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Issue Cover for Volume 16, Number 11—November 2010

Volume 16, Number 11—November 2010

[PDF - 4.77 MB - 171 pages]

Synopses

Oropharyngeal Cancer Epidemic and Human Papillomavirus [PDF - 307 KB - 7 pages]
T. Ramqvist and T. Dalianis

A growing body of research shows that human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common and increasing cause of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Thus, the International Agency for Research against Cancer has acknowledged HPV as a risk factor for OSCC, in addition to smoking and alcohol consumption. Recently, in Finland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States, and Sweden, incidence of OSCC has increased, and an increase in the proportion of HPV-positive tumors was noted. On the basis of these data and reports indicating that patients with HPV-positive cancer have their first sexual experience at a young age and have multiple partners, we postulate that increased incidence of OSCC in the United States and some countries in northern Europe is because of a new, primarily sexually transmitted HPV epidemic. We also suggest that individualized treatment modalities and preventive vaccination should be further explored.

EID Ramqvist T, Dalianis T. Oropharyngeal Cancer Epidemic and Human Papillomavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1671-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100452
AMA Ramqvist T, Dalianis T. Oropharyngeal Cancer Epidemic and Human Papillomavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1671-1677. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100452.
APA Ramqvist, T., & Dalianis, T. (2010). Oropharyngeal Cancer Epidemic and Human Papillomavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1671-1677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100452.

Regulatory Oversight and Safety of Probiotic Use [PDF - 161 KB - 5 pages]
V. Venugopalan et al.

Depending on intended use of a probiotic (drug vs. dietary supplement), regulatory requirements differ greatly. For dietary supplements, premarketing demonstration of safety and efficacy and approval by the Food and Drug Administration are not required; only premarket notification is required. Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic regulated as a dietary supplement intended for use by the general healthy population, not as a drug to prevent, treat, or mitigate disease. However, since recent increases in incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection, probiotics have been used to treat recurrent and/or refractory disease in hospitalized patients. Saccharomyces fungemia secondary to use of the probiotic has been described for patients who are critically ill, are receiving nutrition enterally, or have a central venous catheter. Before use of a probiotic is considered for hospitalized patients, careful assessment of risk versus benefit must be made. To ensure patient safety, probiotics should be properly handled during administration.

EID Venugopalan V, Shriner KA, Wong-Beringer A. Regulatory Oversight and Safety of Probiotic Use. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1661-1665. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100574
AMA Venugopalan V, Shriner KA, Wong-Beringer A. Regulatory Oversight and Safety of Probiotic Use. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1661-1665. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100574.
APA Venugopalan, V., Shriner, K. A., & Wong-Beringer, A. (2010). Regulatory Oversight and Safety of Probiotic Use. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1661-1665. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100574.

Medscape CME Activity
Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria during Pregnancy [PDF - 137 KB - 5 pages]
P. Deloron et al.

For monitoring efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy, data obtained from studies of children seemed inadequate. High prevalence of triple and quadruple mutants in the dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase genes of Plasmodium falciparum parasites contrasts with the efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in reducing low birthweights and placental infection rates. In light of this discrepancy, emphasis on using molecular markers for monitoring efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy appears questionable. The World Health Organization recently proposed conducting in vivo studies in pregnant women to evaluate molecular markers for detecting resistance precociously. Other possible alternative strategies are considered.

EID Deloron P, Bertin G, Briand V, Massougbodji A, Cot M. Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria during Pregnancy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1666-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101064
AMA Deloron P, Bertin G, Briand V, et al. Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria during Pregnancy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1666-1670. doi:10.3201/eid1611.101064.
APA Deloron, P., Bertin, G., Briand, V., Massougbodji, A., & Cot, M. (2010). Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria during Pregnancy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1666-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101064.
Research

Decreasing Shigellosis-related Deaths without Shigella spp.–specific Interventions, Asia [PDF - 158 KB - 6 pages]
P. Bardhan et al.

In 1999, a review of the literature for 1966–1997 suggested that ≈1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ≈880,000 in Asia. Our recent review of the literature for 1990–2009 indicates that ≈125 million shigellosis cases occur annually in Asia, of which ≈14,000 are fatal. This estimate for illnesses is similar to the earlier estimate, but the number of deaths is 98% lower; that is, the lower estimate of deaths is associated with markedly reduced case-fatality rates rather than fewer cases. Shigella spp.–related deaths decreased substantially during a period without Shigella spp.–specific interventions. We speculate that nonspecific interventions, e.g., measles vaccination, vitamin A supplementation, and improved nutrition, may have led to the reduced number of shigellosis-related deaths.

EID Bardhan P, Faruque A, Naheed A, Sack DA. Decreasing Shigellosis-related Deaths without Shigella spp.–specific Interventions, Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1718-1723. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.090934
AMA Bardhan P, Faruque A, Naheed A, et al. Decreasing Shigellosis-related Deaths without Shigella spp.–specific Interventions, Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1718-1723. doi:10.3201/eid1611.090934.
APA Bardhan, P., Faruque, A., Naheed, A., & Sack, D. A. (2010). Decreasing Shigellosis-related Deaths without Shigella spp.–specific Interventions, Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1718-1723. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.090934.

