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Issue Cover for Volume 18, Number 6—June 2012

Volume 18, Number 6—June 2012

[PDF - 4.51 MB - 147 pages]

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Final Assessment [PDF - 291 KB - 7 pages]
P. Brown et al.

The era of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has nearly closed; only occasional cases with exceptionally long incubation periods are still appearing. The principal sources of these outbreaks are contaminated growth hormone (226 cases) and dura mater grafts (228 cases) derived from human cadavers with undiagnosed CJD infections; a small number of additional cases are caused by neurosurgical instrument contamination, corneal grafts, gonadotrophic hormone, and secondary infection with variant CJD transmitted by transfusion of blood products. No new sources of disease have been identified, and current practices, which combine improved recognition of potentially infected persons with new disinfection methods for fragile surgical instruments and biological products, should continue to minimize the risk for iatrogenic disease until a blood screening test for the detection of preclinical infection is validated for human use.

EID Brown P, Brandel J, Sato T, Nakamura Y, MacKenzie J, Will RG, et al. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Final Assessment. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):901-907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120116
AMA Brown P, Brandel J, Sato T, et al. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Final Assessment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):901-907. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120116.
APA Brown, P., Brandel, J., Sato, T., Nakamura, Y., MacKenzie, J., Will, R. G....Schonberger, L. B. (2012). Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Final Assessment. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 901-907. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120116.
Research

Medscape CME Activity
Pretransplant Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae and Infection after Liver Transplant, France [PDF - 385 KB - 9 pages]
F. Bert et al.

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (ESBLE) are emerging pathogens that confer resistance to antimicrobial drugs. We conducted a 10-year study in France (January 2001–April 2010) to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for ESBLE infections after liver transplant. Of 710 transplant patients screened preoperatively for ESBLE fecal carriage, 5.5% had ESBLE infection develop within 4 months after surgery; patients with pretransplant ESBLE fecal carriage were more likely to have infection develop than were noncarriers. Typing showed extensive genetic diversity, with a large predominance of CTX-M enzymes. Independent predictors of ESBLE infection were pretransplant fecal carriage, Model for End Stage Liver Disease score >25, and return to surgery. Our results indicate that the influx of preoperatively acquired ESBLE isolates into the hospital outweighs cross-transmission in the epidemiology of ESBLE infections after liver transplant. Transplant candidates should be systematically screened for carriage, and posttransplant infection in carriers should be treated with carbapenems.

EID Bert F, Larroque B, Paugam-Burtz C, Dondero F, Durand F, Marcon E, et al. Pretransplant Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae and Infection after Liver Transplant, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):908-916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110139
AMA Bert F, Larroque B, Paugam-Burtz C, et al. Pretransplant Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae and Infection after Liver Transplant, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):908-916. doi:10.3201/eid1806.110139.
APA Bert, F., Larroque, B., Paugam-Burtz, C., Dondero, F., Durand, F., Marcon, E....Nicolas-Chanoine, M. (2012). Pretransplant Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae and Infection after Liver Transplant, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 908-916. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110139.

Medscape CME Activity
Trends in Invasive Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Connecticut, USA, 2001–2010 [PDF - 270 KB - 8 pages]
J. L. Hadler et al.

We examined trends in incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in Connecticut, with emphasis on 2007–2010, after legislation required reporting of hospital infections. A case was defined as isolation of MRSA from normally sterile body sites, classified after medical record review as hospital onset (HO), community onset, health care–associated community onset (HACO), or community-associated (CA). Blood isolates collected during 2005–2010 were typed and categorized as community- or health care–related strains. During 2001–2010, a total of 8,758 cases were reported (58% HACO, 31% HO, and 11% CA), and MRSA incidence decreased (p<0.05) for HACO and HO, but increased for CA. Significant 3- to 4-year period trends were decreases in all MRSA (–18.8%), HACO (–12.8%), HO (–33.2%), and CA (–12.7%) infections during 2007–2010, and an increase in CA infections during 2004–2006. Decreases in health care–related isolates accounted for all reductions. Hospital infections reporting may have catalyzed the decreases.

EID Hadler JL, Petit S, Mandour M, Cartter ML. Trends in Invasive Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Connecticut, USA, 2001–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):917-924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120182
AMA Hadler JL, Petit S, Mandour M, et al. Trends in Invasive Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Connecticut, USA, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):917-924. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120182.
APA Hadler, J. L., Petit, S., Mandour, M., & Cartter, M. L. (2012). Trends in Invasive Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Connecticut, USA, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 917-924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120182.

Molecular Epidemiology of Geographically Dispersed Vibrio cholerae, Kenya, January 2009–May 2010 [PDF - 329 KB - 7 pages]
A. Mohamed et al.

