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Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009


Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia

Victor Chalwe, Doreen Mukwamataba, Joris Menten, John Kamalamba, Modest Mulenga, Umberto D’Alessandro, and Jean-Pierre Van GeertruydenComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia (V. Chalwe, D. Mukwamataba, M. Mulenga); Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (J.-P. Van geertruyden, J. Menten, U. D’Alessandro); Thomson Hospital, Luanshya, Zambia (J. Kamalamba)

Main Article

Table 3

HIV-1 infection and HIV-1–related immunosuppression as risk factors for nonsevere and severe malaria, case–control study, Luanshya, Zambia*

Participant characteristics No. (%) OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
HIV-1 infected†
Asymptomatic controls 13/29 (45) 1
Controls with uncomplicated malaria 15/29 (52) 1.3 (0.5–3.7) 0.59 1
Case-patients (severe malaria) 27/29 (93) 16.6 (2.5–111.8) 0.0005 12.6 (2.0–78.8) 0.0005
CD4 cell count <350/µL‡
Asymptomatic controls 1/12 (8) 1
Controls with uncomplicated malaria 11/14 (79) 7. 67 (1.78–33.01) 0.001 1
Case-patients (severe malaria) 19/23 (83) 23.00 (3.35–158.00) <0.0001 3.00 (0.83–10.83) 0.08

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†p value obtained by using matched-pairs signed-ranks test.
‡CD4 count not measured in 4 HIV-1–infected case-patients, 1 control with uncomplicated malaria, and 1 asymptomatic control because of technical constraints. p value obtained by using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

Main Article