were far less effective and did not prevent parasite recovery.

EID Hegglin D, Deplazes P. Control Strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1626-1628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080522
AMA Hegglin D, Deplazes P. Control Strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1626-1628. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080522.
APA Hegglin, D., & Deplazes, P. (2008). Control Strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1626-1628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080522.

Mapping the Probability of Schistosomiasis and Associated Uncertainty, West Africa [PDF - 321 KB - 3 pages]
A. Clements et al.

We aimed to map the probability of Schistosoma haematobium infection being >50%, a threshold for annual mass praziquantel distribution. Parasitologic surveys were conducted in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger, 2004–2006, and predictions were made by using Bayesian geostatistical models. Clusters with >50% probability of having >50% prevalence were delineated in each country.

EID Clements A, Garba A, Sacko M, Touré S, Dembelé R, Landouré A, et al. Mapping the Probability of Schistosomiasis and Associated Uncertainty, West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1629-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080366
AMA Clements A, Garba A, Sacko M, et al. Mapping the Probability of Schistosomiasis and Associated Uncertainty, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1629-1632. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080366.
APA Clements, A., Garba, A., Sacko, M., Touré, S., Dembelé, R., Landouré, A....Fenwick, A. (2008). Mapping the Probability of Schistosomiasis and Associated Uncertainty, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1629-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080366.

Spinach-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak, Utah and New Mexico, 2006 [PDF - 196 KB - 4 pages]
J. Grant et al.

In 2006, Utah and New Mexico health departments investigated a multistate cluster of Escherichia coli O157:H7. A case–control study of 22 case-patients found that consuming bagged spinach was significantly associated with illness (p<0.01). The outbreak strain was isolated from 3 bags of 1 brand of spinach. Nationally, 205 persons were ill with the outbreak strain.

EID Grant J, Wendelboe AM, Wendel A, Jepson B, Torres P, Smelser C, et al. Spinach-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak, Utah and New Mexico, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1633-1636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071341
AMA Grant J, Wendelboe AM, Wendel A, et al. Spinach-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak, Utah and New Mexico, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1633-1636. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071341.
APA Grant, J., Wendelboe, A. M., Wendel, A., Jepson, B., Torres, P., Smelser, C....Rolfs, R. T. (2008). Spinach-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak, Utah and New Mexico, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1633-1636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071341.

Molecular Surveillance for Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Cambodia [PDF - 275 KB - 4 pages]
N. K. Shah et al.

We conducted surveillance for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia during 2004–2006 by assessing molecular changes in pfmdr1. The high prevalence of isolates with multiple pfmdr1 copies found in western Cambodia near the Thai border, where artesunate–mefloquine therapy failures occur, contrasts with isolates from eastern Cambodia, where this combination therapy remains highly effective.

EID Shah NK, Alker AP, Sem R, Susanti AI, Muth S, Maguire JD, et al. Molecular Surveillance for Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1637-1640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080080
AMA Shah NK, Alker AP, Sem R, et al. Molecular Surveillance for Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1637-1640. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080080.
APA Shah, N. K., Alker, A. P., Sem, R., Susanti, A. I., Muth, S., Maguire, J. D....Wongsrichanalai, C. (2008). Molecular Surveillance for Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1637-1640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080080.

Decreased Tuberculosis Incidence and Declining Clustered Case Rates, Madrid [PDF - 88 KB - 3 pages]
J. Iñigo et al.

To determine effect of recent tuberculosis transmission rates on incidence rates, we conducted 2 prospective population-based molecular epidemiologic studies in Madrid during 1997–1999 (4% immigrants) and 2002–2004 (14.9% immigrants). Case rates decreased in association with declining clustered case rates among Spanish-born persons. New strains were introduced through immigration.

EID Iñigo J, Arce A, Palenque E, García de Viedma D, Chaves F. Decreased Tuberculosis Incidence and Declining Clustered Case Rates, Madrid. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1641-1643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080233
AMA Iñigo J, Arce A, Palenque E, et al. Decreased Tuberculosis Incidence and Declining Clustered Case Rates, Madrid. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1641-1643. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080233.
APA Iñigo, J., Arce, A., Palenque, E., García de Viedma, D., & Chaves, F. (2008). Decreased Tuberculosis Incidence and Declining Clustered Case Rates, Madrid. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1641-1643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080233.

