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Volume 18, Number 11—November 2012


Lack of Evidence for Zoonotic Transmission of Schmallenberg Virus

Chantal Reusken1Comments to Author , Cees van den Wijngaard1, Paul van Beek, Martin Beer, Ruth Bouwstra, Gert-Jan Godeke, Leslie Isken, Hans van den Kerkhof, Wilfrid van Pelt, Wim van der Poel, Johan Reimerink, Peter Schielen, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Piet Vellema, Ankje de Vries, Inge Wouters, and Marion Koopmans
Author affiliations: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (C. Reusken, C. van den Wijngaard, P. van Beek, G.-J. Godeke, L. Isken, H. van den Kerkhof, W. van Pelt, J. Reimerink, P. Schielen, A. de Vries, M. Koopmans); Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Insel Riems, Germany (M. Beer); Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University and Research Centre, Lelystad, the Netherlands (R. Bouwstra, W. van der Poel); Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg (J. Schmidt-Chanasit); Animal Health Service, Deventer, the Netherlands (P. Vellema); and Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht, the Netherlands (I. Wouters)

Main Article

Table 2

Evidence for zoonotic infection within the family Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus genus, the Netherlands*

Serogroup, species Geographic distribution Reservoir Human infection Evidence Reported symptoms in humans Congenital disease in humans References

Oropouche virus

South America Humans, sloths, marmosets Yes Outbreaks Febrile illness, arthralgia, diarrhea NR (18,20)

Iquitos virus

South America Humans, unknown Yes Unexplained fever surveillance Febrile illness, arthralgia, diarrhea NR (21)

Akabane virus

Asia, Israel, Kenya, Australia Cattle, horses, sheep No No serology NR NR (22,23)

Shamonda virus

Africa Cattle No No serology NR NR (24,25)

Aino virus

Asia Cattle Possibly Serology Unknown Unknown (22,23,26)

Shuni virus

Africa Cattle, horses, sheep Possibly Virus isolation (one case) Fever, no hospital submission NR (2729)

Sathuperi virus

Asia, Africa Cattle Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown (30)
California encephalitis

California encephalitis

North America Rodents, lagomorphs Yes Endemic, common Febrile illness, encephalitis NR (31)

La Crosse virus

North America Rodents, lagomorphs Yes Endemic common Febrile illness, encephalitis NR (31)

Tahyna virus

Europe, Asia, Africa Lagomorphs, rodents, hedgehogs Yes Serology, cases Febrile illness, respiratory symptoms
meningitis (mild) NR (32)

Inkoo virus

Northern Europe Lagomorphs Yes Surveillance febrile illness, CNS illness, Febrile illness, Meningitis (mild) NR (32)

Snowshoe hare virus

North America, Far-Eastern Europe Lagomorphs, rodents Yes Serology, case reports Febrile illness NR (32)

Batai virus

Europe, Asia, Africa Birds,pigs, horses, ruminants Yes Serology (rare) Febrile illness, affection NR (32)

Cache Valley virus

North America Deer, sheep, horses, cattle Yes 2 Case reports, serology Febrile illness, encephalitis Under discussion (3335)

Ngari virus

Africa Humans, unknown Yes Outbreaks, virus isolation Febrile illness, hemorragic fever NR (3638)

*NR, not reported; CNS, central nervous system.

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1These authors contributed equally to this article.