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Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006

Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006   PDF Version [PDF - 5.66 MB - 159 pages]

Perspective

  • Malaria Epidemics and Interventions, Kenya, Burundi, Southern Sudan, and Ethiopia, 1999–2004 PDF Version [PDF - 346 KB - 9 pages]
    F. Checchi et al.
    View Summary

    Effectiveness was reduced by delays and other factors.

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    Quantitative data on the onset and evolution of malaria epidemics are scarce. We review case studies from recent African Plasmodium falciparum epidemics (Kisii and Gucha Districts, Kenya, 1999; Kayanza Province, Burundi, 2000–2001; Aweil East, southern Sudan, 2003; Gutten and Damot Gale, Ethiopia, 2003–2004). We highlight possible epidemic risk factors and review delays in epidemic detection and response (up to 20 weeks), essentially due to poor case reporting and analysis or low use of public facilities. Epidemics lasted 15–36 weeks, and patients' age profiles suggested departures from classical notions of epidemic malaria everywhere but Burundi. Although emergency interventions were mounted to expand inpatient and outpatient treatment access, we believe their effects were lessened because of delays, insufficient evaluation of disease burden, lack of evidence on how to increase treatment coverage in emergencies, and use of ineffective drugs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Checchi F, Cox J, Balkan S, Tamrat A, Priotto G, Alberti KP, et al. Malaria Epidemics and Interventions, Kenya, Burundi, Southern Sudan, and Ethiopia, 1999–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1477-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060540
    AMA Checchi F, Cox J, Balkan S, et al. Malaria Epidemics and Interventions, Kenya, Burundi, Southern Sudan, and Ethiopia, 1999–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1477-1485. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060540.
    APA Checchi, F., Cox, J., Balkan, S., Tamrat, A., Priotto, G., Alberti, K. P....Guthmann, J. (2006). Malaria Epidemics and Interventions, Kenya, Burundi, Southern Sudan, and Ethiopia, 1999–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1477-1485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060540.
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  • Birds and Influenza H5N1 Virus Movement to and within North America PDF Version [PDF - 171 KB - 7 pages]
    J. H. Rappole and Z. Hubálek
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    TOC Summary: Migratory birds are unlikely introductory hosts for this highly pathogenic virus in its present form into North America.

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    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 expanded considerably during 2005 and early 2006 in both avian host species and geographic distribution. Domestic waterfowl and migratory birds are reservoirs, but lethality of this subtype appeared to initially limit migrant effectiveness as introductory hosts. This situation may have changed, as HPAI H5N1 has recently expanded across Eurasia and into Europe and Africa. Birds could introduce HPAI H5N1 to the Western Hemisphere through migration, vagrancy, and importation by people. Vagrants and migratory birds are not likely interhemispheric introductory hosts; import of infected domestic or pet birds is more probable. If reassortment or mutation were to produce a virus adapted for rapid transmission among humans, birds would be unlikely introductory hosts because of differences in viral transmission mechanisms among major host groups (i.e., gastrointestinal for birds, respiratory for humans). Another possible result of reassortment would be a less lethal form of avian influenza, more readily spread by birds.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rappole JH, Hubálek Z. Birds and Influenza H5N1 Virus Movement to and within North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1486-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051577
    AMA Rappole JH, Hubálek Z. Birds and Influenza H5N1 Virus Movement to and within North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1486-1492. doi:10.3201/eid1210.051577.
    APA Rappole, J. H., & Hubálek, Z. (2006). Birds and Influenza H5N1 Virus Movement to and within North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1486-1492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051577.
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Research

  • Novel Chikungunya Virus Variant in Travelers Returning from Indian Ocean Islands PDF Version [PDF - 363 KB - 7 pages]
    P. Parola et al.
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    Aedes albopictus may cause epidemics when infected persons travel to areas where vectors are prevalent.

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    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in Indian Ocean islands in 2005 and is causing an ongoing outbreak that involves >260,000 patients, including travelers returning home from these islands. We investigated cases in 4 patients returning from Mayotte and Reunion Islands with CHIKV infection and a nurse infected in metropolitan France after direct contact with the blood of a traveler. Four patients had tenosynovitis and pain at wrist pressure, and 1 had life-threatening manifestations. Four CHIKV strains were isolated, including 1 from the patient with the autochthonous case. The complete genomic sequence identified a new CHIKV variant emerging from the East/central African evolutionary lineage. Aedes albopictus, the implicated vector of CHIKV in Indian Ocean islands, has dispersed worldwide in recent decades. High viral loads in patients returning from Indian Ocean islands to countries where Ae. albopictus is prevalent may be a source of epidemics.

