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Volume 10, Number 5—May 2004


Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Northern Peru

Patricia V. Aguilar*, Ivorlyne P. Greene*, Lark L. Coffey*, Gladys Medina*1, Abelardo C. Moncayo*2, Michael Anishchenko*, George V. Ludwig†, Michael J. Turell‡, Monica L. O’Guinn‡, John Lee‡, Robert B. Tesh*, Douglas M. Watts†, Kevin L. Russell†, Christine Hice*, Stephen Yanoviak*, Amy C. Morrison§, Terry A. Klein‡, David J. Dohm‡, Hilda Guzman*, Amelia P.A. Travassos da Rosa*, Carolina Guevara†, Tadeusz J. Kochel†, James Olson†, Cesar Cabezas¶, and Nikos Vasilakis*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA; †Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; ‡U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA; §University of California, Davis, California, USA; ¶Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Peru

Main Article

Table 1

Classification of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV) complex of alphavirusesa

Subtype Variety Species Transmission pattern Equine virulenceb Location Vector
I AB VEEV Epizootic virulent Central, South, North America Mammalophilic mosquitoes
C VEEV Epizootic virulent South America mammalophilic mosquitoes
D VEEV Enzootic avirulent Central, South America Culex (Mel.) ocossa, panocossa, pedroi, adamesi, vomerifer
E VEEV Enzootic variable Central America, Mexico Cx. (Mel.) taeniopus
F Mosso das Pedras Enzootic unknown Brazil unknown
II Everglades Enzootic avirulent Southern Florida Cx (Mel.) cedecei
III A Mucambo Enzootic avirulent South America Cx (Mel.) portesi
B Tonate Enzootic unknown South, North America Unknown (Tonate), bug (Bijou Bridge strains from N. America)
C Enzootic unknown Peru Unknown
IV Pixuna Enzootic unknown Brazil Unknown
V Cabassou V Enzootic unknown French Guiana Unknown
VI Rio Negro Enzootic unknown Argentina Unknown

aSource: The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology (9).
bVirulent strains produce high viremia titers and generally >50% death rates in horses experimentally infected.

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1Current affiliation is Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela.

2Current affiliation is Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio.