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Issue Cover for Volume 14, Number 6—June 2008

Volume 14, Number 6—June 2008

[PDF - 3.76 MB - 143 pages]

Perspective

Major Issues and Challenges of Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in Developing Countries [PDF - 41 KB - 6 pages]
H. Oshitani et al.

Better preparedness for an influenza pandemic mitigates its impact. Many countries have started developing and implementing national influenza pandemic preparedness plans. However, the level of preparedness varies among countries. Developing countries encounter unique and difficult issues and challenges in preparing for a pandemic. Deaths attributable to an influenza pandemic could be substantially higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries. Pharmaceutical interventions such as vaccines and antiviral agents are less likely to be available in developing countries. The public health and clinical infrastructure of developing countries are often inadequate to deal with a widespread health crisis such as an influenza pandemic. Such an event will inevitably have a global effect. Therefore, improving pandemic preparedness in every country, particularly developing ones, is urgently needed.

EID Oshitani H, Kamigaki T, Suzuki A. Major Issues and Challenges of Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in Developing Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):875-880. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070839
AMA Oshitani H, Kamigaki T, Suzuki A. Major Issues and Challenges of Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in Developing Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):875-880. doi:10.3201/eid1406.070839.
APA Oshitani, H., Kamigaki, T., & Suzuki, A. (2008). Major Issues and Challenges of Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in Developing Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 875-880. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070839.
Synopses

Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit [PDF - 58 KB - 7 pages]
M. G. Kortepeter et al.

In 2004, a scientist from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) was potentially exposed to a mouse-adapted variant of the Zaire species of Ebola virus. The circumstances surrounding the case are presented, in addition to an update on historical admissions to the medical containment suite at USAMRIID. Research facilities contemplating work with pathogens requiring Biosafety Level 4 laboratory precautions should be mindful of the occupational health issues highlighted in this article.

EID Kortepeter MG, Martin JW, Rusnak JM, Cieslak TJ, Warfield KL, Anderson EL, et al. Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):881-887. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071489
AMA Kortepeter MG, Martin JW, Rusnak JM, et al. Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):881-887. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071489.
APA Kortepeter, M. G., Martin, J. W., Rusnak, J. M., Cieslak, T. J., Warfield, K. L., Anderson, E. L....Ranadive, M. V. (2008). Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 881-887. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071489.
Research

Medscape CME Activity
Transmission of Human Papillomavirus in Heterosexual Couples [PDF - 112 KB - 7 pages]
B. Y. Hernandez et al.

We examined the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) in 25 heterosexual, monogamous couples (25 men, 25 women), followed up over an average of 7.5 months. A total of 53 heterosexual transmission events were observed among 16 couples (14 male-to-female and 39 female-to-male). Sexual transmission involved 13 different oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types; 8% were vaccine-covered types transmitted between partners. The overall rate of HPV transmission from the penis to the cervix was 4.9/100 person-months, which was substantially lower than that from the cervix to the penis (17.4/100 person-months). Transmission between the hands and genitals, as well as apparent self-inoculation events (primarily in men), were also observed. Couples who transmitted HPV were more sexually active and used condoms less frequently. These results have implications for HPV prevention and control strategies, including the targeting of prophylactic vaccines.

EID Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, Thompson P, McDuffie K, Shvetsov YB, et al. Transmission of Human Papillomavirus in Heterosexual Couples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):888-894. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.0706162
AMA Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, et al. Transmission of Human Papillomavirus in Heterosexual Couples. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):888-894. doi:10.3201/eid1406.0706162.
APA Hernandez, B. Y., Wilkens, L. R., Zhu, X., Thompson, P., McDuffie, K., Shvetsov, Y. B....Goodman, M. T. (2008). Transmission of Human Papillomavirus in Heterosexual Couples. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 888-894. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.0706162.

Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Risk Factors Associated with Campylobacter Infection, Australia [PDF - 211 KB - 7 pages]
R. J. Stafford et al.

In 2001–2002, a multicenter, prospective case-control study involving 1,714 participants >5 years of age was conducted in Australia to identify risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Adjusted population-attributable risks (PARs) were derived for each independent risk factor contained within the final multivariable logistic regression model. Estimated PARs were combined with adjusted (for the >5 years of age eligibility criterion) notifiable disease surveillance data to estimate annual Australian Campylobacter case numbers attributable to each risk factor. Simulated distributions of “credible values” were then generated to model the uncertainty associated with each case number estimate. Among foodborne risk factors, an estimated 50,500 (95% credible interval 10,000–105,500) cases of Campylobacter infection in persons >5 years of age could be directly attributed each year to consumption of chicken in Australia. Our statistical technique could be applied more widely to other communicable diseases that are subject to routine surveillance.