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    EID Parola P, de Lamballerie X, Jourdan J, Rovery C, Vaillant V, Minodier P, et al. Novel Chikungunya Virus Variant in Travelers Returning from Indian Ocean Islands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1493-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060610
    AMA Parola P, de Lamballerie X, Jourdan J, et al. Novel Chikungunya Virus Variant in Travelers Returning from Indian Ocean Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1493-1499. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060610.
    APA Parola, P., de Lamballerie, X., Jourdan, J., Rovery, C., Vaillant, V., Minodier, P....Charrel, R. N. (2006). Novel Chikungunya Virus Variant in Travelers Returning from Indian Ocean Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1493-1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060610.
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  • Campylobacter jejuni Multilocus Sequence Types in Humans, Northwest England, 2003–2004 PDF Version [PDF - 284 KB - 8 pages]
    W. Sopwith et al.
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    MLST can be used to describe and analyze the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in distinct human populations.

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    Detailed understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter is increasingly facilitated through use of universal and reproducible techniques for accurate strain differentiation and subtyping. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) enables discriminatory subtyping and grouping of isolate types into genetically related clonal complexes; it also has the advantage of ease of application and repeatability. Recent studies suggest that a measure of host association may be distinguishable with this system. We describe the first continuous population-based survey to investigate the potential of MLST to resolve questions of campylobacteriosis epidemiology. We demonstrate the ability of MLST to identify variations in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis between distinct populations and describe the distribution of key subtypes of interest.

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    EID Sopwith W, Birtles A, Matthews M, Fox A, Gee S, Painter M, et al. Campylobacter jejuni Multilocus Sequence Types in Humans, Northwest England, 2003–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1500-1507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060048
    AMA Sopwith W, Birtles A, Matthews M, et al. Campylobacter jejuni Multilocus Sequence Types in Humans, Northwest England, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1500-1507. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060048.
    APA Sopwith, W., Birtles, A., Matthews, M., Fox, A., Gee, S., Painter, M....Bolton, E. (2006). Campylobacter jejuni Multilocus Sequence Types in Humans, Northwest England, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1500-1507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060048.
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  • Active Surveillance of Candidemia, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 324 KB - 9 pages]
    S. Chen et al.
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    This infection has a high death rate and is predominantly associated with healthcare.

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    Population-based surveillance for candidemia in Australia from 2001 to 2004 identified 1,095 cases. Annual overall and hospital-specific incidences were 1.81/100,000 and 0.21/1,000 separations (completed admissions), respectively. Predisposing factors included malignancy (32.1%), indwelling vascular catheters (72.6%), use of antimicrobial agents (77%), and surgery (37.1%). Of 919 episodes, 81.5% were inpatient healthcare associated (IHCA), 11.6% were outpatient healthcare associated (OHCA), and 6.9% were community acquired (CA). Concomitant illnesses and risk factors were similar in IHCA and OHCA candidemia. IHCA candidemia was associated with sepsis at diagnosis (p<0.001), death <30 days after infection (p<0.001), and prolonged hospital admission (p<0.001). Non–Candida albicans species (52.7%) caused 60.5% of cases acquired outside hospitals and 49.9% of IHCA candidemia (p = 0.02). The 30-day death rate was 27.7% in those >65 years of age. Adult critical care stay, sepsis syndrome, and corticosteroid therapy were associated with the greatest risk for death. Systematic epidemiologic studies that use standardized definitions for IHCA, OHCA, and CA candidemia are indicated.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chen S, Slavin M, Nguyen Q, Marriott D, Playford EG, Ellis D, et al. Active Surveillance of Candidemia, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1508-1516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060389
    AMA Chen S, Slavin M, Nguyen Q, et al. Active Surveillance of Candidemia, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1508-1516. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060389.
    APA Chen, S., Slavin, M., Nguyen, Q., Marriott, D., Playford, E. G., Ellis, D....Sorrell, T. C. (2006). Active Surveillance of Candidemia, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1508-1516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060389.
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  • Active Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients with Septic Shock PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 6 pages]
    L. von Müller et al.
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    Cytomegalovirus reactivation occurred in one third of patients and was associated with prolonged ventilation and stay in an intensive care unit.

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    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a pathogen of emerging importance for patients with septic shock. In this prospective study, 25 immunocompetent CMV-seropositive patients with septic shock and an intensive care unit stay of >7 days were monitored by using quantitative pp65-antigenemia assay, shell vial culture, and virus isolation. Within 2 weeks, active CMV infection with low-level pp65-antigenemia (median 3 positive/5 × 105 leukocytes) developed in 8 (32%) patients. Infection was controlled within a few weeks (median 26 days) without use of antiviral therapy. Duration of intensive care and mechanical ventilation were significantly prolonged in patients with active CMV infection. CMV reactivation was associated with concomitant herpes simplex virus reactivation (p = 0.004). The association between active CMV infection and increased illness could open new therapeutic options for patients with septic shock. Future interventional studies are required.