Salmonella enterica Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Clusters, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2007 [PDF - 289 KB - 8 pages]
J. M. Rounds et al.

We determined characteristics of Salmonella enterica pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters that predict their being solved (i.e., that result in identification of a confirmed outbreak). Clusters were investigated by the Minnesota Department of Health by using a dynamic iterative model. During 2001–2007, a total of 43 (12.5%) of 344 clusters were solved. Clusters of >4 isolates were more likely to be solved than clusters of 2 isolates. Clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received at the Minnesota Department of Health within 7 days were more likely to be solved than were clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received over a period >14 days. If resources do not permit investigation of all S. enterica pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters, investigation of clusters of >4 cases and clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received at a public health laboratory within 7 days may improve outbreak investigations.

EID Rounds JM, Hedberg CW, Meyer S, Boxrud DJ, Smith KE. Salmonella enterica Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Clusters, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1678-1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100368
AMA Rounds JM, Hedberg CW, Meyer S, et al. Salmonella enterica Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Clusters, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1678-1685. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100368.
APA Rounds, J. M., Hedberg, C. W., Meyer, S., Boxrud, D. J., & Smith, K. E. (2010). Salmonella enterica Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Clusters, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1678-1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100368.

Outbreaks of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A (H3N2) on Cruise Ship [PDF - 232 KB - 7 pages]
K. A. Ward et al.

To determine the extent and pattern of influenza transmission and effectiveness of containment measures, we investigated dual outbreaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and influenza A (H3N2) that had occurred on a cruise ship in May 2009. Of 1,970 passengers and 734 crew members, 82 (3.0%) were infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, 98 (3.6%) with influenza A (H3N2) virus, and 2 (0.1%) with both. Among 45 children who visited the ship’s childcare center, infection rate for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was higher than that for influenza A (H3N2) viruses. Disembarked passengers reported a high level of compliance with isolation and quarantine recommendations. We found 4 subsequent cases epidemiologically linked to passengers but no evidence of sustained transmission to the community or passengers on the next cruise. Among this population of generally healthy passengers, children seemed more susceptible to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 than to influenza (H3N2) viruses. Intensive disease control measures successfully contained these outbreaks.

EID Ward KA, Armstrong P, McAnulty JM, Iwasenko JM, Dwyer DE. Outbreaks of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A (H3N2) on Cruise Ship. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1731-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100477
AMA Ward KA, Armstrong P, McAnulty JM, et al. Outbreaks of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A (H3N2) on Cruise Ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1731-1737. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100477.
APA Ward, K. A., Armstrong, P., McAnulty, J. M., Iwasenko, J. M., & Dwyer, D. E. (2010). Outbreaks of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A (H3N2) on Cruise Ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1731-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100477.

Lymphotropism of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection, Nova Scotia, Canada [PDF - 359 KB - 8 pages]
S. Toracchio et al.

To test the hypothesis that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) can infect cells of the lymphoid system, we analyzed 353 specimens, including 152 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, 44 Hodgkin lymphomas, 110 benign lymph nodes, 27 lymph nodes with metastasis, and 20 extranodal tissue samples. MCPyV DNA was detected by quantitative PCR in 13 (6.6%) of 196 lymphomas, including 5 (20.8%) of 24 chronic lymphocytic leukemia specimens, and in 11 (10%) of 110 benign lymph nodes, including 8 (13.1%) of 61 samples of reactive hyperplasia and 3 (10.3%) of 29 normal lymph nodes. Other samples were MCPyV negative. Sequence analysis of 9 virus-positive samples confirmed the identity of MCPyV; 3 viral strains were represented. Immunohistochemical testing showed that 1 T-cell lymphoma expressed MCPyV T-antigen. These findings suggest that the lymphoid system plays a role in MCPyV infection and may be a site for MCPyV persistence.

EID Toracchio S, Foyle A, Sroller V, Reed JA, Wu J, Kozinetz CA, et al. Lymphotropism of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection, Nova Scotia, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1702-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100628
AMA Toracchio S, Foyle A, Sroller V, et al. Lymphotropism of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection, Nova Scotia, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1702-1709. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100628.
APA Toracchio, S., Foyle, A., Sroller, V., Reed, J. A., Wu, J., Kozinetz, C. A....Butel, J. S. (2010). Lymphotropism of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection, Nova Scotia, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1702-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100628.

Genetic Structure of Plasmodium falciparum and Elimination of Malaria, Comoros Archipelago [PDF - 206 KB - 9 pages]
S. Rebaudet et al.

The efficacy of malaria control and elimination on islands may depend on the intensity of new parasite inflow. On the Comoros archipelago, where falciparum malaria remains a major public health problem because of spread of drug resistance and insufficient malaria control, recent interventions for malaria elimination were planned on Moheli, 1 of 4 islands in the Comoros archipelago. To assess the relevance of such a local strategy, we performed a population genetics analysis by using multilocus microsatellite and resistance genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum sampled from each island of the archipelago. We found a contrasted population genetic structure explained by geographic isolation, human migration, malaria transmission, and drug selective pressure. Our findings suggest that malaria elimination interventions should be implemented simultaneously on the entire archipelago rather than restricted to 1 island and demonstrate the necessity for specific chemoresistance surveillance on each of the 4 Comorian islands.

EID Rebaudet S, Bogreau H, Silaï R, Lepère J, Bertaux L, Pradines B, et al. Genetic Structure of Plasmodium falciparum and Elimination of Malaria, Comoros Archipelago. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1686-1694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100694
AMA Rebaudet S, Bogreau H, Silaï R, et al. Genetic Structure of Plasmodium falciparum and Elimination of Malaria, Comoros Archipelago. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1686-1694. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100694.
APA Rebaudet, S., Bogreau, H., Silaï, R., Lepère, J., Bertaux, L., Pradines, B....Rogier, C. (2010). Genetic Structure of Plasmodium falciparum and Elimination of Malaria, Comoros Archipelago. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1686-1694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100694.

Comparison of 3 Infrared Thermal Detection Systems and Self-Report for Mass Fever Screening [PDF - 302 KB - 8 pages]
A. V. Nguyen et al.

Despite limited evidence regarding their utility, infrared thermal detection systems (ITDS) are increasingly being used for mass fever detection. We compared temperature measurements for 3 ITDS (FLIR ThermoVision A20M [FLIR Systems Inc., Boston, MA, USA], OptoTherm Thermoscreen [OptoTherm Thermal Imaging Systems and Infrared Cameras Inc., Sewickley, PA, USA], and Wahl Fever Alert Imager HSI2000S [Wahl Instruments Inc., Asheville, NC, USA]) with oral temperatures (>100°F = confirmed fever) and self-reported fever. Of 2,873 patients enrolled, 476 (16.6%) reported a fever, and 64 (2.2%) had a confirmed fever. Self-reported fever had a sensitivity of 75.0%, specificity 84.7%, and positive predictive value 10.1%. At optimal cutoff values for detecting fever, temperature measurements by OptoTherm and FLIR had greater sensitivity (91.0% and 90.0%, respectively) and specificity (86.0% and 80.0%, respectively) than did self-reports. Correlations between ITDS and oral temperatures were similar for OptoTherm (ρ = 0.43) and FLIR (ρ = 0.42) but significantly lower for Wahl (ρ = 0.14; p<0.001). When compared with oral temperatures, 2 systems (OptoTherm and FLIR) were reasonably accurate for detecting fever and predicted fever better than self-reports.

EID Nguyen AV, Cohen NJ, Lipman H, Brown CM, Molinari N, Jackson WL, et al. Comparison of 3 Infrared Thermal Detection Systems and Self-Report for Mass Fever Screening. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1710-1717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100703
AMA Nguyen AV, Cohen NJ, Lipman H, et al. Comparison of 3 Infrared Thermal Detection Systems and Self-Report for Mass Fever Screening. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1710-1717. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100703.
APA Nguyen, A. V., Cohen, N. J., Lipman, H., Brown, C. M., Molinari, N., Jackson, W. L....Fishbein, D. B. (2010). Comparison of 3 Infrared Thermal Detection Systems and Self-Report for Mass Fever Screening. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1710-1717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100703.

Measles Virus Strain Diversity, Nigeria and Democratic Republic of the Congo [PDF - 300 KB - 7 pages]
J. R. Kremer et al.

We investigated the genetic diversity of measles virus (MV) in Nigeria (2004–2005) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (2002–2006). Genotype B3 strains circulating in Kinshasa, DRC, in 2002–2003 were fully replaced by genotype B2 in 2004 at the end of the second Congo war. In Nigeria (2004–2005), two genetic clusters of genotype B3, both of which were most closely related to 1 variant from 1998, were identified. Longitudinal analysis of MV strain diversity in Nigeria suggested that only a few of the previously described 1997–1998 variants had continued to circulate, but this finding was concomitant with a rapid restoration of genetic diversity, probably caused by low vaccination coverage and high birth rates. In contrast, the relatively low genetic diversity of MV in DRC and the genotype replacement in Kinshasa reflect a notable improvement in local measles control.

EID Kremer JR, Nkwembe E, Oyefolu AO, Smit SB, Pukuta E, Omilabu SA, et al. Measles Virus Strain Diversity, Nigeria and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1724-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100777
AMA Kremer JR, Nkwembe E, Oyefolu AO, et al. Measles Virus Strain Diversity, Nigeria and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1724-1730. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100777.
APA Kremer, J. R., Nkwembe, E., Oyefolu, A. O., Smit, S. B., Pukuta, E., Omilabu, S. A....Muller, C. P. (2010). Measles Virus Strain Diversity, Nigeria and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1724-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100777.

Effect of Vaccination on Bordetella pertussis Strains, China [PDF - 335 KB - 7 pages]
L. Zhang et al.

Whole-cell pertussis vaccine was introduced in China in the early 1960s. We used standard typing methods to compare 96 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected before and after introduction of vaccination, during 1953–2005. The following vaccine-type alleles of the pertussis toxin (ptx) gene were characteristic for all prevaccination strains: ptxA2, ptxA3, and ptxA4. The shift to ptxA1 occurred since 1963. All isolates collected since 1983 contained ptxA1. Pertactin (prn) allele 1, prn1, was predominant, although prn2 and prn3 have been detected since 2000. Serotypes fimbriae (Fim) 2 and Fim2,3 were found in all isolates collected before 1986. During 1997–2005, Fim3 became prevalent. Although changes in electrophoresis profiles over time were observed, the predominant profiles during 1997–2005 resembled those during the prevaccine era and those found in Europe before the 1990s. B. pertussis strains in China may differ from those in countries that have a long history of high vaccine coverage.