EID Stafford RJ, Schluter PJ, Wilson AJ, Kirk MD, Hall G, Unicomb L. Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Risk Factors Associated with Campylobacter Infection, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):895-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071008
AMA Stafford RJ, Schluter PJ, Wilson AJ, et al. Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Risk Factors Associated with Campylobacter Infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):895-901. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071008.
APA Stafford, R. J., Schluter, P. J., Wilson, A. J., Kirk, M. D., Hall, G., & Unicomb, L. (2008). Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Risk Factors Associated with Campylobacter Infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 895-901. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071008.

Influenza A Virus (H3N8) in Dogs with Respiratory Disease, Florida [PDF - 159 KB - 7 pages]
S. Payungporn et al.

In 2004, canine influenza virus subtype H3N8 emerged in greyhounds in the United States. Subsequent serologic evidence indicated virus circulation in dog breeds other than greyhounds, but the virus had not been isolated from affected animals. In 2005, we conducted virologic investigation of 7 nongreyhound dogs that died from respiratory disease in Florida and isolated influenza subtype H3N8 virus. Antigenic and genetic analysis of A/canine/Jacksonville/2005 (H3N8) and A/canine/Miami/2005 (H3N8) found similarity to earlier isolates from greyhounds, which indicates that canine influenza viruses are not restricted to greyhounds. The hemagglutinin contained 5 conserved amino acid differences that distinguish canine from equine lineages. The antigenic homogeneity of the canine viruses suggests that measurable antigenic drift has not yet occurred. Continued surveillance and antigenic analyses should monitor possible emergence of antigenic variants of canine influenza virus.

EID Payungporn S, Crawford PC, Kouo TS, Chen L, Pompey J, Castleman WL, et al. Influenza A Virus (H3N8) in Dogs with Respiratory Disease, Florida. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):902-908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071270
AMA Payungporn S, Crawford PC, Kouo TS, et al. Influenza A Virus (H3N8) in Dogs with Respiratory Disease, Florida. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):902-908. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071270.
APA Payungporn, S., Crawford, P. C., Kouo, T. S., Chen, L., Pompey, J., Castleman, W. L....Donis, R. O. (2008). Influenza A Virus (H3N8) in Dogs with Respiratory Disease, Florida. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 902-908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071270.

Tuberculosis from Mycobacterium bovis in Binational Communities, United States [PDF - 174 KB - 8 pages]
T. C. Rodwell et al.

The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States is changing as the incidence of disease becomes more concentrated in foreign-born persons. Mycobacterium bovis appears to be contributing substantially to the TB incidence in some binational communities with ties to Mexico. We conducted a retrospective analysis of TB case surveillance data from the San Diego, California, region from 1994 through 2005 to estimate incidence trends, identify correlates of M. bovis disease, and evaluate risk factors for deaths during treatment. M. bovis accounted for 45% (62/138) of all culture-positive TB cases in children (<15 years of age) and 6% (203/3,153) of adult cases. M. bovis incidence increased significantly (p = 0.002) while M. tuberculosis incidence declined (p<0.001). Almost all M. bovis cases from 2001 through 2005 were in persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Persons with M. bovis were 2.55× (p = 0.01) as likely to die during treatment than those with M. tuberculosis.

EID Rodwell TC, Moore M, Moser KS, Brodine SK, Strathdee SA. Tuberculosis from Mycobacterium bovis in Binational Communities, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):909-916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071485
AMA Rodwell TC, Moore M, Moser KS, et al. Tuberculosis from Mycobacterium bovis in Binational Communities, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):909-916. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071485.
APA Rodwell, T. C., Moore, M., Moser, K. S., Brodine, S. K., & Strathdee, S. A. (2008). Tuberculosis from Mycobacterium bovis in Binational Communities, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 909-916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071485.

Validation of Syndromic Surveillance for Respiratory Pathogen Activity [PDF - 570 KB - 9 pages]
C. van den Wijngaard et al.

Syndromic surveillance is increasingly used to signal unusual illness events. To validate data-source selection, we retrospectively investigated the extent to which 6 respiratory syndromes (based on different medical registries) reflected respiratory pathogen activity. These syndromes showed higher levels in winter, which corresponded with higher laboratory counts of Streptococcus pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. Multiple linear regression models indicated that most syndrome variations (up to 86%) can be explained by counts of respiratory pathogens. Absenteeism and pharmacy syndromes might reflect nonrespiratory conditions as well. We also observed systematic syndrome elevations in the fall, which were unexplained by pathogen counts but likely reflected rhinovirus activity. Earliest syndrome elevations were observed in absenteeism data, followed by hospital data (+1 week), pharmacy/general practitioner consultations (+2 weeks), and deaths/laboratory submissions (test requests) (+3 weeks). We conclude that these syndromes can be used for respiratory syndromic surveillance, since they reflect patterns in respiratory pathogen activity.

