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Volume 10, Number 5—May 2004

Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Northern Peru

Patricia V. Aguilar*, Ivorlyne P. Greene*, Lark L. Coffey*, Gladys Medina*1, Abelardo C. Moncayo*2, Michael Anishchenko*, George V. Ludwig†, Michael J. Turell‡, Monica L. O’Guinn‡, John Lee‡, Robert B. Tesh*, Douglas M. Watts†, Kevin L. Russell†, Christine Hice*, Stephen Yanoviak*, Amy C. Morrison§, Terry A. Klein‡, David J. Dohm‡, Hilda Guzman*, Amelia P.A. Travassos da Rosa*, Carolina Guevara†, Tadeusz J. Kochel†, James Olson†, Cesar Cabezas¶, and Nikos Vasilakis*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA; †Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; ‡U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA; §University of California, Davis, California, USA; ¶Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Peru

Main Article

Table 1

Classification of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEEV) complex of alphavirusesa

Subtype Variety Species Transmission pattern Equine virulenceb Location Vector
I AB VEEV Epizootic virulent Central, South, North America Mammalophilic mosquitoes
C VEEV Epizootic virulent South America mammalophilic mosquitoes
D VEEV Enzootic avirulent Central, South America Culex (Mel.) ocossa, panocossa, pedroi, adamesi, vomerifer
E VEEV Enzootic variable Central America, Mexico Cx. (Mel.) taeniopus
F Mosso das Pedras Enzootic unknown Brazil unknown
II Everglades Enzootic avirulent Southern Florida Cx (Mel.) cedecei
III A Mucambo Enzootic avirulent South America Cx (Mel.) portesi
B Tonate Enzootic unknown South, North America Unknown (Tonate), bug (Bijou Bridge strains from N. America)
C Enzootic unknown Peru Unknown
IV Pixuna Enzootic unknown Brazil Unknown
V Cabassou V Enzootic unknown French Guiana Unknown
VI Rio Negro Enzootic unknown Argentina Unknown

aSource: The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology (9).
bVirulent strains produce high viremia titers and generally >50% death rates in horses experimentally infected.

Main Article

1Current affiliation is Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela.

2Current affiliation is Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio.

Page created: February 22, 2011
Page updated: February 22, 2011
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