EID Zhang L, Xu Y, Zhao J, Kallonen T, Cui S, Xu Y, et al. Effect of Vaccination on Bordetella pertussis Strains, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1695-1701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100401
AMA Zhang L, Xu Y, Zhao J, et al. Effect of Vaccination on Bordetella pertussis Strains, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1695-1701. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100401.
APA Zhang, L., Xu, Y., Zhao, J., Kallonen, T., Cui, S., Xu, Y....Zhang, S. (2010). Effect of Vaccination on Bordetella pertussis Strains, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1695-1701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100401.

Medscape CME Activity
Enhanced Surveillance of Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA, 2007–2008 [PDF - 187 KB - 8 pages]
C. A. Tsang et al.

Coccidioidomycosis is endemic to the southwestern United States; 60% of nationally reported cases occur in Arizona. Although the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists case definition for coccidioidomycosis requires laboratory and clinical criteria, Arizona uses only laboratory criteria. To validate this case definition and characterize the effects of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona, we interviewed every tenth case-patient with coccidioidomycosis reported during January 2007–February 2008. Of 493 patients interviewed, 44% visited the emergency department, and 41% were hospitalized. Symptoms lasted a median of 120 days. Persons aware of coccidioidomycosis before seeking healthcare were more likely to receive an earlier diagnosis than those unaware of the disease (p = 0.04) and to request testing for Coccidioides spp. (p = 0.05). These findings warrant greater public and provider education. Ninety-five percent of patients interviewed met the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists clinical case definition, validating the Arizona laboratory-based case definition for surveillance in a coccidiodomycosis-endemic area.

EID Tsang CA, Anderson SM, Imholte SB, Erhart LM, Chen S, Park BJ, et al. Enhanced Surveillance of Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA, 2007–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1738-1744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100475
AMA Tsang CA, Anderson SM, Imholte SB, et al. Enhanced Surveillance of Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1738-1744. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100475.
APA Tsang, C. A., Anderson, S. M., Imholte, S. B., Erhart, L. M., Chen, S., Park, B. J....Sunenshine, R. H. (2010). Enhanced Surveillance of Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1738-1744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100475.
Dispatches

Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France [PDF - 435 KB - 3 pages]
M. Kaba et al.

To determine the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among sheltered homeless persons in Marseille, France, we retrospectively tested 490 such persons. A total of 11.6% had immunoglobulin (Ig) G and 2.5% had IgM against HEV; 1 person had HEV genotype 3f. Injection drug use was associated with IgG against HEV.

EID Kaba M, Brouqui P, Richet H, Badiaga S, Gallian P, Raoult D, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1761-1763. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.091890
AMA Kaba M, Brouqui P, Richet H, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1761-1763. doi:10.3201/eid1611.091890.
APA Kaba, M., Brouqui, P., Richet, H., Badiaga, S., Gallian, P., Raoult, D....Colson, P. (2010). Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1761-1763. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.091890.

Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis, Israel [PDF - 615 KB - 4 pages]
O. Gal-Mor et al.

To determine whether rapid emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in Israel resulted from an increase in different biotypes or spread of 1 clone, we characterized 87 serovar Infantis isolates on the genotypic and phenotypic levels. The emerging strain comprised 1 genetic clone with a distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and a common antimicrobial drug resistance pattern.

EID Gal-Mor O, Valinsky L, Weinberger M, Guy S, Jaffe J, Schorr YI, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1754-1757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100100
AMA Gal-Mor O, Valinsky L, Weinberger M, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1754-1757. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100100.
APA Gal-Mor, O., Valinsky, L., Weinberger, M., Guy, S., Jaffe, J., Schorr, Y. I....Nissan, I. (2010). Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1754-1757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100100.

Enterovirus 71 Infection with Central Nervous System Involvement, South Korea [PDF - 384 KB - 3 pages]
W. Ryu et al.

We assessed neurologic sequelae associated with an enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreak in South Korea during 2009. Four of 94 patients had high signal intensities at brainstem or cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging. Two patients died of cardiopulmonary collapse; 2 had severe neurologic sequelae. Severity and case-fatality rates may differ by EV71 genotype or subgenotype.

EID Ryu W, Kang B, Hong J, Hwang S, Kim A, Kim J. Enterovirus 71 Infection with Central Nervous System Involvement, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1764-1766. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100104
AMA Ryu W, Kang B, Hong J, et al. Enterovirus 71 Infection with Central Nervous System Involvement, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1764-1766. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100104.
APA Ryu, W., Kang, B., Hong, J., Hwang, S., Kim, A., & Kim, J. (2010). Enterovirus 71 Infection with Central Nervous System Involvement, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1764-1766. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100104.

Estimates of the True Number of Cases of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Beijing, China [PDF - 373 KB - 3 pages]
X. Wang et al.