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    EID von Müller L, Klemm A, Weiss M, Schneider M, Suger-Wiedeck H, Durmus N, et al. Active Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients with Septic Shock. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1517-1522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060411
    AMA von Müller L, Klemm A, Weiss M, et al. Active Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients with Septic Shock. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1517-1522. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060411.
    APA von Müller, L., Klemm, A., Weiss, M., Schneider, M., Suger-Wiedeck, H., Durmus, N....Mertens, T. (2006). Active Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients with Septic Shock. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1517-1522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060411.
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  • Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home, United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 110 KB - 4 pages]
    C. A. McNulty et al.
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    Persons more knowledgeable about these drugs are more likely to keep them.

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    A total of 6% of 6,983 households in the United Kingdom had leftover antimicrobial drugs, and 4% had standby antimicrobial drugs. Respondents with leftover drugs were more educated, more knowledgeable about antimicrobial drugs, younger, and female. Of respondents with leftover drugs, 44% kept them in case of future need, and 18% had taken these drugs without medical advice.

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    EID McNulty CA, Boyle P, Nichols T, Clappison DP, Davey P. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1523-1526. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051471
    AMA McNulty CA, Boyle P, Nichols T, et al. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1523-1526. doi:10.3201/eid1210.051471.
    APA McNulty, C. A., Boyle, P., Nichols, T., Clappison, D. P., & Davey, P. (2006). Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1523-1526. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051471.
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  • Human Prion Disease and Relative Risk Associated with Chronic Wasting Disease PDF Version [PDF - 279 KB - 9 pages]
    W. J. Pape et al.
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    Colorado death certificate data from 1979 through 2001 show that the risk for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease did not increase for residents of counties where chronic wasting disease is endemic among deer and elk.

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    The transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans raises concern about chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of deer and elk. In 7 Colorado counties with high CWD prevalence, 75% of state hunting licenses are issued locally, which suggests that residents consume most regionally harvested game. We used Colorado death certificate data from 1979 through 2001 to evaluate rates of death from the human prion disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The relative risk (RR) of CJD for CWD-endemic county residents was not significantly increased (RR 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–1.63), and the rate of CJD did not increase over time (5-year RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.73–1.16). In Colorado, human prion disease resulting from CWD exposure is rare or nonexistent. However, given uncertainties about the incubation period, exposure, and clinical presentation, the possibility that the CWD agent might cause human disease cannot be eliminated.

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    EID Pape WJ, Forster JE, Anderson CA, Bosque P, Bosque P, Miller MW, et al. Human Prion Disease and Relative Risk Associated with Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1527-1535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060019
    AMA Pape WJ, Forster JE, Anderson CA, et al. Human Prion Disease and Relative Risk Associated with Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1527-1535. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060019.
    APA Pape, W. J., Forster, J. E., Anderson, C. A., Bosque, P., Bosque, P., & Miller, M. W. (2006). Human Prion Disease and Relative Risk Associated with Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1527-1535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060019.
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  • Human Rotavirus G9 and G3 as Major Cause of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 200 KB - 6 pages]
    A. Sánchez-Fauquier et al.
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    A major shift in the predominant strains of rotavirus was detected.

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    In Spain, diarrhea remains a major cause of illness among infants and young children. To determine the prevalence of rotavirus genotypes and temporal and geographic differences in strain distribution, a structured surveillance study of hospitalized children <5 years of age with diarrhea was initiated in different regions of Spain during 2005. Rotavirus was detected alone in samples from 362 (55.2%) samples and as a coinfection with other viruses in 41 samples (6.3%). Enteropathogenic bacterial agents were detected in 4.9% of samples; astrovirus and norovirus RNA was detected in 3.2% and 12.0% samples, respectively; and adenovirus antigen was detected in 1.8% samples. Including mixed infections, the most predominant G type was G9 (50.6%), followed by G3 (33.0%) and G1 (20.2%). Infection with multiple rotavirus strains was detected in >11.4% of the samples studied during 2005.

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    EID Sánchez-Fauquier A, Montero V, Moreno S, Solé M, Colomina J, Iturriza-Gomara M, et al. Human Rotavirus G9 and G3 as Major Cause of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1536-1541. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060384
    AMA Sánchez-Fauquier A, Montero V, Moreno S, et al. Human Rotavirus G9 and G3 as Major Cause of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1536-1541. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060384.
    APA Sánchez-Fauquier, A., Montero, V., Moreno, S., Solé, M., Colomina, J., Iturriza-Gomara, M....Gray, J. (2006). Human Rotavirus G9 and G3 as Major Cause of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1536-1541. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060384.
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  • Low Frequency of Poultry-to-Human H5N1 Transmission, Southern Cambodia, 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 109 KB - 6 pages]
    S. Vong et al.
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    Transmission is low despite extensive human contact with poultry.