EID van den Wijngaard C, van Asten L, van Pelt W, Nagelkerke NJ, Verheij R, de Neeling AJ, et al. Validation of Syndromic Surveillance for Respiratory Pathogen Activity. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):917-925. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071467
AMA van den Wijngaard C, van Asten L, van Pelt W, et al. Validation of Syndromic Surveillance for Respiratory Pathogen Activity. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):917-925. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071467.
APA van den Wijngaard, C., van Asten, L., van Pelt, W., Nagelkerke, N. J., Verheij, R., de Neeling, A. J....Koopmans, M. (2008). Validation of Syndromic Surveillance for Respiratory Pathogen Activity. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 917-925. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071467.
Dispatches

Antibodies against Lagos Bat Virus in Megachiroptera from West Africa [PDF - 235 KB - 3 pages]
D. Hayman et al.

To investigate the presence of Lagos bat virus (LBV)–specific antibodies in megachiroptera from West Africa, we conducted fluorescent antibody virus neutralization tests. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in Eidolon helvum (37%), Epomophorus gambianus (3%), and Epomops buettikoferi (33%, 2/6) from Ghana. These findings confirm the presence of LBV in West Africa.

EID Hayman D, Fooks AR, Horton D, Suu-Ire R, Breed AC, Cunningham AA, et al. Antibodies against Lagos Bat Virus in Megachiroptera from West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):926-928. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071421
AMA Hayman D, Fooks AR, Horton D, et al. Antibodies against Lagos Bat Virus in Megachiroptera from West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):926-928. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071421.
APA Hayman, D., Fooks, A. R., Horton, D., Suu-Ire, R., Breed, A. C., Cunningham, A. A....Wood, J. (2008). Antibodies against Lagos Bat Virus in Megachiroptera from West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 926-928. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071421.

Increase in Adult Clostridium difficile–related Hospitalizations and Case-Fatality Rate, United States, 2000–2005 [PDF - 305 KB - 3 pages]
M. D. Zilberberg et al.

Virulence of and deaths from Clostridium difficile–associated disease (CDAD) are on the rise in the United States. The incidence of adult CDAD hospitalizations doubled from 5.5 cases per 10,000 population in 2000 to 11.2 in 2005, and the CDAD-related age-adjusted case-fatality rate rose from 1.2% in 2000 to 2.2% in 2004.

EID Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF, Kollef MH. Increase in Adult Clostridium difficile–related Hospitalizations and Case-Fatality Rate, United States, 2000–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):929-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071447
AMA Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF, Kollef MH. Increase in Adult Clostridium difficile–related Hospitalizations and Case-Fatality Rate, United States, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):929-931. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071447.
APA Zilberberg, M. D., Shorr, A. F., & Kollef, M. H. (2008). Increase in Adult Clostridium difficile–related Hospitalizations and Case-Fatality Rate, United States, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 929-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071447.

Syphilis and Hepatitis B Co-infection among HIV-Infected, Sex-Trafficked Women and Girls, Nepal [PDF - 140 KB - 3 pages]
J. G. Silverman et al.

Sex trafficking may play a major role in spread of HIV across South Asia. We investigated co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among 246 sex-trafficked women and girls from Nepal. Those who were HIV positive were more likely than those who were HIV negative to be infected with syphilis and/or hepatitis B.

EID Silverman JG, Decker MR, Gupta J, Dharmadhikari A, Seage GR, Raj A. Syphilis and Hepatitis B Co-infection among HIV-Infected, Sex-Trafficked Women and Girls, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):932-934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080090
AMA Silverman JG, Decker MR, Gupta J, et al. Syphilis and Hepatitis B Co-infection among HIV-Infected, Sex-Trafficked Women and Girls, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):932-934. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080090.
APA Silverman, J. G., Decker, M. R., Gupta, J., Dharmadhikari, A., Seage, G. R., & Raj, A. (2008). Syphilis and Hepatitis B Co-infection among HIV-Infected, Sex-Trafficked Women and Girls, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 932-934. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080090.

Underreporting of Human Alveolar Echinococcosis, Germany [PDF - 163 KB - 3 pages]
P. Jorgensen et al.

We estimated the total number of human alveolar echinococcosis cases in Germany from 2003 through 2005 using the multiple source capture-recapture method. We found a 3-fold higher incidence of the disease than that shown by national surveillance data. We propose a revision of the reporting system to increase case ascertainment.