Numerous outbreaks of cholera have occurred in Kenya since 1971. To more fully understand the epidemiology of cholera in Kenya, we analyzed the genetic relationships among 170 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates at 5 loci containing variable tandem repeats. The isolates were collected during January 2009–May 2010 from various geographic areas throughout the country. The isolates grouped genetically into 5 clonal complexes, each comprising a series of genotypes that differed by an allelic change at a single locus. No obvious correlation between the geographic locations of the isolates and their genotypes was observed. Nevertheless, geographic differentiation of the clonal complexes occurred. Our analyses showed that multiple genetic lineages of V. cholerae were simultaneously infecting persons in Kenya. This finding is consistent with the simultaneous emergence of multiple distinct genetic lineages of V. cholerae from endemic environmental reservoirs rather than recent introduction and spread by travelers.

EID Mohamed A, Oundo J, Kariuki SM, Boga HI, Sharif SK, Akhwale W, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Geographically Dispersed Vibrio cholerae, Kenya, January 2009–May 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):925-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111774
AMA Mohamed A, Oundo J, Kariuki SM, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Geographically Dispersed Vibrio cholerae, Kenya, January 2009–May 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):925-931. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111774.
APA Mohamed, A., Oundo, J., Kariuki, S. M., Boga, H. I., Sharif, S. K., Akhwale, W....Stine, O. (2012). Molecular Epidemiology of Geographically Dispersed Vibrio cholerae, Kenya, January 2009–May 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 925-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111774.

Community Survey after Rabies Outbreaks, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA [PDF - 226 KB - 7 pages]
A. M. McCollum et al.

Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, experienced notable outbreaks of rabies caused by a bat rabies virus variant in carnivore species in 2001, 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2009. The most recent epizootic involved transmission among skunk and fox populations and human exposures. Multiple, wide-ranging control efforts and health communications outreach were instituted in 2009, including a household survey given to community members. Although the Flagstaff community is knowledgeable about rabies and the ongoing outbreaks in general, gaps in knowledge about routes of exposure and potential hosts remain. Future educational efforts should include messages on the dangers of animal translocation and a focus on veterinarians and physicians as valuable sources for outreach. These results will be useful to communities experiencing rabies outbreaks as well as those at current risk.

EID McCollum AM, Blanton JD, Holman RC, Callinan LS, Baty S, Phillips R, et al. Community Survey after Rabies Outbreaks, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):932-938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111172
AMA McCollum AM, Blanton JD, Holman RC, et al. Community Survey after Rabies Outbreaks, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):932-938. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111172.
APA McCollum, A. M., Blanton, J. D., Holman, R. C., Callinan, L. S., Baty, S., Phillips, R....Rupprecht, C. E. (2012). Community Survey after Rabies Outbreaks, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 932-938. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111172.

Trichomonas vaginalis Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in 6 US Cities, STD Surveillance Network, 2009–2010 [PDF - 333 KB - 5 pages]
R. D. Kirkcaldy et al.

Nitroimidazoles (metronidazole and tinidazole) are the only recommended drugs for treating Trichomonas vaginalis infection, and previous samples that assessed resistance of such isolates have been limited in geographic scope. We assessed the prevalence of in vitro aerobic metronidazole and tinidazole resistance among T. vaginalis isolates from multiple geographic sites in the United States. Swab specimens were obtained from women who underwent routine pelvic examinations at sexually transmitted disease clinics in 6 US cities. Cultured T. vaginalis isolates were tested for nitroimidazole resistance (aerobic minimum lethal concentration [MLC] >50 µg/mL). Of 538 T. vaginalis isolates, 23 (4.3%) exhibited low-level in vitro metronidazole resistance (minimum lethal concentrations 50–100 µg/mL). No isolates exhibited moderate- to high-level metronidazole resistance or tinidazole resistance. Results highlight the possibility that reliance on a single class of antimicrobial drugs for treating T. vaginalis infections may heighten vulnerability to emergence of resistance. Thus, novel treatment options are needed.

EID Kirkcaldy RD, Augostini P, Asbel LE, Bernstein KT, Kerani RP, Mettenbrink CJ, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in 6 US Cities, STD Surveillance Network, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):939-943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111590
AMA Kirkcaldy RD, Augostini P, Asbel LE, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in 6 US Cities, STD Surveillance Network, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):939-943. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111590.
APA Kirkcaldy, R. D., Augostini, P., Asbel, L. E., Bernstein, K. T., Kerani, R. P., Mettenbrink, C. J....Weinstock, H. S. (2012). Trichomonas vaginalis Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in 6 US Cities, STD Surveillance Network, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 939-943. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111590.