During 2009, a total of 10,844 laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were reported in Beijing, People’s Republic of China. However, because most cases were not confirmed through laboratory testing, the true number is unknown. Using a multiplier model, we estimated that ≈1.46–2.30 million pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infections occurred.

EID Wang X, Yang P, Seale H, Zhang Y, Xu W, Pang X, et al. Estimates of the True Number of Cases of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Beijing, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1786-1788. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100323
AMA Wang X, Yang P, Seale H, et al. Estimates of the True Number of Cases of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1786-1788. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100323.
APA Wang, X., Yang, P., Seale, H., Zhang, Y., Xu, W., Pang, X....Wang, Q. (2010). Estimates of the True Number of Cases of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1786-1788. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100323.

Reassortment of Ancient Neuraminidase and Recent Hemagglutinin in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus [PDF - 376 KB - 3 pages]
P. Bhoumik and A. L. Hughes

Sequence analyses show that the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 resulted from the spread of a recently derived hemagglutinin through a population of ancient and more diverse neuraminidase segments. This pattern implies reassortment and suggests that the novel form of hemagglutinin conferred a selective advantage.

EID Bhoumik P, Hughes AL. Reassortment of Ancient Neuraminidase and Recent Hemagglutinin in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1748-1750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100361
AMA Bhoumik P, Hughes AL. Reassortment of Ancient Neuraminidase and Recent Hemagglutinin in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1748-1750. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100361.
APA Bhoumik, P., & Hughes, A. L. (2010). Reassortment of Ancient Neuraminidase and Recent Hemagglutinin in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1748-1750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100361.

Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Neonatal Care Unit [PDF - 448 KB - 3 pages]
S. Tschudin-Sutter et al.

An outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in a neonatal care unit began with transmission from a mother to her newborn twins during vaginal delivery. Subsequently, infection spread by healthcare worker contact with other neonates; a healthcare worker also was infected. Knowledge about transmission may improve infection control measures.

EID Tschudin-Sutter S, Frei R, Battegay M, Hoesli I, Widmer AF. Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Neonatal Care Unit. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1758-1760. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100366
AMA Tschudin-Sutter S, Frei R, Battegay M, et al. Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Neonatal Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1758-1760. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100366.
APA Tschudin-Sutter, S., Frei, R., Battegay, M., Hoesli, I., & Widmer, A. F. (2010). Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Neonatal Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1758-1760. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100366.

Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains [PDF - 371 KB - 3 pages]
L. Christerson et al.

We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s, including a variant from Europe.

EID Christerson L, de Vries H, de Barbeyrac B, Gaydos CA, Henrich B, Hoffmann S, et al. Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1777-1779. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100379
AMA Christerson L, de Vries H, de Barbeyrac B, et al. Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1777-1779. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100379.
APA Christerson, L., de Vries, H., de Barbeyrac, B., Gaydos, C. A., Henrich, B., Hoffmann, S....Morré, S. A. (2010). Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1777-1779. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100379.

Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance among Non-TyphiSalmonella enterica Isolates, USA [PDF - 411 KB - 3 pages]
M. Sjölund-Karlsson et al.

We determined the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms among non-Typhi Salmonella spp. isolated from humans, food animals, and retail meat in the United States in 2007. Six isolates collected from humans harbored aac(6′)Ib-cr or a qnr gene. Most prevalent was qnrS1. No animal or retail meat isolates harbored a plasmid-mediated mechanism.

EID Sjölund-Karlsson M, Howie R, Rickert R, Krueger A, Tran T, Zhao S, et al. Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance among Non-TyphiSalmonella enterica Isolates, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1789-1791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100464
AMA Sjölund-Karlsson M, Howie R, Rickert R, et al. Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance among Non-TyphiSalmonella enterica Isolates, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1789-1791. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100464.
APA Sjölund-Karlsson, M., Howie, R., Rickert, R., Krueger, A., Tran, T., Zhao, S....McDermott, P. F. (2010). Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance among Non-TyphiSalmonella enterica Isolates, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1789-1791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100464.

Genome Sequence Conservation of Hendra Virus Isolates during Spillover to Horses, Australia [PDF - 406 KB - 3 pages]
G. A. Marsh et al.

Bat-to-horse transmission of Hendra virus has occurred at least 14 times. Although clinical signs in horses have differed, genome sequencing has demonstrated little variation among the isolates. Our sequencing of 5 isolates from recent Hendra virus outbreaks in horses found no correlation between sequences and time or geographic location of outbreaks.

EID Marsh GA, Todd S, Foord A, Hansson E, Davies KR, Wright L, et al. Genome Sequence Conservation of Hendra Virus Isolates during Spillover to Horses, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1767-1769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100501
AMA Marsh GA, Todd S, Foord A, et al. Genome Sequence Conservation of Hendra Virus Isolates during Spillover to Horses, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1767-1769. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100501.
APA Marsh, G. A., Todd, S., Foord, A., Hansson, E., Davies, K. R., Wright, L....Wang, L. (2010). Genome Sequence Conservation of Hendra Virus Isolates during Spillover to Horses, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1767-1769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100501.

Comparison of Survey Methods in Norovirus Outbreak Investigation, Oregon, USA, 2009 [PDF - 722 KB - 4 pages]
J. Y. Oh et al.