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    To understand transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus, we conducted a retrospective survey of poultry deaths and a seroepidemiologic investigation in a Cambodian village where a 28-year-old man was infected with H5N1 virus in March 2005. Poultry surveys were conducted within a 1-km radius of the patient's household. Forty-two household flocks were considered likely to have been infected from January through March 2005 because >60% of the flock died, case-fatality ratio was 100%, and both young and mature birds died within 1 to 2 days. Two sick chickens from a property adjacent to the patient's house tested positive for H5N1 on reverse transcription–PCR. Villagers were asked about poultry exposures in the past year and tested for H5N1 antibodies. Despite frequent, direct contact with poultry suspected of having H5N1 virus infection, none of 351 participants from 93 households had neutralizing antibodies to H5N1. H5N1 virus transmission from poultry to humans remains low in this setting.

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    EID Vong S, Coghlan B, Mardy S, Holl D, Seng H, Ly S, et al. Low Frequency of Poultry-to-Human H5N1 Transmission, Southern Cambodia, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1542-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060424
    AMA Vong S, Coghlan B, Mardy S, et al. Low Frequency of Poultry-to-Human H5N1 Transmission, Southern Cambodia, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1542-1547. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060424.
    APA Vong, S., Coghlan, B., Mardy, S., Holl, D., Seng, H., Ly, S....Sok, T. (2006). Low Frequency of Poultry-to-Human H5N1 Transmission, Southern Cambodia, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1542-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060424.
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  • Health Benefits, Risks, and Cost-Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination of Children PDF Version [PDF - 461 KB - 11 pages]
    L. A. Prosser et al.
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    Vaccinating children aged 6–23 months, plus all other children at high-risk, will likely be more effective than vaccinating all children against influenza.

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    We estimated cost-effectiveness of annually vaccinating children not at high risk with inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) to range from US $12,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved for children ages 6–23 months to $119,000 per QALY saved for children ages 12–17 years. For children at high risk (preexisting medical conditions) ages 6–35 months, vaccination with IIV was cost saving. For children at high risk ages 3–17 years, vaccination cost $1,000–$10,000 per QALY. Among children not at high risk ages 5–17 years, live, attenuated influenza vaccine had a similar cost-effectiveness as IIV. Risk status was more important than age in determining the economic effects of annual vaccination, and vaccination was less cost-effective as the child's age increased. Thus, routine vaccination of all children is likely less cost-effective than vaccination of all children ages 6–23 months plus all other children at high risk.

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    EID Prosser LA, Bridges CB, Uyeki TM, Hinrichsen VL, Meltzer MI, Molinari NM, et al. Health Benefits, Risks, and Cost-Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination of Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1548-1558. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051015
    AMA Prosser LA, Bridges CB, Uyeki TM, et al. Health Benefits, Risks, and Cost-Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination of Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1548-1558. doi:10.3201/eid1210.051015.
    APA Prosser, L. A., Bridges, C. B., Uyeki, T. M., Hinrichsen, V. L., Meltzer, M. I., Molinari, N. M....Lieu, T. A. (2006). Health Benefits, Risks, and Cost-Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination of Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1548-1558. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051015.
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Dispatches

  • West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006 PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 3 pages]
    M. A. Morales et al.
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    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from the brains of 3 horses that died from encephalitis in February 2006. The horses were from different farms in central Argentina and had not traveled outside the country. This is the first isolation of WNV in South America.

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    EID Morales MA, Barrandeguy M, Fabbri C, Garcia JB, Vissani A, Trono K, et al. West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1559-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060852
    AMA Morales MA, Barrandeguy M, Fabbri C, et al. West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1559-1561. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060852.
    APA Morales, M. A., Barrandeguy, M., Fabbri, C., Garcia, J. B., Vissani, A., Trono, K....Enría, D. (2006). West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1559-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060852.
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  • Nematode Symbiont for Photorhabdus asymbiotica PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 3 pages]
    J. G. Gerrard et al.
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    Photorhabdus asymbiotica is an emerging bacterial pathogen that causes locally invasive soft tissue and disseminated bacteremic infections in the United States and Australia. Although the source of infection was previously unknown, we report that the bacterium is found in a symbiotic association with an insect-pathogenic soil nematode of the genus Heterorhabditis.

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    EID Gerrard JG, Joyce SA, Clarke DJ, ffrench-Constant RH, Nimmo GR, Looke DF, et al. Nematode Symbiont for Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1562-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060464
    AMA Gerrard JG, Joyce SA, Clarke DJ, et al. Nematode Symbiont for Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1562-1564. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060464.
    APA Gerrard, J. G., Joyce, S. A., Clarke, D. J., ffrench-Constant, R. H., Nimmo, G. R., Looke, D. F....Waterfield, N. R. (2006). Nematode Symbiont for Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1562-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060464.
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  • Chikungunya Infection in Travelers PDF Version [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Hochedez et al.
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    The largest described outbreak of chikungunya virus has been occurring on the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean since March 2005. We describe the manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in travelers returning from these islands, with focus on skin manifestations.