EID Jorgensen P, an der Heiden M, Kern P, Schöneberg I, Krause G, Alpers K. Underreporting of Human Alveolar Echinococcosis, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):935-937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071173
AMA Jorgensen P, an der Heiden M, Kern P, et al. Underreporting of Human Alveolar Echinococcosis, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):935-937. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071173.
APA Jorgensen, P., an der Heiden, M., Kern, P., Schöneberg, I., Krause, G., & Alpers, K. (2008). Underreporting of Human Alveolar Echinococcosis, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 935-937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071173.

Rickettsial Seroepidemiology among Farm Workers, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China [PDF - 258 KB - 3 pages]
J. Zhang et al.

High seroprevalence rates for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.8%), Coxiella burnetii (6.4%), Bartonella henselae (9.6%), and Rickettsia typhi (4.1%) in 365 farm workers near Tianjin, People’s Republic of China, suggest that human infections with these zoonotic bacteria are frequent and largely unrecognized. Demographic features of seropositive persons suggest distinct epidemiology, ecology, and risks.

EID Zhang J, Shan A, Mathew B, Yin J, Fu X, Zhang L, et al. Rickettsial Seroepidemiology among Farm Workers, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):938-940. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071502
AMA Zhang J, Shan A, Mathew B, et al. Rickettsial Seroepidemiology among Farm Workers, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):938-940. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071502.
APA Zhang, J., Shan, A., Mathew, B., Yin, J., Fu, X., Zhang, L....Dumler, J. (2008). Rickettsial Seroepidemiology among Farm Workers, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 938-940. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071502.

Persistence of Yersinia pestis in Soil Under Natural Conditions [PDF - 141 KB - 3 pages]
R. J. Eisen et al.

As part of a fatal human plague case investigation, we showed that the plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, can survive for at least 24 days in contaminated soil under natural conditions. These results have implications for defining plague foci, persistence, transmission, and bioremediation after a natural or intentional exposure to Y. pestis.

EID Eisen RJ, Petersen JM, Higgins CL, Wong D, Levy CE, Mead PS, et al. Persistence of Yersinia pestis in Soil Under Natural Conditions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):941-943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080029
AMA Eisen RJ, Petersen JM, Higgins CL, et al. Persistence of Yersinia pestis in Soil Under Natural Conditions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):941-943. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080029.
APA Eisen, R. J., Petersen, J. M., Higgins, C. L., Wong, D., Levy, C. E., Mead, P. S....Ben Beard, C. (2008). Persistence of Yersinia pestis in Soil Under Natural Conditions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 941-943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080029.

Global Distribution of Novel Rhinovirus Genotype [PDF - 339 KB - 4 pages]
T. Briese et al.

Global surveillance for a novel rhinovirus genotype indicated its association with community outbreaks and pediatric respiratory disease in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Molecular dating indicates that these viruses have been circulating for at least 250 years.

EID Briese T, Renwick N, Venter M, Jarman RG, Ghosh D, Köndgen S, et al. Global Distribution of Novel Rhinovirus Genotype. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):944-947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080271
AMA Briese T, Renwick N, Venter M, et al. Global Distribution of Novel Rhinovirus Genotype. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):944-947. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080271.
APA Briese, T., Renwick, N., Venter, M., Jarman, R. G., Ghosh, D., Köndgen, S....Lipkin, W. (2008). Global Distribution of Novel Rhinovirus Genotype. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 944-947. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080271.

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
J. M. Shields et al.

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis have been found in swimming pool filter backwash during outbreaks. To determine baseline prevalence, we sampled pools not associated with outbreaks and found that of 160 sampled pools, 13 (8.1%) were positive for 1 or both parasites; 10 (6.2%) for Giardia sp., 2 (1.2%) for Cryptosporidium spp., and 1 (0.6%) for both.

EID Shields JM, Gleim ER, Beach MJ. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):948-950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071495
AMA Shields JM, Gleim ER, Beach MJ. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):948-950. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071495.
APA Shields, J. M., Gleim, E. R., & Beach, M. J. (2008). Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 948-950. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071495.

Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Bluetongue Virus in Wild Ruminants, Spain [PDF - 190 KB - 3 pages]
F. Ruiz-Fons et al.

We confirmed the emergence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in 5 wild ruminant species in Spain. BTV seroprevalence was high and dispersed with time, with a south-to-north gradient. Our results suggest a complex epidemiology of BTV and underline the need for additional research on wildlife in Europe.

EID Ruiz-Fons F, Reyes-García ÁR, Alcaide V, Gortázar C. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Bluetongue Virus in Wild Ruminants, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):951-953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071586
AMA Ruiz-Fons F, Reyes-García ÁR, Alcaide V, et al. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Bluetongue Virus in Wild Ruminants, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):951-953. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071586.
APA Ruiz-Fons, F., Reyes-García, Á. R., Alcaide, V., & Gortázar, C. (2008). Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Bluetongue Virus in Wild Ruminants, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 951-953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071586.