We compared data from an Internet-based survey and a telephone-based survey during a 2009 norovirus outbreak in Oregon. Survey initiation, timeliness of response, and attack rates were comparable, but participants were less likely to complete Internet questions. Internet-based surveys permit efficient data collection but should be designed to maximize complete responses.

EID Oh JY, Bancroft JE, Cunningham MC, Keene WE, Lyss SB, Cieslak PR, et al. Comparison of Survey Methods in Norovirus Outbreak Investigation, Oregon, USA, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1773-1776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100561
AMA Oh JY, Bancroft JE, Cunningham MC, et al. Comparison of Survey Methods in Norovirus Outbreak Investigation, Oregon, USA, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1773-1776. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100561.
APA Oh, J. Y., Bancroft, J. E., Cunningham, M. C., Keene, W. E., Lyss, S. B., Cieslak, P. R....Hedberg, K. (2010). Comparison of Survey Methods in Norovirus Outbreak Investigation, Oregon, USA, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1773-1776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100561.

Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India [PDF - 341 KB - 3 pages]
P. Lewthwaite et al.

Recent outbreaks of enterovirus in Southeast Asia emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this infection. To address this issue, we report 5 (4.7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005–2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection.

EID Lewthwaite P, Perera D, Ooi M, Last A, Kumar R, Desai A, et al. Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1780-1782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100672
AMA Lewthwaite P, Perera D, Ooi M, et al. Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1780-1782. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100672.
APA Lewthwaite, P., Perera, D., Ooi, M., Last, A., Kumar, R., Desai, A....Solomon, T. (2010). Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1780-1782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100672.

Isolation of Ancestral Sylvatic Dengue Virus Type 1, Malaysia [PDF - 384 KB - 3 pages]
B. Teoh et al.

Ancestral sylvatic dengue virus type 1, which was isolated from a monkey in 1972, was isolated from a patient with dengue fever in Malaysia. The virus is neutralized by serum of patients with endemic DENV-1 infection. Rare isolation of this virus suggests a limited spillover infection from an otherwise restricted sylvatic cycle.

EID Teoh B, Sam S, Abd-Jamil J, AbuBakar S. Isolation of Ancestral Sylvatic Dengue Virus Type 1, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1783-1785. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100721
AMA Teoh B, Sam S, Abd-Jamil J, et al. Isolation of Ancestral Sylvatic Dengue Virus Type 1, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1783-1785. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100721.
APA Teoh, B., Sam, S., Abd-Jamil, J., & AbuBakar, S. (2010). Isolation of Ancestral Sylvatic Dengue Virus Type 1, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1783-1785. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100721.

Experimental Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection of Cats [PDF - 401 KB - 3 pages]
J. van den Brand et al.

To demonstrate that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus may cause respiratory disease in cats, we intratracheally infected cats. Diffuse alveolar damage developed. Seroconversion of sentinel cats indicated cat-to-cat virus transmission. Unlike in cats infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), extrarespiratory lesions did not develop in cats infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.

EID van den Brand J, Stittelaar KJ, van Amerongen G, van de Bildt MW, Leijten LM, Kuiken T, et al. Experimental Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection of Cats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1745-1747. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100845
AMA van den Brand J, Stittelaar KJ, van Amerongen G, et al. Experimental Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection of Cats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1745-1747. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100845.
APA van den Brand, J., Stittelaar, K. J., van Amerongen, G., van de Bildt, M. W., Leijten, L. M., Kuiken, T....Osterhaus, A. (2010). Experimental Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection of Cats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1745-1747. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100845.

Prevalence and Genetic Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6D, South Korea [PDF - 456 KB - 3 pages]
E. H. Choi et al.

To determine prevalence and genetic structures of new serotype 6D strains of pneumococci, we examined isolates from diverse clinical specimens in South Korea during 1991–2008. Fourteen serotype 6D strains accounted for 10.4% of serogroup 6 pneumococci from blood, sputum, nasopharynx, and throat samples. Serotype 6D strains consisted of 3 sequence types.

EID Choi EH, Lee HJ, Cho EY, Oh CE, Eun BW, Lee J, et al. Prevalence and Genetic Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6D, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1751-1753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100941
AMA Choi EH, Lee HJ, Cho EY, et al. Prevalence and Genetic Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6D, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1751-1753. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100941.
APA Choi, E. H., Lee, H. J., Cho, E. Y., Oh, C. E., Eun, B. W., Lee, J....Kim, M. J. (2010). Prevalence and Genetic Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6D, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1751-1753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100941.

Importation of Dengue Virus Type 3 to Japan from Tanzania and Côte d’Ivoire [PDF - 417 KB - 3 pages]
M. Moi et al.

Travelers can introduce viruses from disease-endemic to non–disease-endemic areas. Serologic and virologic tests confirmed dengue virus infections in 3 travelers returning to Japan: 2 from Tanzania and 1 from Côte d’Ivoire. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene showed that 2 genetically related virus isolates belonged to dengue virus type 3 genotype III.