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    EID Hochedez P, Jaureguiberry S, Debruyne M, Bossi P, Hausfater P, Brucker G, et al. Chikungunya Infection in Travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1565-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060495
    AMA Hochedez P, Jaureguiberry S, Debruyne M, et al. Chikungunya Infection in Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1565-1567. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060495.
    APA Hochedez, P., Jaureguiberry, S., Debruyne, M., Bossi, P., Hausfater, P., Brucker, G....Caumes, E. (2006). Chikungunya Infection in Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1565-1567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060495.
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  • Siberian Subtype Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Finland PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 4 pages]
    A. E. Jääskeläinen et al.
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    We isolated 11 Siberian subtype tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains from Ixodes persulcatus ticks from a TBEV-endemic focus in the Kokkola Archipelago, western Finland. Thus I. persulcatus and the Siberian TBEV are reported in a focus considerably northwest of their previously known range in eastern Europe and Siberia.

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    EID Jääskeläinen AE, Tikkakoski T, Uzcátegui NY, Alekseev AN, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O, et al. Siberian Subtype Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1568-1571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060320
    AMA Jääskeläinen AE, Tikkakoski T, Uzcátegui NY, et al. Siberian Subtype Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1568-1571. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060320.
    APA Jääskeläinen, A. E., Tikkakoski, T., Uzcátegui, N. Y., Alekseev, A. N., Vaheri, A., & Vapalahti, O. (2006). Siberian Subtype Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1568-1571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060320.
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  • Fourth Human Parechovirus Serotype PDF Version [PDF - 191 KB - 4 pages]
    K. S. Benschop et al.
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    We identified a novel human parechovirus (HPeV) type (K251176-02) from a neonate with fever. Analysis of the complete genome showed K251176-02 to be a new HPeV genotype. Since K251176-02 could not be neutralized with antibodies against known HPeV serotypes 1–3, it should be classified as a fourth HPeV serotype.

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    EID Benschop KS, Schinkel J, Luken ME, van den Broek PJ, Beersma MF, Menelik N, et al. Fourth Human Parechovirus Serotype. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1572-1575. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051647
    AMA Benschop KS, Schinkel J, Luken ME, et al. Fourth Human Parechovirus Serotype. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1572-1575. doi:10.3201/eid1210.051647.
    APA Benschop, K. S., Schinkel, J., Luken, M. E., van den Broek, P. J., Beersma, M. F., Menelik, N....Wolthers, K. C. (2006). Fourth Human Parechovirus Serotype. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1572-1575. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051647.
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  • ICD-9 Codes and Surveillance for Clostridium difficile–associated Disease PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 4 pages]
    E. R. Dubberke et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare Clostridium difficile–associated disease rates determined by C. difficile–toxin assays and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes. The correlation between toxin assay results and ICD-9 codes was good (κ = 0.72, p<0.01). The sensitivity of the ICD-9 codes was 78% and the specificity was 99.7%.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dubberke ER, Reske KA, McDonald LC, Fraser VJ. ICD-9 Codes and Surveillance for Clostridium difficile–associated Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1576-1579. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060016
    AMA Dubberke ER, Reske KA, McDonald LC, et al. ICD-9 Codes and Surveillance for Clostridium difficile–associated Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1576-1579. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060016.
    APA Dubberke, E. R., Reske, K. A., McDonald, L. C., & Fraser, V. J. (2006). ICD-9 Codes and Surveillance for Clostridium difficile–associated Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1576-1579. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060016.
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  • Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India PDF Version [PDF - 178 KB - 4 pages]
    P. N. Yergolkar et al.
        View Abstract

    Chikungunya fever is reported in India after 32 years. Immunoglobulin M antibodies and virus isolation confirmed the cause. Phylogenic analysis based on partial sequences of NS4 and E1 genes showed that all earlier isolates (1963–1973) were Asian genotype, whereas the current and Yawat (2000) isolates were African genotype.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yergolkar PN, Tandale BV, Arankalle VA, Sathe PS, Gandhe SS, Gokhle MD, et al. Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1580-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060529
    AMA Yergolkar PN, Tandale BV, Arankalle VA, et al. Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1580-1583. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060529.
    APA Yergolkar, P. N., Tandale, B. V., Arankalle, V. A., Sathe, P. S., Gandhe, S. S., Gokhle, M. D....Mishra, A. C. (2006). Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1580-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060529.
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  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Dutch Soccer Team PDF Version [PDF - 143 KB - 3 pages]
    X. W. Huijsdens et al.
        View Abstract

    An outbreak of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurred among members and close contacts of a soccer team. Typing of the isolates showed the outbreak was caused by the well-known European ST80-IV strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of this strain among members of a sports team.