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People’s Republic of China [PDF - 117 KB - 3 pages]
A. T. Peterson et al.

Water birds are considered the reservoir for avian influenza viruses. We examined this assumption by sampling and real-time reverse transcription–PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among migratory species. Surveillance programs for monitoring spread of these viruses need to be redesigned.

EID Peterson AT, Bush SE, Spackman E, Swayne DE, Ip HS. Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1644-1646. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080169
AMA Peterson AT, Bush SE, Spackman E, et al. Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1644-1646. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080169.
APA Peterson, A. T., Bush, S. E., Spackman, E., Swayne, D. E., & Ip, H. S. (2008). Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1644-1646. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080169.

Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infections in Infants, France [PDF - 134 KB - 3 pages]
C. Poyart et al.

Clinical features and molecular characterization of 109 group B streptococci causing neonatal invasive infections were determined over an 18-month period in France. Sixty-four percent of the strains were from late-onset infections, and 75% were capsular type III. The hypervirulent clone ST-17 was recovered in 80% of meningitis cases.

EID Poyart C, Réglier-Poupet H, Tazi A, Billoët A, Dmytruk N, Bidet P, et al. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infections in Infants, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1647-1649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080185
AMA Poyart C, Réglier-Poupet H, Tazi A, et al. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infections in Infants, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1647-1649. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080185.
APA Poyart, C., Réglier-Poupet, H., Tazi, A., Billoët, A., Dmytruk, N., Bidet, P....Trieu-Cuot, P. (2008). Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infections in Infants, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1647-1649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080185.

Owner Valuation of Rabies Vaccination of Dogs, Chad [PDF - 103 KB - 3 pages]
S. Dürr et al.

We estimated the association between amount charged and probability that dog owners in N’Djaména, Chad, would have their dogs vaccinated against rabies. Owners would pay ≈400–700 CFA francs (US $0.78–$1.36)/animal. To vaccinate >70% of dogs, and thus interrupt rabies transmission, health officials should substantially subsidize these vaccinations.

EID Dürr S, Meltzer MI, Mindekem R, Zinsstag J. Owner Valuation of Rabies Vaccination of Dogs, Chad. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1650-1652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071490
AMA Dürr S, Meltzer MI, Mindekem R, et al. Owner Valuation of Rabies Vaccination of Dogs, Chad. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1650-1652. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071490.
APA Dürr, S., Meltzer, M. I., Mindekem, R., & Zinsstag, J. (2008). Owner Valuation of Rabies Vaccination of Dogs, Chad. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1650-1652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071490.

Unexplained Deaths and Critical Illnesses of Suspected Infectious Cause, Taiwan, 2000–2005 [PDF - 93 KB - 3 pages]
T. Wang et al.

We report 5 years’ surveillance data from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control on unexplained deaths and critical illnesses suspected of being caused by infection. A total of 130 cases were reported; the incidence rate was 0.12 per 100,000 person-years; and infectious causes were identified for 81 cases (62%).

EID Wang T, Wei K, Jiang DD, Chiu C, Chang S, Wang J. Unexplained Deaths and Critical Illnesses of Suspected Infectious Cause, Taiwan, 2000–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1653-1655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.061587
AMA Wang T, Wei K, Jiang DD, et al. Unexplained Deaths and Critical Illnesses of Suspected Infectious Cause, Taiwan, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1653-1655. doi:10.3201/eid1410.061587.
APA Wang, T., Wei, K., Jiang, D. D., Chiu, C., Chang, S., & Wang, J. (2008). Unexplained Deaths and Critical Illnesses of Suspected Infectious Cause, Taiwan, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1653-1655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.061587.

Murine Typhus and Febrile Illness, Nepal [PDF - 263 KB - 4 pages]
M. D. Zimmerman et al.

Murine typhus was diagnosed by PCR in 50 (7%) of 756 adults with febrile illness seeking treatment at Patan Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Of patients with murine typhus, 64% were women, 86% were residents of Kathmandu, and 90% were unwell during the winter. No characteristics clearly distinguished typhus patients from those with blood culture–positive enteric fever.

