Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009
CME ACTIVITY - Research

Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia

Victor Chalwe, Doreen Mukwamataba, Joris Menten, John Kamalamba, Modest Mulenga, Umberto D’Alessandro, and Jean-Pierre Van GeertruydenComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia (V. Chalwe, D. Mukwamataba, M. Mulenga); Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (J.-P. Van geertruyden, J. Menten, U. D’Alessandro); Thomson Hospital, Luanshya, Zambia (J. Kamalamba)

Main Article

Figure

Malaria endemicity in Zambia. This map is a product of the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa/Atlas du Risque de la Malaria en Afrique (MARA/ARMA) collaboration (www.mara.org.za), July 2005. Malaria distribution was obtained from Craig et al. (14). Topographic data were obtained from African Data Sampler, World Resources Institute (www.igc.org/wri/sdis/maps/ads/ads_idx.htm).

Figure. Malaria endemicity in Zambia. This map is a product of the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa/Atlas du Risque de la Malaria en Afrique (MARA/ARMA) collaboration (www.mara.org.za), July 2005. Malaria distribution was obtained from Craig et al. (14). Topographic data were obtained from African Data Sampler, World Resources Institute (www.igc.org/wri/sdis/maps/ads/ads_idx.htm).

Main Article

References
  1. Hewitt  K, Steketee  R, Mwapasa  V, Whitworth  J, French  N. Interactions between HIV and malaria in non-pregnant adults: evidence and implications. AIDS. 2006;20:19932004. DOIPubMed
  2. ter Kuile  FO, Parise  ME, Verhoeff  FH, Udhaya  KV, Newman  RD, van Eijk  AM, The burden of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and malaria in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:4154.PubMed
  3. Whitworth  J, Morgan  D, Quigley  M, Smith  A, Mayanja  B, Eotu  H, Effect of HIV-1 and increasing immunosuppression on malaria parasitaemia and clinical episodes in adults in rural Uganda: a cohort study. Lancet. 2000;356:10516. DOIPubMed
  4. French  N, Nakiyingi  J, Lugada  E, Watera  C, Whitworth  JA, Gilks  CF. Increasing rates of malarial fever with deteriorating immune status in HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. AIDS. 2001;15:899906. DOIPubMed
  5. Patnaik  P, Jere  CS, Miller  WC, Hoffman  IF, Wirima  J, Pendame  R, Effects of HIV-1 serostatus, HIV-1 RNA concentration, and CD4 cell count on the incidence of malaria infection in a cohort of adults in rural Malawi. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:98491. DOIPubMed
  6. Van geertruyden JP, Mulenga M, Mwananyanda L, Chalwe V, Moerman F, Chilengi R, et al. HIV-1 immune suppression and antimalarial treatment outcome in Zambian adults with uncomplicated malaria. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:917–25.
  7. Diallo  AH, Ki-Zerbo  G, Sawadogo  AB, Guiguemde  TR. Severe malaria and HIV in adult patients in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso [article in French]. Med Trop (Mars). 2004;64:34550.PubMed
  8. Grimwade  K, French  N, Mbatha  DD, Zungu  DD, Dedicoat  M, Gilks  CF. Childhood malaria in a region of unstable transmission and high human immunodeficiency virus prevalence. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:105763. DOIPubMed
  9. Grimwade  K, French  N, Mbatha  DD, Zungu  DD, Dedicoat  M, Gilks  CF. HIV infection as a cofactor for severe falciparum malaria in adults living in a region of unstable malaria transmission in South Africa. AIDS. 2004;18:54754. DOIPubMed
  10. Cohen  C, Karstaedt  A, Frean  J, Thomas  J, Govender  N, Prentice  E, Increased prevalence of severe malaria in HIV-infected adults in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:16317. DOIPubMed
  11. Khasnis  AA, Karnad  DR. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in patients with severe falciparum malaria in urban India. J Postgrad Med. 2003;49:1147.PubMed
  12. Chirenda  J, Siziya  S, Tshimanga  M. Association of HIV infection with the development of severe and complicated malaria cases at a rural hospital in Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med. 2000;46:59.PubMed
  13. Hayes  RJ, Marsh  K, Snow  RW. Case-control studies of severe malaria. J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;95:15766.PubMed
  14. Craig  MH, Snow  RW, le Sueur  D. A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Parasitol Today. 1999;15:10511. DOIPubMed
  15. Central Board of Health, Ministry of Health, Government of Republic of Zambia (GRZ). Zambia 2004 antenatal clinic sentinel surveillance. Lusaka (Zambia): GRZ; 2007.
  16. Severe falciparum malaria. World Health Organization, communicable diseases cluster. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000;94(Suppl 1):S190.PubMed
  17. Central Board of Health, Ministry of Health, Government of Republic of Zambia (GRZ). Zambia. Management of antiretroviral therapy. A reference manual for health workers. Lusaka (Zambia): GRZ; 2004.
  18. Janossy  G, Jani  I, Göhde  W. Affordable CD4(+) T-cell counts on ‘single-platform’ flow cytometers I. Primary CD4 gating. Br J Haematol. 2000;111:1198208. DOIPubMed
  19. Van geertruyden JP, Mulenga M, Kasongo W, Polman K, Colebunders R, Kestens L, et al. CD4 T-cell count and HIV-1 infection in adults with uncomplicated malaria. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;43:363–7.
  20. Butcher  GA. T-cell depletion and immunity to malaria in HIV-infections. Parasitology. 2005;130:14150. DOIPubMed
  21. Gilks  CF, Brindle  RJ, Otieno  LS, Simano  PM, Newnham  RS, Bhatt  SM, Life-threatening bacteraemia in HIV-1 seropositive adults admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Lancet. 1990;336:5459. DOIPubMed
  22. Hay  SL, Guerra  CA, Tatem  AJ, Noor  AM, Snow  RW. The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:32736. DOIPubMed
  23. Mermin  J, Ekwaru  JP, Liechty  CA, Were  W, Downing  R, Ransom  R, Effect of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, antiretroviral therapy, and insecticide-treated bednets on the frequency of malaria in HIV-1-infected adults in Uganda: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2006;367:125661. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: December 20, 2010
Page updated: December 20, 2010
Page reviewed: December 20, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external