Ceftriaxone-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Newport, France [PDF - 325 KB - 4 pages]
S. Egorova et al.

The multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Newport strain that produces CMY-2 β-lactamase (Newport MDR-AmpC) was the source of sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans in France during 2000–2005. Because this strain was not detected in food animals, it was most likely introduced into France through imported food products.

EID Egorova S, Timinouni M, Demartin M, Granier SA, Whichard JM, Sangal V, et al. Ceftriaxone-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Newport, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):954-957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071168
AMA Egorova S, Timinouni M, Demartin M, et al. Ceftriaxone-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Newport, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):954-957. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071168.
APA Egorova, S., Timinouni, M., Demartin, M., Granier, S. A., Whichard, J. M., Sangal, V....Weill, F. (2008). Ceftriaxone-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Newport, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 954-957. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071168.

Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Kuwait, 2007 [PDF - 394 KB - 4 pages]
A. Al-Azemi et al.

Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A viruses (H5N1) isolated from Kuwait in 2007 show that (H5N1) sublineage clade 2.2 viruses continue to spread across Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Virus isolates were most closely related to isolates from central Asia and were likely vectored by migratory birds.

EID Al-Azemi A, Bahl J, Al-Zenki S, Al-Shayji Y, Al-Amad S, Chen H, et al. Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Kuwait, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):958-961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080056
AMA Al-Azemi A, Bahl J, Al-Zenki S, et al. Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Kuwait, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):958-961. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080056.
APA Al-Azemi, A., Bahl, J., Al-Zenki, S., Al-Shayji, Y., Al-Amad, S., Chen, H....Smith, G. J. (2008). Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Kuwait, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 958-961. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080056.

Land Use and West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in Wild Mammals [PDF - 336 KB - 4 pages]
A. Gómez et al.

We examined West Nile virus (WNV) seroprevalence in wild mammals along a forest-to-urban gradient in the US mid-Atlantic region. WNV antibody prevalence increased with age, urbanization, and date of capture for juveniles and varied significantly between species. These findings suggest several requirements for using mammals as indicators of transmission.

EID Gómez A, Kilpatrick A, Kramer LD, Dupuis AP, Maffei JG, Goetz SJ, et al. Land Use and West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in Wild Mammals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):962-965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070352
AMA Gómez A, Kilpatrick A, Kramer LD, et al. Land Use and West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in Wild Mammals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):962-965. doi:10.3201/eid1406.070352.
APA Gómez, A., Kilpatrick, A., Kramer, L. D., Dupuis, A. P., Maffei, J. G., Goetz, S. J....Aguirre, A. A. (2008). Land Use and West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in Wild Mammals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 962-965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070352.

High Failure Rates of Melarsoprol for Sleeping Sickness, Democratic Republic of Congo [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
J. Robays et al.

A retrospective chart review of 4,925 human African trypanosomiasis patients treated with melarsoprol in 2001–2003 in Equateur Nord Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo showed a treatment failure rate of 19.5%. This rate increased over the 3 years. Relapse rates were highest in the central part of the province.

EID Robays J, Nyamowala G, Sese C, Kande VB, Lutumba P, Van der Veken W, et al. High Failure Rates of Melarsoprol for Sleeping Sickness, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):966-967. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071266
AMA Robays J, Nyamowala G, Sese C, et al. High Failure Rates of Melarsoprol for Sleeping Sickness, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):966-967. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071266.
APA Robays, J., Nyamowala, G., Sese, C., Kande, V. B., Lutumba, P., Van der Veken, W....Boelaert, M. (2008). High Failure Rates of Melarsoprol for Sleeping Sickness, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 966-967. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071266.

Nosocomial Outbreaks Caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides [PDF - 197 KB - 4 pages]
G. Bou et al.

From July 2003 through October 2004, 42 patients became infected by strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (genotype 1) in different departments of Juan Canalejo Hospital in northwest Spain. During 2006, 6 inpatients, also in different departments of the hospital, became infected (genotypes 2–4). Parenteral nutrition was the likely source.

EID Bou G, Saleta JL, Nieto JA, Tomás M, Valdezate S, Sousa D, et al. Nosocomial Outbreaks Caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):968-971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070581
AMA Bou G, Saleta JL, Nieto JA, et al. Nosocomial Outbreaks Caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):968-971. doi:10.3201/eid1406.070581.
APA Bou, G., Saleta, J. L., Nieto, J. A., Tomás, M., Valdezate, S., Sousa, D....Llinares, P. (2008). Nosocomial Outbreaks Caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 968-971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070581.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Ixodes ricinus, Bavaria, Germany [PDF - 179 KB - 3 pages]
C. Silaghi et al.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected by real-time PCR, which targeted the msp2 gene, in 2.9% of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks (adults and nymphs; n = 2,862), collected systematically from selected locations in Bavaria, Germany, in 2006. Prevalence was significantly higher in urban public parks in Munich than in natural forests.

