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Volume 16, Number 11—November 2010


Genetic Structure of Plasmodium falciparum and Elimination of Malaria, Comoros Archipelago

Stanislas Rebaudet1, Hervé Bogreau1, Rahamatou Silaï, Jean-François Lepère, Lionel Bertaux, Bruno Pradines, Jean Delmont, Philippe Gautret, Philippe Parola, and Christophe RogierComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Institute for Biomedical Research of the French Army, Marseille, France (S. Rebaudet, H. Bogreau, L. Bertaux, B. Pradines, C. Rogier); Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille (J. Delmont, P. Parola); Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille (P. Gautret); Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme, Moroni, Comoros (R. Silaï); Dispensaire de Bandraboua, Mayotte, France (J.-F. Lepère); 1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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Table 1

Epidemiologic and sampling characteristics of 5 sites studied for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Comoros archipelago and Marseille, France

Characteristic Grande Comore Moheli Anjouan Mayotte Marseille
Area, km2 1,148 290 424 374
Total population 330,000 40,000 280,000 190,000 50,000–80,000
No. bites by infected mosquitoes/person* 10–20/y (up to 200/y) 10/y (up to 1/night) No data Low None
Mesoendemic to hyperendemic
Mesoendemic to hyperendemic
Mesoendemic to hyperendemic
Total no. reported cases (% confirmed cases), 2006* 51,148 (34) 7,866 (27) 15,408 (19) 496 (100) 84 (100)
Incidence/1,000 inhabitants, 2006* 150 150 50 3 Null
% P. falciparum malaria cases,* 2006
Period of sampling, 2007 Apr–May Apr–May Apr–May Entire year Entire year
No. patients sampled, 2007
Median age of sampled patients, y (IQR) ‡ 4 (2–14.8) 7.5 (2.6–21) 7 (3.3–18) 19 (15–25) 33 (9.8–40)
No. sampled patients in site (A) with history of recent arrival from another site (B) 7 17 6 13 111§
Anjouan 6 9 7
Grande Comore 8 5 6
Mayotte 1 1 0


No. randomly genotyped isolates 36 36 36 36 36

*Data from World Malaria Report 2008 (8) and from various Comorian and French official reports and references published in French, all reviewed by the first author in a recent, unpublished thesis (Rebaudet S. Molecular epidemiology and population genetics study of Plasmodium falciparum in Comoros archipelago. Impacts on malaria control [thesis] [in French]. Marseille (France): Université de la Méditerranée; 2009). Cases for Marseille represent those in persons with history of recent arrival from one of the 4 islands.
†Malaria endemicity levels based on 2–9 years of available parasite prevalence data, according to the World Health Organization classification: hypoendemic, 0–10%; mesoendemic, 11%–50%; hyperendemic, 51%–75%; and holoendemic, >75% (9).
‡IQR, interquartile range.
§Mainly from Grande Comore (S. Rebaudet, pers. comm.).

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