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Volume 12, Number 1—January 2006


Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza

Catherine J. Luke* and Kanta Subbarao*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Main Article

Table 3

Details of clinical trials in humans of inactivated and subunit vaccines against avian influenza

Target virus subtype Description of vaccine candidate Adjuvant Findings Reference
H9N2 Inactivated whole virus (A/HK/1073/99). 7.5, 3.8, 1.9 μg/dose with adjuvant or 15 μg without adjuvant. 2 doses, day 0 and day 21 Aluminum hydroxide Two doses needed to achieve HI* antibody titer of >1:40 at any dose. (22)
H9N2 H9N2 whole virus or subunit vaccine. 7.5, 15, or 30 μg per dose. 2 doses, day 0 and day 21. None Two doses needed to achieve HI titer of >1:40 in persons <32 years of age; 1 dose needed to achieve HI titer of ≥1:40 in persons >32 y of age. (23)
H5N1 Low pathogenicity H5N3 strain (A/duck/Singapore/F119-3/97) subunit vaccine with or without adjuvant. 7.5, 15, 30 μg per dose. 2 doses, day 0, day 21 MF59 Geometric mean antibody and seroconversion rates significantly higher when vaccine administered with adjuvant; 2 doses of vaccine needed to achieve antibody responses indicative of protection. (24)
H5N1 Purified baculovirus-expressed recombinant H5 HA derived from A/HK/156/97. 25, 45, 90 μ g per dose, 2 doses or 1 dose of 90 μg followed by 10-μg dose None 23% of volunteers had neutralizing titers of >1:80 after a single dose of 90 μg; 52% of volunteers had neutralizing antibody titers after 2 doses of 90 μg. (27)

*HI, hemagglutination inhibition.

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