EID Silaghi C, Gilles J, Höhle M, Fingerle V, Just FT, Pfister K. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Ixodes ricinus, Bavaria, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):972-974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071095
AMA Silaghi C, Gilles J, Höhle M, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Ixodes ricinus, Bavaria, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):972-974. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071095.
APA Silaghi, C., Gilles, J., Höhle, M., Fingerle, V., Just, F. T., & Pfister, K. (2008). Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Ixodes ricinus, Bavaria, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 972-974. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071095.

Internet- versus Telephone-based Local Outbreak Investigations [PDF - 260 KB - 3 pages]
T. S. Ghosh et al.

We compared 5 locally conducted, Internet-based outbreak investigations with 5 telephone-based investigations. Internet-based surveys required less completion time, and response rates were similar for both investigation methods. Participant satisfaction with Internet-based surveys was high.

EID Ghosh TS, Patnaik JL, Alden NB, Vogt RL. Internet- versus Telephone-based Local Outbreak Investigations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):975-977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071513
AMA Ghosh TS, Patnaik JL, Alden NB, et al. Internet- versus Telephone-based Local Outbreak Investigations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):975-977. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071513.
APA Ghosh, T. S., Patnaik, J. L., Alden, N. B., & Vogt, R. L. (2008). Internet- versus Telephone-based Local Outbreak Investigations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 975-977. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071513.

Lack of Serologic Evidence of Neospora caninum in Humans, England [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
C. M. McCann et al.

Retrospective testing of 3,232 serum samples from the general population and 518 serum samples from a high-risk group showed no evidence of human exposure to Neospora caninum in England. Results were obtained by using immunofluorescence antibody testing and ELISA to analyze frequency distribution.

EID McCann CM, Vyse AJ, Salmon R, Thomas D, Williams DJ, McGarry JW, et al. Lack of Serologic Evidence of Neospora caninum in Humans, England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):978-980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071128
AMA McCann CM, Vyse AJ, Salmon R, et al. Lack of Serologic Evidence of Neospora caninum in Humans, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):978-980. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071128.
APA McCann, C. M., Vyse, A. J., Salmon, R., Thomas, D., Williams, D. J., McGarry, J. W....Trees, A. J. (2008). Lack of Serologic Evidence of Neospora caninum in Humans, England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 978-980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071128.
Commentaries

In Memoriam: Joshua Lederberg (1925–2008) [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
J. M. Hughes and D. P. Drotman
EID Hughes JM, Drotman DP. In Memoriam: Joshua Lederberg (1925–2008). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):981-983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080413
AMA Hughes JM, Drotman DP. In Memoriam: Joshua Lederberg (1925–2008). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):981-983. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080413.
APA Hughes, J. M., & Drotman, D. P. (2008). In Memoriam: Joshua Lederberg (1925–2008). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 981-983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080413.
Letters

Lethal Mycobacterium massiliense Sepsis, Italy [PDF - 127 KB - 2 pages]
E. Tortoli et al.
EID Tortoli E, Gabini R, Galanti I, Mariottini A. Lethal Mycobacterium massiliense Sepsis, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):984-985. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080194
AMA Tortoli E, Gabini R, Galanti I, et al. Lethal Mycobacterium massiliense Sepsis, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):984-985. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080194.
APA Tortoli, E., Gabini, R., Galanti, I., & Mariottini, A. (2008). Lethal Mycobacterium massiliense Sepsis, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 984-985. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080194.

Bovine Kobuviruses from Cattle with Diarrhea [PDF - 125 KB - 2 pages]
P. Khamrin et al.
EID Khamrin P, Maneekarn N, Peerakome S, Okitsu S, Mizuguchi M, Ushijima H. Bovine Kobuviruses from Cattle with Diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):985-986. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070784
AMA Khamrin P, Maneekarn N, Peerakome S, et al. Bovine Kobuviruses from Cattle with Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):985-986. doi:10.3201/eid1406.070784.
APA Khamrin, P., Maneekarn, N., Peerakome, S., Okitsu, S., Mizuguchi, M., & Ushijima, H. (2008). Bovine Kobuviruses from Cattle with Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 985-986. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070784.