EID Zimmerman MD, Murdoch DR, Rozmajzl PJ, Basnyat B, Woods CW, Richards AL, et al. Murine Typhus and Febrile Illness, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1656-1659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080236
AMA Zimmerman MD, Murdoch DR, Rozmajzl PJ, et al. Murine Typhus and Febrile Illness, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1656-1659. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080236.
APA Zimmerman, M. D., Murdoch, D. R., Rozmajzl, P. J., Basnyat, B., Woods, C. W., Richards, A. L....Reller, L. B. (2008). Murine Typhus and Febrile Illness, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1656-1659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080236.

Effects of School Closures, 2008 Winter Influenza Season, Hong Kong [PDF - 148 KB - 3 pages]
B. J. Cowling et al.

In winter 2008, kindergartens and primary schools in Hong Kong were closed for 2 weeks after media coverage indicated that 3 children had died, apparently from influenza. We examined prospective influenza surveillance data before, during, and after the closure. We did not find a substantial effect on community transmission.

EID Cowling BJ, Lau E, Lam CL, Cheng CK, Kovar J, Chan KH, et al. Effects of School Closures, 2008 Winter Influenza Season, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1660-1662. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080646
AMA Cowling BJ, Lau E, Lam CL, et al. Effects of School Closures, 2008 Winter Influenza Season, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1660-1662. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080646.
APA Cowling, B. J., Lau, E., Lam, C. L., Cheng, C. K., Kovar, J., Chan, K. H....Leung, G. M. (2008). Effects of School Closures, 2008 Winter Influenza Season, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1660-1662. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080646.
Letters

Recent Shift in Age Pattern of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil [PDF - 96 KB - 1 page]
M. G. Teixeira et al.
EID Teixeira MG, Costa MC, Coelho G, Barreto ML. Recent Shift in Age Pattern of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071164
AMA Teixeira MG, Costa MC, Coelho G, et al. Recent Shift in Age Pattern of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1663. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071164.
APA Teixeira, M. G., Costa, M. C., Coelho, G., & Barreto, M. L. (2008). Recent Shift in Age Pattern of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071164.

Confirmed Mycoplasma pneumoniae Endocarditis [PDF - 113 KB - 2 pages]
J. P. Scapini et al.
EID Scapini JP, Flynn LP, Sciacaluga S, Morales L, Cadario ME. Confirmed Mycoplasma pneumoniae Endocarditis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1664-1665. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080157
AMA Scapini JP, Flynn LP, Sciacaluga S, et al. Confirmed Mycoplasma pneumoniae Endocarditis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1664-1665. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080157.
APA Scapini, J. P., Flynn, L. P., Sciacaluga, S., Morales, L., & Cadario, M. E. (2008). Confirmed Mycoplasma pneumoniae Endocarditis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1664-1665. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080157.

Human Rhinovirus Group C Infection in Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection [PDF - 122 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Xiang et al.
EID Xiang Z, Gonzalez R, Xie Z, Xiao Y, Chen L, Li Y, et al. Human Rhinovirus Group C Infection in Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1665-1667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080545
AMA Xiang Z, Gonzalez R, Xie Z, et al. Human Rhinovirus Group C Infection in Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1665-1667. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080545.
APA Xiang, Z., Gonzalez, R., Xie, Z., Xiao, Y., Chen, L., Li, Y....Wang, J. (2008). Human Rhinovirus Group C Infection in Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1665-1667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080545.

Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
J. Strahilevitz et al.
EID Strahilevitz J, Adler A, Smollan G, Temper V, Keller N, Block C. Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1667-1669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080252
AMA Strahilevitz J, Adler A, Smollan G, et al. Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1667-1669. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080252.
APA Strahilevitz, J., Adler, A., Smollan, G., Temper, V., Keller, N., & Block, C. (2008). Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1667-1669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080252.

