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Volume 18, Number 6—June 2012


Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Final Assessment

Paul BrownComments to Author , Jean-Philippe Brandel, Takeshi Sato, Yosikazu Nakamura, Jan MacKenzie, Robert G. Will, Anna Ladogana, Maurizio Pocchiari, Ellen W. Leschek, and Lawrence B. Schonberger
Author affiliations: Centre à l’Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France (P. Brown); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France (J.-P. Brandel); Nanohana Clinic, Tokyo, Japan (T. Sato); Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Japan (Y. Nakamura); Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (J. MacKenzie, R.G. Will); Istituto Superiore de Sanità, Rome, Italy (A. Ladogana, M. Pocchiari); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (E.W. Leschek); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (L.B. Schonberger)

Main Article

Table 1

Global distribution of cases of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease*

Country Source of infection and no. cases
Surgical procedure
Medical procedure
Dura mater grafts Surgical instruments EEG needles Corneal transplants† Growth hormone‡ Gonadotropin Packed red blood cells§
Argentina 1
Australia 5 4
Austria 3 1
Brazil 2
Canada 4
Croatia 1
France 13 1 119
Germany 10 1
Ireland 1
Italy 9
Japan 142
Netherlands 5 2
New Zealand 2 6
South Korea 2
Qatar 1
South Africa 1
Spain 14
Switzerland 3 2
Thailand 1
United Kingdom 8 3 65 3
United States 4 1 29
Total 228 4 2 2 226 4 3

*EEG, electroencephalogram.
†Additional possible single cases after corneal transplant or keratoplasty (not included in table) in Japan, United Kingdom, and United States.
‡Human growth hormone given in Brazil and New Zealand was prepared in the United States; that given in Qatar was prepared in France. Additional possible single cases with human growth hormone as source (not included in table) occurred in Sweden, Australia, and New Zealand.
§An additional asymptomatic but infected red-cell recipient died of an unrelated illness; another asymptomatic infected hemophilia patient who had been exposed to potentially contaminated factor VIII also died of an unrelated illness (neither is included in the table).

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