Vibrio cholerae O1 Hybrid El Tor Strains, Asia and Africa [PDF - 117 KB - 2 pages]
A. Safa et al.
EID Safa A, Sultana J, Cam PD, Mwansa JC, Kong RY. Vibrio cholerae O1 Hybrid El Tor Strains, Asia and Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):987-988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080129
AMA Safa A, Sultana J, Cam PD, et al. Vibrio cholerae O1 Hybrid El Tor Strains, Asia and Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):987-988. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080129.
APA Safa, A., Sultana, J., Cam, P. D., Mwansa, J. C., & Kong, R. Y. (2008). Vibrio cholerae O1 Hybrid El Tor Strains, Asia and Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 987-988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080129.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in 2 Pet Dogs, Germany [PDF - 192 KB - 3 pages]
V. Haist et al.
EID Haist V, Seehusen F, Moser I, Hotzel H, Deschl U, Baumgärtner W, et al. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in 2 Pet Dogs, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):988-990. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071463
AMA Haist V, Seehusen F, Moser I, et al. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in 2 Pet Dogs, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):988-990. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071463.
APA Haist, V., Seehusen, F., Moser, I., Hotzel, H., Deschl, U., Baumgärtner, W....Wohlsein, P. (2008). Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in 2 Pet Dogs, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 988-990. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071463.

Serogroup Y Meningococcal Disease, Colombia [PDF - 144 KB - 2 pages]
C. I. Agudelo et al.
EID Agudelo CI, Sanabria OM, Ovalle MV. Serogroup Y Meningococcal Disease, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):990-991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071357
AMA Agudelo CI, Sanabria OM, Ovalle MV. Serogroup Y Meningococcal Disease, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):990-991. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071357.
APA Agudelo, C. I., Sanabria, O. M., & Ovalle, M. V. (2008). Serogroup Y Meningococcal Disease, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 990-991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071357.

Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Lesotho [PDF - 127 KB - 2 pages]
H. Satti et al.
EID Satti H, Seung K, Keshavjee S, Furin J. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Lesotho. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):992-993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071654
AMA Satti H, Seung K, Keshavjee S, et al. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Lesotho. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):992-993. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071654.
APA Satti, H., Seung, K., Keshavjee, S., & Furin, J. (2008). Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Lesotho. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 992-993. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071654.

Inquilinus limosus and Cystic Fibrosis
F. Bittar et al.
EID Bittar F, Leydier A, Bosdure E, Toro A, Reynaud-Gaubert M, Boniface S, et al. Inquilinus limosus and Cystic Fibrosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):993-995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071355
AMA Bittar F, Leydier A, Bosdure E, et al. Inquilinus limosus and Cystic Fibrosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):993-995. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071355.
APA Bittar, F., Leydier, A., Bosdure, E., Toro, A., Reynaud-Gaubert, M., Boniface, S....Rolain, J. (2008). Inquilinus limosus and Cystic Fibrosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 993-995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071355.

Splenic Rupture and Malignant Mediterranean Spotted Fever [PDF - 210 KB - 3 pages]
L. Schmulewitz et al.
EID Schmulewitz L, Moumile K, Patey-Mariaud de Serre N, Poirée S, Gouin E, Mechaï F, et al. Splenic Rupture and Malignant Mediterranean Spotted Fever. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):995-997. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071295
AMA Schmulewitz L, Moumile K, Patey-Mariaud de Serre N, et al. Splenic Rupture and Malignant Mediterranean Spotted Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):995-997. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071295.
APA Schmulewitz, L., Moumile, K., Patey-Mariaud de Serre, N., Poirée, S., Gouin, E., Mechaï, F....Lecuit, M. (2008). Splenic Rupture and Malignant Mediterranean Spotted Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 995-997. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071295.

Acetobacter indonesiensis Pneumonia after Lung Transplant [PDF - 154 KB - 2 pages]
F. Bittar et al.
EID Bittar F, Reynaud-Gaubert M, Thomas P, Boniface S, Raoult D, Rolain J. Acetobacter indonesiensis Pneumonia after Lung Transplant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):997-998. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071236
AMA Bittar F, Reynaud-Gaubert M, Thomas P, et al. Acetobacter indonesiensis Pneumonia after Lung Transplant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):997-998. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071236.
APA Bittar, F., Reynaud-Gaubert, M., Thomas, P., Boniface, S., Raoult, D., & Rolain, J. (2008). Acetobacter indonesiensis Pneumonia after Lung Transplant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 997-998. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071236.

Coronavirus Antibodies in Bat Biologists [PDF - 124 KB - 2 pages]
L. J. Stockman et al.
EID Stockman LJ, Haynes LM, Miao C, Harcourt JL, Rupprecht CE, Ksiazek TG, et al. Coronavirus Antibodies in Bat Biologists. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):999-1000. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070964
AMA Stockman LJ, Haynes LM, Miao C, et al. Coronavirus Antibodies in Bat Biologists. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):999-1000. doi:10.3201/eid1406.070964.
APA Stockman, L. J., Haynes, L. M., Miao, C., Harcourt, J. L., Rupprecht, C. E., Ksiazek, T. G....Anderson, L. J. (2008). Coronavirus Antibodies in Bat Biologists. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 999-1000. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070964.