EID Moi M, Takasaki T, Kotaki A, Tajima S, Lim C, Sakamoto M, et al. Importation of Dengue Virus Type 3 to Japan from Tanzania and Côte d’Ivoire. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1770-1772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101061
AMA Moi M, Takasaki T, Kotaki A, et al. Importation of Dengue Virus Type 3 to Japan from Tanzania and Côte d’Ivoire. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1770-1772. doi:10.3201/eid1611.101061.
APA Moi, M., Takasaki, T., Kotaki, A., Tajima, S., Lim, C., Sakamoto, M....Kurane, I. (2010). Importation of Dengue Virus Type 3 to Japan from Tanzania and Côte d’Ivoire. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1770-1772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101061.
Letters

Fatal Avian Influenza (H5N1) Infection in Human, China [PDF - 93 KB - 3 pages]
J. Zhang et al.
EID Zhang J, Geng X, Ma Y, Ruan S, Xu S, Liu L, et al. Fatal Avian Influenza (H5N1) Infection in Human, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1799-1801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.090212
AMA Zhang J, Geng X, Ma Y, et al. Fatal Avian Influenza (H5N1) Infection in Human, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1799-1801. doi:10.3201/eid1611.090212.
APA Zhang, J., Geng, X., Ma, Y., Ruan, S., Xu, S., Liu, L....Li, Z. (2010). Fatal Avian Influenza (H5N1) Infection in Human, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1799-1801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.090212.

Mycobacterium heckeshornense Infection in HIV-infected Patient [PDF - 88 KB - 3 pages]
R. A. Ahmed et al.
EID Ahmed RA, Miedzinski LJ, Shandro C. Mycobacterium heckeshornense Infection in HIV-infected Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1801-1803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.091226
AMA Ahmed RA, Miedzinski LJ, Shandro C. Mycobacterium heckeshornense Infection in HIV-infected Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1801-1803. doi:10.3201/eid1611.091226.
APA Ahmed, R. A., Miedzinski, L. J., & Shandro, C. (2010). Mycobacterium heckeshornense Infection in HIV-infected Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1801-1803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.091226.

Typhoid Fever among Children, Ghana [PDF - 96 KB - 2 pages]
F. Marks et al.
EID Marks F, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Hünger F, Sarpong N, Ekuban S, Agyekum A, et al. Typhoid Fever among Children, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1796-1797. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100388
AMA Marks F, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Hünger F, et al. Typhoid Fever among Children, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1796-1797. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100388.
APA Marks, F., Adu-Sarkodie, Y., Hünger, F., Sarpong, N., Ekuban, S., Agyekum, A....May, J. (2010). Typhoid Fever among Children, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1796-1797. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100388.

Geographic Expansion of Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworms, Florida, USA [PDF - 82 KB - 2 pages]
E. L. Blizzard et al.
EID Blizzard EL, Yabsley MJ, Beck MF, Harsch S. Geographic Expansion of Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworms, Florida, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1803-1804. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100549
AMA Blizzard EL, Yabsley MJ, Beck MF, et al. Geographic Expansion of Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworms, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1803-1804. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100549.
APA Blizzard, E. L., Yabsley, M. J., Beck, M. F., & Harsch, S. (2010). Geographic Expansion of Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworms, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1803-1804. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100549.

Vibrio cholerae O1 Variant with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin, Western Africa [PDF - 88 KB - 2 pages]
M. Quilici et al.
EID Quilici M, Massenet D, Gake B, Bwalki B, Olson DM. Vibrio cholerae O1 Variant with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin, Western Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1804-1805. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100568
AMA Quilici M, Massenet D, Gake B, et al. Vibrio cholerae O1 Variant with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin, Western Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1804-1805. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100568.
APA Quilici, M., Massenet, D., Gake, B., Bwalki, B., & Olson, D. M. (2010). Vibrio cholerae O1 Variant with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin, Western Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1804-1805. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100568.

Yersinia pestis DNA Sequences in Late Medieval Skeletal Finds, Bavaria [PDF - 93 KB - 2 pages]
I. Wiechmann et al.
EID Wiechmann I, Harbeck M, Grupe G. Yersinia pestis DNA Sequences in Late Medieval Skeletal Finds, Bavaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1806-1807. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100598
AMA Wiechmann I, Harbeck M, Grupe G. Yersinia pestis DNA Sequences in Late Medieval Skeletal Finds, Bavaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1806-1807. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100598.
APA Wiechmann, I., Harbeck, M., & Grupe, G. (2010). Yersinia pestis DNA Sequences in Late Medieval Skeletal Finds, Bavaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1806-1807. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100598.

Acute Encephalopathy and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 [PDF - 121 KB - 3 pages]
S. M. Moon et al.
EID Moon SM, Kim S, Jeong MH, Lee EH, Ko T. Acute Encephalopathy and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1811-1813. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100682
AMA Moon SM, Kim S, Jeong MH, et al. Acute Encephalopathy and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1811-1813. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100682.
APA Moon, S. M., Kim, S., Jeong, M. H., Lee, E. H., & Ko, T. (2010). Acute Encephalopathy and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1811-1813. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100682.

Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Treated with Nebulized Zanamivir [PDF - 115 KB - 3 pages]
L. Da Dalt et al.
EID Da Dalt L, Calistri A, Chillemi C, Cusinato R, Franchin E, Salata C, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Treated with Nebulized Zanamivir. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1813-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100789
AMA Da Dalt L, Calistri A, Chillemi C, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Treated with Nebulized Zanamivir. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1813-1815. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100789.
APA Da Dalt, L., Calistri, A., Chillemi, C., Cusinato, R., Franchin, E., Salata, C....Palù, G. (2010). Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Treated with Nebulized Zanamivir. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1813-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100789.