Virulence Potential of Fusogenic Orthoreoviruses [PDF - 301 KB - 5 pages]
A. H. Wong et al.

Several severe respiratory virus infections that have emerged during the past decade originated in animals, including bats. In Indonesia, exposure to bats has been associated with increased risk of acquiring orthoreovirus infection. Although orthoreovirus infections are mild and self-limiting, we explored their potential for evolution into a more virulent form. We used conventional virus culture, electron microscopy, and molecular sequencing to isolate and identify orthoreoviruses from 3 patients in whom respiratory tract infection developed after travel to Indonesia. Virus characterization by plaque-reduction neutralization testing showed antigenic similarity, but sequencing of the small segment genes suggested virus reassortment, which could lead to increased virulence. Bats as a reservoir might contribute to virus evolution and genetic diversity, giving orthoreoviruses the potential to become more virulent. Evolution of this virus should be closely monitored so that prevention and control measures can be taken should it become more virulent.

EID Wong AH, Cheng P, Lai M, Leung P, Wong K, Lee W, et al. Virulence Potential of Fusogenic Orthoreoviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):944-948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111688
AMA Wong AH, Cheng P, Lai M, et al. Virulence Potential of Fusogenic Orthoreoviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):944-948. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111688.
APA Wong, A. H., Cheng, P., Lai, M., Leung, P., Wong, K., Lee, W....Lim, W. (2012). Virulence Potential of Fusogenic Orthoreoviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 944-948. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111688.

Intrafamilial Circulation of Tropheryma whipplei, France [PDF - 283 KB - 7 pages]
F. Fenollar et al.

Tropheryma whipplei, which causes Whipple disease, has been detected in 4% of fecal samples from the general adult population of France. To identify T. whipplei within families, we conducted serologic and molecular studies, including genotyping, on saliva, feces, and serum from 74 relatives of 13 patients with classic Whipple disease, 5 with localized chronic T. whipplei infection, and 3 carriers. Seroprevalence was determined by Western blot and compared with 300 persons from the general population. We detected T. whipplei in 24 (38%) of 64 fecal samples and 7 (10%) of 70 saliva samples from relatives but found no difference between persons related by genetics and marriage. The same circulating genotype occurred significantly more often in families than in other persons. Seroprevalence was higher among relatives (23 [77%] of 30) than in the general population (143 [48%] of 300). The high prevalence of T. whipplei within families suggests intrafamilial circulation.

EID Fenollar F, Keita AK, Buffet S, Raoult D. Intrafamilial Circulation of Tropheryma whipplei, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):949-955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111038
AMA Fenollar F, Keita AK, Buffet S, et al. Intrafamilial Circulation of Tropheryma whipplei, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):949-955. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111038.
APA Fenollar, F., Keita, A. K., Buffet, S., & Raoult, D. (2012). Intrafamilial Circulation of Tropheryma whipplei, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 949-955. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111038.

Human Gyrovirus DNA in Human Blood, Italy [PDF - 205 KB - 4 pages]
F. Maggi et al.

Human gyrovirus (HGyV) is a recent addition to the list of agents found in humans. Prevalence, biologic properties, and clinical associations of this novel virus are still incompletely understood. We used qualitative PCRs to detect HGyV in blood samples of 301 persons from Italy. HGyV genome was detected in 3 of 100 solid organ transplant recipients and in 1 HIV-infected person. The virus was not detected in plasma samples from healthy persons. Furthermore, during observation, persons for whom longitudinal plasma samples were obtained had transient and scattered presence of circulating HGyV. Sequencing of a 138-bp fragment showed nucleotide identity among all the HGyV isolates. These results show that HGyV can be present in the blood of infected persons. Additional studies are needed to investigate possible clinical implications.

EID Maggi F, Macera L, Focosi D, Vatteroni M, Boggi U, Antonelli G, et al. Human Gyrovirus DNA in Human Blood, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):956-959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120179
AMA Maggi F, Macera L, Focosi D, et al. Human Gyrovirus DNA in Human Blood, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):956-959. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120179.
APA Maggi, F., Macera, L., Focosi, D., Vatteroni, M., Boggi, U., Antonelli, G....Pistello, M. (2012). Human Gyrovirus DNA in Human Blood, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 956-959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120179.
Dispatches

Clostridium difficile Infection, Colorado and the Northwestern United States, 2007 [PDF - 208 KB - 3 pages]
J. L. Kuntz et al.

To determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection during 2007, we examined infection in adult inpatient and outpatient members of a managed-care organization. Incidence was 14.9 C. difficile infections per 10,000 patient-years. Extrapolating this rate to US adults, we estimate that 284,875 C. difficile infections occurred during 2007.