        Cite This Article
    EID Huijsdens XW, van Lier AM, van Kregten E, Verhoef L, van Santen-Verheuvel MG, Spalburg E, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Dutch Soccer Team. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1584-1586. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060387
    AMA Huijsdens XW, van Lier AM, van Kregten E, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Dutch Soccer Team. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1584-1586. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060387.
    APA Huijsdens, X. W., van Lier, A. M., van Kregten, E., Verhoef, L., van Santen-Verheuvel, M. G., Spalburg, E....Wannet, W. J. (2006). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Dutch Soccer Team. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1584-1586. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060387.
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  • Helminth-related Eosinophilia in African Immigrants, Gran Canaria PDF Version [PDF - 85 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Pardo et al.
        View Abstract

    Of 788 recent African adult immigrants to Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 213 (27.0%) had eosinophilia. The most frequent causes were filariasis (29.4%), schistosomiasis (17.2%), and hookworm infection (16.8%). Stool microscopy and filarial and schistosomal serologic tests gave the highest diagnostic yield. Country of origin and eosinophil count were associated with specific diagnoses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pardo J, Carranza C, Muro A, Angel-Moreno A, Martín A, Martín T, et al. Helminth-related Eosinophilia in African Immigrants, Gran Canaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1587-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060102
    AMA Pardo J, Carranza C, Muro A, et al. Helminth-related Eosinophilia in African Immigrants, Gran Canaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1587-1589. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060102.
    APA Pardo, J., Carranza, C., Muro, A., Angel-Moreno, A., Martín, A., Martín, T....Pérez-Arellano, J. (2006). Helminth-related Eosinophilia in African Immigrants, Gran Canaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1587-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060102.
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  • Scrub Typhus in Himalayas PDF Version [PDF - 70 KB - 3 pages]
    S. K. Mahajan et al.
        View Abstract

    Himachal Pradesh state of India is situated in the outer Himalayan ranges. During the rainy season, several cases of acute febrile illness of unknown origin occurred. Orientia tsutsugamushi was identified as the causative agent by microimmunofluorescence and PCR. Two new genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi were identified in the region.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mahajan SK, Rolain J, Kashyap R, Bakshi D, Sharma V, Prasher BS, et al. Scrub Typhus in Himalayas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1590-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051697
    AMA Mahajan SK, Rolain J, Kashyap R, et al. Scrub Typhus in Himalayas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1590-1592. doi:10.3201/eid1210.051697.
    APA Mahajan, S. K., Rolain, J., Kashyap, R., Bakshi, D., Sharma, V., Prasher, B. S....Raoult, D. (2006). Scrub Typhus in Himalayas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1590-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051697.
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  • H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Lao People’s Democratic Republic PDF Version [PDF - 99 KB - 3 pages]
    D. A. Boltz et al.
        View Abstract

    A prospective surveillance program for influenza viruses was established in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) in July of 2005. We report isolation of H5N1 virus genetically distinct from H5N1 circulating in 2004, which indicates reintroduction of H5N1 into Lao PDR after its disappearance (i.e., no virologic or serologic evidence) for 2 years.

        Cite This Article
    EID Boltz DA, Douangngeun B, Sinthasak S, Phommachanh P, Rolston S, Chen H, et al. H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1593-1595. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060658
    AMA Boltz DA, Douangngeun B, Sinthasak S, et al. H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1593-1595. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060658.
    APA Boltz, D. A., Douangngeun, B., Sinthasak, S., Phommachanh, P., Rolston, S., Chen, H....Webster, R. G. (2006). H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1593-1595. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060658.
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  • Chimpanzee Adenovirus Antibodies in Humans, Sub-Saharan Africa PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 4 pages]
    Z. Xiang et al.
        View Abstract

    Human sera from the United States, Thailand, and sub-Saharan Africa and chimpanzee sera were tested for neutralizing antibodies to 3 chimpanzee adenoviruses. Antibodies were more common in humans residing in sub-Saharan Africa than in humans living in the United States or Thailand. This finding suggests cross-species transmission of chimpanzee adenoviruses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Xiang Z, Li Y, Cun A, Yang W, Ellenberg S, Switzer WM, et al. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Antibodies in Humans, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1596-1599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060078
    AMA Xiang Z, Li Y, Cun A, et al. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Antibodies in Humans, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1596-1599. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060078.
    APA Xiang, Z., Li, Y., Cun, A., Yang, W., Ellenberg, S., Switzer, W. M....Ertl, H. C. (2006). Chimpanzee Adenovirus Antibodies in Humans, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1596-1599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060078.
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  • Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan PDF Version [PDF - 105 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Brooker et al.
        View Abstract

    Plasmodium vivax is endemic to many areas of Afghanistan. Geographic analysis helped highlight areas of malaria risk and clarified ecologic risk factors for transmission. Remote sensing enabled development of a risk map, thereby providing a valuable tool to help guide malaria control strategies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Brooker S, Leslie T, Kolaczinski K, Mohsen E, Mehboob N, Saleheen S, et al. Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1600-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060051
    AMA Brooker S, Leslie T, Kolaczinski K, et al. Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1600-1602. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060051.
    APA Brooker, S., Leslie, T., Kolaczinski, K., Mohsen, E., Mehboob, N., Saleheen, S....Kolaczinski, J. (2006). Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1600-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060051.
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Letters