Two Clusters of HIV-1 Infection, Rural Idaho, USA, 2008 [PDF - 81 KB - 2 pages]
R. J. Nett et al.
EID Nett RJ, Bartschi JL, Ellis GM, Hachey DM, Frenkel LM. Two Clusters of HIV-1 Infection, Rural Idaho, USA, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1807-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100857
AMA Nett RJ, Bartschi JL, Ellis GM, et al. Two Clusters of HIV-1 Infection, Rural Idaho, USA, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1807-1809. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100857.
APA Nett, R. J., Bartschi, J. L., Ellis, G. M., Hachey, D. M., & Frenkel, L. M. (2010). Two Clusters of HIV-1 Infection, Rural Idaho, USA, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1807-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100857.

Enteric Viruses in Ready-to-Eat Packaged Leafy Greens [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
K. Mattison et al.
EID Mattison K, Hedberg C, Harlow J, Morton V, Cook A, Pollari F, et al. Enteric Viruses in Ready-to-Eat Packaged Leafy Greens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1815-1817. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100877
AMA Mattison K, Hedberg C, Harlow J, et al. Enteric Viruses in Ready-to-Eat Packaged Leafy Greens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1815-1817. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100877.
APA Mattison, K., Hedberg, C., Harlow, J., Morton, V., Cook, A., Pollari, F....Farber, J. M. (2010). Enteric Viruses in Ready-to-Eat Packaged Leafy Greens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1815-1817. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100877.

Shigella spp. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, Papua New Guinea, 2000–2009 [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
A. Rosewell et al.
EID Rosewell A, Ropa B, Posanai E, Dutta SR, Mola G, Zwi A, et al. Shigella spp. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, Papua New Guinea, 2000–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1797-1799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101025
AMA Rosewell A, Ropa B, Posanai E, et al. Shigella spp. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, Papua New Guinea, 2000–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1797-1799. doi:10.3201/eid1611.101025.
APA Rosewell, A., Ropa, B., Posanai, E., Dutta, S. R., Mola, G., Zwi, A....MacIntyre, C. (2010). Shigella spp. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, Papua New Guinea, 2000–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1797-1799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101025.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Oseltamivir Resistance in Hematology/Oncology Patients [PDF - 96 KB - 3 pages]
C. Wolfe et al.
EID Wolfe C, Greenwald I, Chen L. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Oseltamivir Resistance in Hematology/Oncology Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1809-1811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101053
AMA Wolfe C, Greenwald I, Chen L. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Oseltamivir Resistance in Hematology/Oncology Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1809-1811. doi:10.3201/eid1611.101053.
APA Wolfe, C., Greenwald, I., & Chen, L. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Oseltamivir Resistance in Hematology/Oncology Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1809-1811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101053.

The Persistence of Influenza Infection [PDF - 76 KB - 3 pages]
J. W. Tang
EID Tang JW. The Persistence of Influenza Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1817-1819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100974
AMA Tang JW. The Persistence of Influenza Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1817-1819. doi:10.3201/eid1611.100974.
APA Tang, J. W. (2010). The Persistence of Influenza Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1817-1819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.100974.
Another Dimension

Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome in a Grandmother [PDF - 356 KB - 4 pages]
L. C. Crawford et al.
EID Crawford LC, Crawford ML, Moore SR. Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome in a Grandmother. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1792-1795. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.091464
AMA Crawford LC, Crawford ML, Moore SR. Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome in a Grandmother. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1792-1795. doi:10.3201/eid1611.091464.
APA Crawford, L. C., Crawford, M. L., & Moore, S. R. (2010). Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome in a Grandmother. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1792-1795. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.091464.
Books and Media

Smallpox Zero: An Illustrated History of Smallpox and Its Eradication [PDF - 111 KB - 1 page]
P. L. Stockton
EID Stockton PL. Smallpox Zero: An Illustrated History of Smallpox and Its Eradication. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101145
AMA Stockton PL. Smallpox Zero: An Illustrated History of Smallpox and Its Eradication. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1820. doi:10.3201/eid1611.101145.
APA Stockton, P. L. (2010). Smallpox Zero: An Illustrated History of Smallpox and Its Eradication. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1820. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.101145.
About the Cover

A Moveable Feast [PDF - 129 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. A Moveable Feast. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1821-1822. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.ac1611
AMA Potter P. A Moveable Feast. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1821-1822. doi:10.3201/eid1611.ac1611.
APA Potter, P. (2010). A Moveable Feast. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1821-1822. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.ac1611.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Baylisascaris [PDF - 182 KB - 1 page]
C. Snarey
EID Snarey C. Etymologia: Baylisascaris . Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(11):1819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.et1611
AMA Snarey C. Etymologia: Baylisascaris . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(11):1819. doi:10.3201/eid1611.et1611.
APA Snarey, C. (2010). Etymologia: Baylisascaris . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(11), 1819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1611.et1611.
Conference Summaries

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2010 [PDF - 21 KB - 3 pages]
N. Marano et al.
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Page updated: May 29, 2012
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The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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