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Volume 12, Number 1—January 2006


Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza

Catherine J. Luke* and Kanta Subbarao*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Direct transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans

Virus subtype Year Location No. cases (no. deaths) Clinical features Notes Reference(s)
H5N1 1997 Hong Kong 18 (6) Associated with outbreak of highly pathogenic AI in poultry in the region (5,6)
H9N2 1999 Hong Kong 2 (0) Mild influenzalike illness (7)
H9N2 1999 Guangdong Province, China 5 (0) Mild influenzalike illness (8)
H9N2 2003 Hong Kong 1 (0) Mild influenzalike illness (9)
H5N1 2003 Hong Kong 2 (1) Primary viral pneumonia, lymphopenia, respiratory distress 7-year-old girl died in Fujian Province, China, and H5N1 infection was not confirmed. Her 33-year-old father died from confirmed H5N1 influenza infection in Hong Kong, and her 8-year-old brother recovered from H5N1 infection. (10)
H7N7 2003 Netherlands 89 (1) Conjunctivitis (78 cases), mild influenzalike symptoms (2 cases) or both (5 cases). In fatal case, pneumonia followed by respiratory distress syndrome Most cases were in persons involved in handling poultry (86), with 3 family members also affected. (11)
H10N7 2004 Egypt 2 (0) Fever and cough Both cases were in infants, who recovered without complications (12)
H5N1 2003–present Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia) 116 (60)* Fever, respiratory symptoms, lymphopenia, elevated liver enzymes. Severe cases progess to respiratory failure, multiple organ dysfunction, and death. Human cases concomitant with unprecedented outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 AI in poultry WHO,* (1315)

*WHO, World Health Organization. As of September 29, 2005. Source:

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