Identification of All Dengue Serotypes in Nepal [PDF - 112 KB - 2 pages]
S. Malla et al.
EID Malla S, Thakur GD, Shrestha SK, Banjeree MK, Thapa LB, Gongal G, et al. Identification of All Dengue Serotypes in Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1669-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080432
AMA Malla S, Thakur GD, Shrestha SK, et al. Identification of All Dengue Serotypes in Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1669-1670. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080432.
APA Malla, S., Thakur, G. D., Shrestha, S. K., Banjeree, M. K., Thapa, L. B., Gongal, G....Gibbons, R. V. (2008). Identification of All Dengue Serotypes in Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1669-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080432.

Detecting Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Domestic Duck Feathers [PDF - 108 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Yamamoto et al.
EID Yamamoto Y, Nakamura K, Okamatsu M, Miyazaki A, Yamada M, Mase M. Detecting Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Domestic Duck Feathers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1671-1672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080415
AMA Yamamoto Y, Nakamura K, Okamatsu M, et al. Detecting Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Domestic Duck Feathers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1671-1672. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080415.
APA Yamamoto, Y., Nakamura, K., Okamatsu, M., Miyazaki, A., Yamada, M., & Mase, M. (2008). Detecting Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Domestic Duck Feathers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1671-1672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080415.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Meningitis in Pregnant Adolescent [PDF - 124 KB - 3 pages]
M. C. Martín et al.
EID Martín MC, Pérez F, Moreno A, Moral A, Alvarez MA, Méndez FJ, et al. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Meningitis in Pregnant Adolescent. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1672-1674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080118
AMA Martín MC, Pérez F, Moreno A, et al. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Meningitis in Pregnant Adolescent. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1672-1674. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080118.
APA Martín, M. C., Pérez, F., Moreno, A., Moral, A., Alvarez, M. A., Méndez, F. J....Vázquez, F. (2008). Neisseria gonorrhoeae Meningitis in Pregnant Adolescent. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1672-1674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080118.

Echinococcoses and Tibetan Communities [PDF - 109 KB - 2 pages]
P. S. Craig et al.
EID Craig PS, Li T, Qiu J, Zhen R, Wang Q, Giraudoux P, et al. Echinococcoses and Tibetan Communities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1674-1675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071636
AMA Craig PS, Li T, Qiu J, et al. Echinococcoses and Tibetan Communities. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1674-1675. doi:10.3201/eid1410.071636.
APA Craig, P. S., Li, T., Qiu, J., Zhen, R., Wang, Q., Giraudoux, P....Yang, W. (2008). Echinococcoses and Tibetan Communities. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1674-1675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.071636.

Resource Allocation during an Influenza Pandemic [PDF - 145 KB - 2 pages]
N. F. Phin and L. Davies
EID Phin NF, Davies L. Resource Allocation during an Influenza Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1676-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080371
AMA Phin NF, Davies L. Resource Allocation during an Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1676-1677. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080371.
APA Phin, N. F., & Davies, L. (2008). Resource Allocation during an Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1676-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080371.
Books and Media

Risky Trade: Infectious Disease in the Era of Global Trade [PDF - 106 KB - 2 pages]
A. Price-Smith
EID Price-Smith A. Risky Trade: Infectious Disease in the Era of Global Trade. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1678-1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080835
AMA Price-Smith A. Risky Trade: Infectious Disease in the Era of Global Trade. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1678-1679. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080835.
APA Price-Smith, A. (2008). Risky Trade: Infectious Disease in the Era of Global Trade. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1678-1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080835.

The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria [PDF - 101 KB - 1 page]
EID The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080834
AMA The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1679. doi:10.3201/eid1410.080834.
APA (2008). The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080834.
About the Cover

Collage and Assemblage in the Microbial World [PDF - 192 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Collage and Assemblage in the Microbial World. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1680-1681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.ac1410
AMA Potter P. Collage and Assemblage in the Microbial World. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1680-1681. doi:10.3201/eid1410.ac1410.
APA Potter, P. (2008). Collage and Assemblage in the Microbial World. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1680-1681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.ac1410.
Etymologia

Coxiella burnetii [PDF - 92 KB - 1 page]
EID Coxiella burnetii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(10):1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.e11410
AMA Coxiella burnetii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(10):1566. doi:10.3201/eid1410.e11410.
APA (2008). Coxiella burnetii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.e11410.
Page created: July 13, 2010
Page updated: July 13, 2010
Page reviewed: July 13, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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