  • ICD-9 Codes for Identifying Influenza Hospitalizations in Children PDF Version [PDF - 30 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Keren et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Keren R, Wheeler A, Coffin SE, Zaoutis T, Hodinka R, Heydon K, et al. ICD-9 Codes for Identifying Influenza Hospitalizations in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1603-1604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051525
    AMA Keren R, Wheeler A, Coffin SE, et al. ICD-9 Codes for Identifying Influenza Hospitalizations in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1603-1604. doi:10.3201/eid1210.051525.
    APA Keren, R., Wheeler, A., Coffin, S. E., Zaoutis, T., Hodinka, R., & Heydon, K. (2006). ICD-9 Codes for Identifying Influenza Hospitalizations in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1603-1604. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051525.
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  • Chikungunya Virus Strains, Reunion Island Outbreak PDF Version [PDF - 64 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Bessaud et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bessaud M, Peyrefitte CN, Pastorino BA, Tock F, Merle O, Colpart J, et al. Chikungunya Virus Strains, Reunion Island Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1604-1605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060596
    AMA Bessaud M, Peyrefitte CN, Pastorino BA, et al. Chikungunya Virus Strains, Reunion Island Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1604-1605. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060596.
    APA Bessaud, M., Peyrefitte, C. N., Pastorino, B. A., Tock, F., Merle, O., Colpart, J....Grandadam, M. (2006). Chikungunya Virus Strains, Reunion Island Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1604-1605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060596.
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  • Legionnaires’ Disease and Travel in Europe PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 3 pages]
    R. Cano et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Cano R, Jarraud S, Pardos J, Campese C, Pelaz C. Legionnaires’ Disease and Travel in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1605-1607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060525
    AMA Cano R, Jarraud S, Pardos J, et al. Legionnaires’ Disease and Travel in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1605-1607. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060525.
    APA Cano, R., Jarraud, S., Pardos, J., Campese, C., & Pelaz, C. (2006). Legionnaires’ Disease and Travel in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1605-1607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060525.
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  • Influenza A Virus PB1-F2 Gene PDF Version [PDF - 37 KB - 3 pages]
    R. Zell et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Zell R, Krumbholz A, Wutzler P, Wutzler P. Influenza A Virus PB1-F2 Gene. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060511
    AMA Zell R, Krumbholz A, Wutzler P, et al. Influenza A Virus PB1-F2 Gene. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1607-1609. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060511.
    APA Zell, R., Krumbholz, A., Wutzler, P., & Wutzler, P. (2006). Influenza A Virus PB1-F2 Gene. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1607-1609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060511.
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  • Enterovirus 75 and Aseptic Meningitis, Spain, 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 66 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Avellón et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Avellón A, Rubio G, Palacios G, Casas I, Rabella N, Reina G, et al. Enterovirus 75 and Aseptic Meningitis, Spain, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1609-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060353
    AMA Avellón A, Rubio G, Palacios G, et al. Enterovirus 75 and Aseptic Meningitis, Spain, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1609-1611. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060353.
    APA Avellón, A., Rubio, G., Palacios, G., Casas, I., Rabella, N., Reina, G....Trallero, G. (2006). Enterovirus 75 and Aseptic Meningitis, Spain, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1609-1611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060353.
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  • Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Kentucky in Travelers PDF Version [PDF - 67 KB - 2 pages]
    F. Weill et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Weill F, Bertrand S, Guesnier F, Baucheron S, Grimont PA, Cloeckaert A, et al. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Kentucky in Travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1611-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060589
    AMA Weill F, Bertrand S, Guesnier F, et al. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Kentucky in Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1611-1612. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060589.
    APA Weill, F., Bertrand, S., Guesnier, F., Baucheron, S., Grimont, P. A., & Cloeckaert, A. (2006). Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Kentucky in Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1611-1612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060589.
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  • KPC Type β-Lactamase, Rural Pennsylvania PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Pope et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pope J, Adams J, Doi Y, Szabo D, Paterson DL. KPC Type β-Lactamase, Rural Pennsylvania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1613-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060297
    AMA Pope J, Adams J, Doi Y, et al. KPC Type β-Lactamase, Rural Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1613-1614. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060297.
    APA Pope, J., Adams, J., Doi, Y., Szabo, D., & Paterson, D. L. (2006). KPC Type β-Lactamase, Rural Pennsylvania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1613-1614. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060297.
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  • Severe Pneumonia and Human Bocavirus in Adult PDF Version [PDF - 51 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Kupfer et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kupfer B, Vehreschild J, Cornely O, Kaiser R, Plum G, Viazov S, et al. Severe Pneumonia and Human Bocavirus in Adult. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1614-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060520
    AMA Kupfer B, Vehreschild J, Cornely O, et al. Severe Pneumonia and Human Bocavirus in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1614-1616. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060520.
    APA Kupfer, B., Vehreschild, J., Cornely, O., Kaiser, R., Plum, G., Viazov, S....Schildgen, O. (2006). Severe Pneumonia and Human Bocavirus in Adult. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1614-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060520.
