Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006
Perspective

Birds and Influenza H5N1 Virus Movement to and within North America

John H. Rappole*Comments to Author  and Zdenek Hubálek†
Author affiliations: *Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA; †Academy of Sciences, Valtice, Czech Republic

Main Article

Table A1

Wild bird species confirmed to have been infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1*

Species Localities and dates
"Wild birds"† Siberia, Russia, Aug 2005 (1)
"Wild birds"† Kazakhstan, Aug 2005 (1)
Great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005 (2)
Black-necked swan (Cygnus melanocoryphusHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus)‡ Mongolia, Aug 2005; Germany, Denmark, and Iran, Feb 2005 (1,2)
Mute swan (Cygnus olor)Romania, Croatia, Oct 2005; Russia (Volga delta), Nov 2005; Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Slovenia, France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Bosnia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Iran, Feb 2006; Denmark, Serbia, Poland, and Czech Republic, March 2006 (1,2)
Coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) § Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) †‡ Hong Kong, Dec 2002; Qinghai Lake, China, Apr 2005; Mongolia, Aug 2005 (1,3,4)
Lesser white-fronted goose (Anser erythropus)‡ Romania, Oct 2005 (2)
Greylag goose (Anser anser)‡ Denmark and Germany, March 2006 (2)
Canada goose (Branta Canadensis§¶ Hong Kong,¶ Dec 2002 (3)
Red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis)‡ Greece (Skyros Island), Feb 2006 (2)
Ruddy shelduck‡(Tadorna ferruginea)‡ Mongolia, Aug 2005, Kalmykia, Aug 2005 (2,5)
Wood duck (Aix sponsaHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Argentine shoveller (Anas plataleaHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
White-cheeked pintail (Anas bahamensisHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Chestnut-breasted teal (Anas castanea)# Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Chiloe wigeon (Anas sibilatrixHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005; Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary, Feb 2006 (2,5)
"Wild ducks" (Anas sp.)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005, Kalmykia, Aug 2005; Romania, Oct 2005; Crimea, Dec 2005; Germany, Switzerland, Ukraine, and Turkey, Feb 2006; Cameroon, March 2006 (1,2,5)
Gadwall (Anas strepera)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005 (5)
Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope)‡ Mongolia, Aug 2005 (2)
Maned wood duck (Cheonetta jubata)# Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Common pochard (Aythya ferina)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005; France, Feb 2006; Switzerland and Germany, March 2006 (2,5)
Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula)‡ South Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland, March 2006 (2)
Scaup (Aythya marila)‡ South Sweden, March 2006 (2)
Red-crested pochard (Netta rufina)† Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposacaHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensisHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Goosander (Mergus merganserPoland, March 2006 (2)
Smew (Mergus albellus)‡ Slovakia, Feb 2006 (2)
Little cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
Great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)†‡ Qinghai Lake, People's Republic of China, Apr 2005 (4)
Grey heron (Ardea cinerea)†‡ Hong Kong, Dec 2002, Jan 2004, Dec 2004; Romania, Oct 2005 (13); Slovenia, Feb 2006 (2)
Little egret (Egretta garzetta)†‡ Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3); Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Chinese pond Heron (Ardeola bacchus)† Hong Kong, Jan 2005 (1)
Asian openbill (Anastomus oscitans)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
Greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber)†** Hong Kong, Dec 2002; Kuwait, Nov 2005 (3,5)
Grey-headed fish-eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
"Serpent eagle" (Spilornis sp.)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
"Hawk-eagle" (Spizaetus sp)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Mountain hawk-eagle (Spizaetus nipalensis)† Thailand, Oct 2004 (6)
Common buzzard (Buteo buteo)‡ Denmark and Germany, March 2006 (2)
Rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus)‡ Denmark. March 2006 (2)
Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)‡ Germany, Feb 2006 (2)
Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)†‡ Hong Kong, Mar 2003, Jan 2004; Slovakia, Feb 2006; Denmark and Germany, March 2006 (1,2)
Saker falcon (Falco cherrug)† Saudi Arabia, Jan 2006 (2)
Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)‡ Germany, March 2006 (2)
Coot (Fulica atra)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005; Kalmykia Aug 2005 (5); Switzerland and Germany, March 2006 (2)
Common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus)**. Romania, Oct 2005 (2)
Great black-headed gull (Larus ichthyaetus)‡ Qinghai Lake, China, Apr 2005 (4)
Brown-headed gull (Larus brunnicephalus)‡ Qinghai Lake, China, Apr 2005 (4)
Black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus)†‡ Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3); Hungary, Feb 2006 (2)
"Gulls" (Larus spp)‡. Crimea, Dec 2005; Croatia, March 2006 (2)
"Pigeons" (Columbiformes)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
Rock pigeon (Columbia livia f. domestica)†** Hong Kong, Dec 2002; Thailand, 2005; Chelyabinsk, Russia, Aug 2005 (2,3,5); Crimea, Dec 2005 (2)
Red-collared dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
Eagle owl (Bubo bubo)‡ Sweden, March 2006 (2)
Forest eagle-owl (Bubo nipalensis)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Brown fish-owl (Ketupa zeylonensis)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Buffy fish-owl (Ketupa ketupu)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Spotted wood-owl (Strix seloputo)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
"Parrots" (Psittaciformes)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Black drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
House crow (Corvus splendens)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006; Afghanistan and Pakistan, March 2006 (2)
Large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchus)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Carrion crow (Corvus corone)‡ Crimea, Jan 2006 (2)
"Crows" (Corvus sp.)† Japan, Mar 2004 (1)
Rook (Corvus frugilegus)‡ Crimea, Dec 2005 (2)
Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)‡ Crimea, Dec 2005 (2)
Common magpie (Pica pica sericea)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
"Magpies" (Corvidae)† Korea, Mar 2004 (1)
Oriental magpie robin (Copsichus saularis)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Red-billed mesia (Leiothrix lutea)† Taiwan, Oct 2005 (2)
Crested myna (Acridotheres cristatellus)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
"Mynas" (Sturnidae)** Thailand, Oct 2005 (2)
Scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
White-rumped munia (Lonchura striata)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Munia (Lonchura sp.)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Japanese white eye (Zosterops japonica simplex)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Tree sparrow (Passer montanus)†‡** Hong Kong, Dec 2002; Thailand, 2005 (13)

