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Volume 14, Number 6—June 2008


Validation of Syndromic Surveillance for Respiratory Pathogen Activity

Cees van den Wijngaard*Comments to Author , Liselotte van Asten*, Wilfrid van Pelt*, Nico J.D. Nagelkerke†, Robert Verheij‡, Albert J. de Neeling*, Arnold Dekkers*, Marianne A.B. van der Sande*, Hans van Vliet*, and Marion P.G. Koopmans*
Author affiliations: *National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; †United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; ‡Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands;

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Table 4

All respiratory pathogen counts included as explanatory variables in the regression models, the Netherlands, 1999–2004*†

Syndrome data RSV Influenza A Influenza B S. pneumoniae (residual) RV PIV Adenovirus Enterovirus Mycoplasma pneumoniae Bordetella pertussis
Absenteeism 2 5 4 2 4 5 ­
GP –1 1 2 –1 1 2 −2 –3 ­
Pharmacy –1 0 2 0 2 5 −2 5 −3
Hospitalization 0 2 1 –2 3 ­
Laboratory submissions –2 0 1 –3 2 5 ­
Mortality −3 1 0 ­

*S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; RV, rhinovirus; PIV, parainfluenza virus; GP, general practice; –, pathogen not included in model.
†The lag time (in weeks) is indicated, that showed optimal fit between syndrome time-series and lagged pathogen counts included in the linear regression model; e.g., according to the model, the trend in hospitalizations precedes the influenza A laboratory counts by 2 weeks.

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