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  • Leishmaniasis in Ancient Egypt and Upper Nubia PDF Version [PDF - 44 KB - 2 pages]
    A. R. Zink et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Zink AR, Spigelman M, Schraut B, Greenblatt CL, Nerlich AG, Donoghue HD, et al. Leishmaniasis in Ancient Egypt and Upper Nubia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1616-1617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060169
    AMA Zink AR, Spigelman M, Schraut B, et al. Leishmaniasis in Ancient Egypt and Upper Nubia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1616-1617. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060169.
    APA Zink, A. R., Spigelman, M., Schraut, B., Greenblatt, C. L., Nerlich, A. G., & Donoghue, H. D. (2006). Leishmaniasis in Ancient Egypt and Upper Nubia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1616-1617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060169.
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  • Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Northeastern Italy PDF Version [PDF - 68 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Beltrame et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Beltrame A, Ruscio M, Cruciatti B, Londero A, Di Piazza V, Copetti R, et al. Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Northeastern Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1617-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060395
    AMA Beltrame A, Ruscio M, Cruciatti B, et al. Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Northeastern Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1617-1619. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060395.
    APA Beltrame, A., Ruscio, M., Cruciatti, B., Londero, A., Di Piazza, V., Copetti, R....Viale, P. (2006). Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Northeastern Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1617-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060395.
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  • Alex Langmuir and CDC PDF Version [PDF - 17 KB - 1 page]
    W. Winkelstein and A. L. Reingold
            Cite This Article
    EID Winkelstein W Jr, Reingold AL. Alex Langmuir and CDC. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060826
    AMA Winkelstein W Jr, Reingold AL. Alex Langmuir and CDC. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1619. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060826.
    APA Winkelstein , W., Jr., & Reingold, A. L. (2006). Alex Langmuir and CDC. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060826.
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  • Public Understanding of Pandemic Influenza, United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 22 KB - 2 pages]
    R. K. Gupta et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gupta RK, Toby M, Bandopadhyay G, Cooke M, Gelb D, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, et al. Public Understanding of Pandemic Influenza, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1620-1621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060208
    AMA Gupta RK, Toby M, Bandopadhyay G, et al. Public Understanding of Pandemic Influenza, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1620-1621. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060208.
    APA Gupta, R. K., Toby, M., Bandopadhyay, G., Cooke, M., Gelb, D., & Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S. (2006). Public Understanding of Pandemic Influenza, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1620-1621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060208.
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  • Influenza C Virus Infection in Children, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Calvo et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Calvo C, García-García ML, Centeno M, Pérez-Breña P, Casas I. Influenza C Virus Infection in Children, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1621-1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051170
    AMA Calvo C, García-García ML, Centeno M, et al. Influenza C Virus Infection in Children, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1621-1622. doi:10.3201/eid1210.051170.
    APA Calvo, C., García-García, M. L., Centeno, M., Pérez-Breña, P., & Casas, I. (2006). Influenza C Virus Infection in Children, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1621-1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.051170.
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  • Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Afghanistan PDF Version [PDF - 52 KB - 2 pages]
    M. K. Faulde et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Faulde MK, Heyl G, Amirih ML. Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1623-1624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060076
    AMA Faulde MK, Heyl G, Amirih ML. Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1623-1624. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060076.
    APA Faulde, M. K., Heyl, G., & Amirih, M. L. (2006). Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1623-1624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060076.
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Books and Media

  • Epstein-Barr Virus (Infectious Disease and Therapy) PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 1 page]
    J. Pagano
            Cite This Article
    EID Pagano J. Epstein-Barr Virus (Infectious Disease and Therapy). Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060778
    AMA Pagano J. Epstein-Barr Virus (Infectious Disease and Therapy). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1625. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060778.
    APA Pagano, J. (2006). Epstein-Barr Virus (Infectious Disease and Therapy). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060778.
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  • The Power of Plagues PDF Version [PDF - 36 KB]
    J. G. Rigau-Pérez
            Cite This Article
    EID Rigau-Pérez JG. The Power of Plagues. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1625-1626. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060803
    AMA Rigau-Pérez JG. The Power of Plagues. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1625-1626. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060803.
    APA Rigau-Pérez, J. G. (2006). The Power of Plagues. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1625-1626. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060803.
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  • Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis PDF Version [PDF - 170 KB - 2 pages]
    E. Reiss
            Cite This Article
    EID Reiss E. Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1626-1627. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060832
    AMA Reiss E. Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(10):1626-1627. doi:10.3201/eid1210.060832.
    APA Reiss, E. (2006). Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(10), 1626-1627. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1210.060832.
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