*Those with known migratory populations are shown in bold. Underlined species had >1 seropositive test results in apparently healthy birds. Nomenclature follows the American Ornithologists' Union checklist (7) to the degree possible. Rasmussen and Anderton (8) is used as a supplementary source on this topic. †Old World species infected as captives or in association with captive birds in a zoological park, smuggler holding pen, or domestic poultry facility. ‡Old World species in which infection was detected at a site distant from any known infected domestic bird. §South American species, infected as a captive in a zoologic park. ¶North American species, infected as a captive in a zoologic park. #Australian species, infected as a captive in zoologic park. **Old World species; possible association with infected captive birds or poultry unknown.

*Those with known migratory populations are shown in bold. Underlined species had >1 seropositive test results in apparently healthy birds. Nomenclature follows the American Ornithologists' Union checklist (7) to the degree possible. Rasmussen and Anderton (8) is used as a supplementary source on this topic. †Old World species infected as captives or in association with captive birds in a zoological park, smuggler holding pen, or domestic poultry facility. ‡Old World species in which infection was detected at a site distant from any known infected domestic bird. §South American species, infected as a captive in a zoologic park. ¶North American species, infected as a captive in a zoologic park. #Australian species, infected as a captive in zoologic park. **Old World species; possible association with infected captive birds or poultry unknown.