Chagas Disease in Ancient Hunter-Gatherer Population, Brazil [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
V. S. Lima et al.
EID Lima VS, Iniguez AM, Otsuki K, Ferreira LF, Araújo A, Vicente AC, et al. Chagas Disease in Ancient Hunter-Gatherer Population, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):1001-1002. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070707
AMA Lima VS, Iniguez AM, Otsuki K, et al. Chagas Disease in Ancient Hunter-Gatherer Population, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):1001-1002. doi:10.3201/eid1406.070707.
APA Lima, V. S., Iniguez, A. M., Otsuki, K., Ferreira, L. F., Araújo, A., Vicente, A. C....Jansen, A. M. (2008). Chagas Disease in Ancient Hunter-Gatherer Population, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 1001-1002. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.070707.

Coxiella burnetii in Wild-caught Filth Flies
M. P. Nelder et al.
EID Nelder MP, Lloyd JE, Loftis AD, Reeves WK. Coxiella burnetii in Wild-caught Filth Flies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):1002-1004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071691
AMA Nelder MP, Lloyd JE, Loftis AD, et al. Coxiella burnetii in Wild-caught Filth Flies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):1002-1004. doi:10.3201/eid1406.071691.
APA Nelder, M. P., Lloyd, J. E., Loftis, A. D., & Reeves, W. K. (2008). Coxiella burnetii in Wild-caught Filth Flies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 1002-1004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.071691.

Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 131 KB - 2 pages]
L. A. Kelly-Hope
EID Kelly-Hope LA. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):1004-1005. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080027
AMA Kelly-Hope LA. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):1004-1005. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080027.
APA Kelly-Hope, L. A. (2008). Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 1004-1005. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080027.
Another Dimension

Plague Victims Catapulted Over Walls Into Besieged City [PDF - 316 KB - 1 page]
T. Lux
EID Lux T. Plague Victims Catapulted Over Walls Into Besieged City. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.ad1406
AMA Lux T. Plague Victims Catapulted Over Walls Into Besieged City. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):943. doi:10.3201/eid1406.ad1406.
APA Lux, T. (2008). Plague Victims Catapulted Over Walls Into Besieged City. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.ad1406.
Books and Media

Legionella and the Prevention of Legionellosis [PDF - 109 KB - 1 page]
J. E. McDade
EID McDade JE. Legionella and the Prevention of Legionellosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):1006. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080345
AMA McDade JE. Legionella and the Prevention of Legionellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):1006. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080345.
APA McDade, J. E. (2008). Legionella and the Prevention of Legionellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 1006. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080345.

Global HIV/AIDS Medicine [PDF - 116 KB - 2 pages]
J. L. Lennox
EID Lennox JL. Global HIV/AIDS Medicine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):1006-1007. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080258
AMA Lennox JL. Global HIV/AIDS Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):1006-1007. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080258.
APA Lennox, J. L. (2008). Global HIV/AIDS Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 1006-1007. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080258.

Immigrant Medicine [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
P. F. Walker et al.
EID Walker PF, Barnett ED, Hauck FR, Pearson RD. Immigrant Medicine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):1007-1008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080154
AMA Walker PF, Barnett ED, Hauck FR, et al. Immigrant Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):1007-1008. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080154.
APA Walker, P. F., Barnett, E. D., Hauck, F. R., & Pearson, R. D. (2008). Immigrant Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 1007-1008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080154.

Imported Skin Diseases [PDF - 111 KB - 1 page]
K. Dardick
EID Dardick K. Imported Skin Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):1008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080223
AMA Dardick K. Imported Skin Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):1008. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080223.
APA Dardick, K. (2008). Imported Skin Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 1008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080223.
About the Cover

“As the Dew Is Dried Up by the Morning Sun, So Are Mankind’s Sins at the Sight of Himalaya” [PDF - 221 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. “As the Dew Is Dried Up by the Morning Sun, So Are Mankind’s Sins at the Sight of Himalaya”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):1009-1010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.ac1406
AMA Potter P. “As the Dew Is Dried Up by the Morning Sun, So Are Mankind’s Sins at the Sight of Himalaya”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):1009-1010. doi:10.3201/eid1406.ac1406.
APA Potter, P. (2008). “As the Dew Is Dried Up by the Morning Sun, So Are Mankind’s Sins at the Sight of Himalaya”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 1009-1010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.ac1406.
Etymologia

Bartonella henselae [PDF - 474 KB - 1 page]
EID Bartonella henselae . Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080980
AMA Bartonella henselae . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):980. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080980.
APA (2008). Bartonella henselae . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1406.080980.
Page created: July 09, 2010
Page updated: July 09, 2010
Page reviewed: July 09, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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