Main Article

References
  1. Li  KS, Guan  Y, Wang  J, Smith  G, Xu  K, Duan  L, Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia. Nature. 2004;430:20913. DOIPubMed
  2. Zhou  NN, Shortridge  K, Claas  E, Krauss  S, Webster  R. Rapid evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens in Hong Kong. J Virol. 1999;73:336674.PubMed
  3. Fauci  AS. Pandemic influenza threat and preparedness. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:737.PubMed
  4. Enserink  M. H5N1 moves into Africa, European Union, deepening global crisis. Science. 2006;311:932. DOIPubMed
  5. Xu  X, Subbarao  K, Cox  N, Guo  Y. Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong. Virology. 1999;261:159. DOIPubMed
  6. Morris  R, Jackson  R. Epidemiology of H5N1 avian influenza in Asia and implications for regional control. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; 2005.
  7. Sims  LD, Ellis  T, Liu  K, Dyrting  K, Wong  H, Peiris  M, Avian influenza in Hong Kong 1997–2002. Avian Dis. 2003;47:8328. DOIPubMed
  8. Nguyen  DC, Uyeki  T, Jadhao  S, Maines  T, Shaw  M, Matsuoka  Y, Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic H5N1, from poultry in live bird markets in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2001. J Virol. 2005;79:420112. DOIPubMed
  9. Ng  EK, Cheng  P, Ng  A, Hoang  T, Lim  W. Influenza A H5N1 detection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:13035.PubMed
  10. Ellis  TM, Bousfield  R, Bisset  L, Dyrting  K, Luk  G, Tsim  S, Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol. 2004;33:492505. DOIPubMed
  11. Van Borm  S, Thomas  I, Hanquet  G, Lambrecht  B, Boschmans  M, DuPont  G, Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in smuggled Thai eagles, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:7025.PubMed
  12. Chen  H, Smith  G, Zhang  S, Qin  K, Wang  J, Li  K, H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature. 2005;436:1912. DOIPubMed
  13. World Health Organization. H5N1 avian influenza timeline: 28 Oct 2005 [cited 2006 Oct 23]. Available from http://www.who.int/entity/csr/disease/avian_influenza/Timeline_28_10a.pdf
  14. Brown  I, Gaidet  N, Guberti  V. Marangon, Olsen B, editors. Mission to Russia to assess the avian influenza situation in wildlife and the national measures being taken to minimize the risk of international spread. Office International des Epizooties 2005 [cited 2005 Oct 23]. Available from http://www.oie.int/downld/Missions/2005/ReportRussia2005Final2.pdf
  15. Office International des Epizooties. Update on avian influenza in animals (type H5) 24 May 2006 [cited 2006 May 24]. Available from http://www.oie.int/downld/AVIAN%20INFLUENZA/A_AI-Asia.htm
  16. Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), United Kingdom. Epidemiology report on avian influenza in a quarantine premises in Essex [cited 2006 May 29]. Available from http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/notifiable/disease/ai/pdf/ai-epidemrep111105.pdf
  17. World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A/ (H5N1) reported to WHO as of 29 May 2006 [article in French] [cited 2006 May 29]. Available from http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases table_2006_05_29/en/index.html
  18. Webster  RG, Bean  W, Gorman  O, Chambers  T, Kawaoka  Y. Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiol Rev. 1992;56:15279.PubMed
  19. Webster  RG, Peiris  M, Chen  H, Guan  Y. H5N1 outbreaks and enzootic influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:38.PubMed
  20. Kawaoka  Y, Chambers  T, Sladen  W, Webster  G. Is the gene pool of influenza viruses in shorebirds and gulls different from that in wild ducks? Virology. 1988;163:24750. DOIPubMed
  21. Perkins  LE, Swayne  D. Comparative susceptibility of selected avian and mammalian species to a Hong Kong–origin H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Avian Dis. 2003;47:95667. DOIPubMed
  22. Shortridge  KF, Zhou  N, Guan  Y, Gao  P, Ito  T, Kawaoka  Y, Characterization of avian H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in Hong Kong. Virology. 1998;252:33142. DOIPubMed
  23. Hulse-Post  DJ, Sturm-Ramirez  K, Humberd  J, Seiler  P, Govorkova  E, Krauss  S, Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:106827. DOIPubMed
  24. Komar  N, Langevin  S, Hinten  S, Nemeth  E, Edwards  D, Hettler  B, Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:31122.PubMed
  25. Munster  VJ, Wallensten  A, Baas  C, Rimmelzwann  G, Schutten  M, Olsen  B, Mallards and highly pathogenic avian influenza ancestral viruses, northern Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:154551.PubMed
  26. Spackman  E, Stallknecht  D, Slemons  R, Winker  K, Suarez  D, Scott  M, Phylogenetic analyses of type A influenza genes in natural reservoir species in North America reveals genetic variation. Virus Res. 2005;114:89100. DOIPubMed
  27. Werner  O. [Highly pathogenic avian influenza--a review.] [Article in German.]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006;119:14050.PubMed
  28. Kessel  B, Gibson  D. Status and distribution of Alaska birds. Studies in Avian Biology. 1978;1:1100.
  29. Palmer  R. Handbook of North American birds. Vol 2. New Haven (CT):Yale University Press; 1976.
  30. American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). The A.O.U. check-list of North American birds. 7th ed. Washington: American Ornithologists' Union; 1998.
  31. Rasmussen  P, Anderton  J. Birds of South Asia: the Ripley guide. Barcelona: Lynx Ed.; 2005.
  32. Rappole  JH, Derrickson  S, Hubálek  Z. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:31928. DOIPubMed
  33. Bernard  KA, Maffei  J, Jones  S, Kauffman  E, Ebel  G, Dupuis  A II, West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, New York State, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:67985. DOIPubMed
  34. Brault  AC, Langevin  S, Bowen  R, Panella  N, Biggerstaff  B, Miller  B, Differential virulence of West Nile strains for American crows. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:21618.PubMed
  35. Nasci  RS, Savage  HM, White  DJ, Miller  JR, Cropp  BC, Godsey  MS, West Nile virus in overwintering Culex mosquitoes, New York City, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:7427. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: November 09, 2011
Page updated: November 09, 2011
Page reviewed: November 09, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external