EID Kuntz JL, Johnson ES, Raebel MA, Petrik AF, Yang X, Thorp ML, et al. Clostridium difficile Infection, Colorado and the Northwestern United States, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):960-962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111528
AMA Kuntz JL, Johnson ES, Raebel MA, et al. Clostridium difficile Infection, Colorado and the Northwestern United States, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):960-962. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111528.
APA Kuntz, J. L., Johnson, E. S., Raebel, M. A., Petrik, A. F., Yang, X., Thorp, M. L....Smith, D. H. (2012). Clostridium difficile Infection, Colorado and the Northwestern United States, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 960-962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111528.

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, Shandong Province, China [PDF - 303 KB - 3 pages]
L. Zhao et al.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, which results in severe illness and has a high case-fatality rate, is caused by a novel bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. We found that samples from 2/237 (0.8%) healthy persons and 111/134 (83%) goats in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China, were seropositive for this virus.

EID Zhao L, Zhai S, Wen H, Cui F, Chi Y, Wang L, et al. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, Shandong Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):963-965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111345
AMA Zhao L, Zhai S, Wen H, et al. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, Shandong Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):963-965. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111345.
APA Zhao, L., Zhai, S., Wen, H., Cui, F., Chi, Y., Wang, L....Yu, X. (2012). Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, Shandong Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 963-965. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111345.

Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Infection in Newborn Girl, France [PDF - 277 KB - 3 pages]
S. Guillot et al.

A macrolide antimicrobial drug was administered to a newborn with cough. On day 23 of hospitalization, macrolide-resistant Bordetella pertussis was isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirates. DNA sequencing and PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism showed a 2047 A-to-G mutation in the 3 copies of the 23S rRNA gene. Monitoring for macrolide resistance is essential in infants <6 months of age.

EID Guillot S, Descours G, Gillet Y, Etienne J, Floret D, Guiso N. Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Infection in Newborn Girl, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):966-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120091
AMA Guillot S, Descours G, Gillet Y, et al. Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Infection in Newborn Girl, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):966-968. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120091.
APA Guillot, S., Descours, G., Gillet, Y., Etienne, J., Floret, D., & Guiso, N. (2012). Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Infection in Newborn Girl, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 966-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120091.

Genome Analysis of Rift Valley Fever Virus, Mayotte [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
C. Cêtre-Sossah et al.

As further confirmation of a first human case of Rift Valley fever in 2007 in Comoros, we isolated Rift Valley fever virus in suspected human cases. These viruses are genetically closely linked to the 2006–2007 isolates from Kenya.

EID Cêtre-Sossah C, Zeller H, Grandadam M, Caro V, Pettinelli F, Bouloy M, et al. Genome Analysis of Rift Valley Fever Virus, Mayotte. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):969-971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110994
AMA Cêtre-Sossah C, Zeller H, Grandadam M, et al. Genome Analysis of Rift Valley Fever Virus, Mayotte. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):969-971. doi:10.3201/eid1806.110994.
APA Cêtre-Sossah, C., Zeller, H., Grandadam, M., Caro, V., Pettinelli, F., Bouloy, M....Albina, E. (2012). Genome Analysis of Rift Valley Fever Virus, Mayotte. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 969-971. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110994.

Prevalence of Rift Valley Fever among Ruminants, Mayotte [PDF - 554 KB - 4 pages]
C. Cêtre-Sossah et al.

Rift Valley fever threatens human and animal health. After a human case was confirmed in Comoros in 2007, 4 serosurveys among ruminants in Mayotte suggested that Rift Valley fever virus had been circulating at low levels since 2004, although no clinical cases occurred in animals. Entomologic and ecologic studies will help determine outbreak potential.

EID Cêtre-Sossah C, Pédarrieu A, Guis H, Defernez C, Bouloy M, Favre J, et al. Prevalence of Rift Valley Fever among Ruminants, Mayotte. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):972-975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111165
AMA Cêtre-Sossah C, Pédarrieu A, Guis H, et al. Prevalence of Rift Valley Fever among Ruminants, Mayotte. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):972-975. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111165.
APA Cêtre-Sossah, C., Pédarrieu, A., Guis, H., Defernez, C., Bouloy, M., Favre, J....Albina, E. (2012). Prevalence of Rift Valley Fever among Ruminants, Mayotte. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 972-975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111165.

Louping Ill in Goats, Spain, 2011 [PDF - 431 KB - 3 pages]
A. Balseiro et al.

Although louping ill affects mainly sheep, a 2011 outbreak in northern Spain occurred among goats. Histopathologic lesions and molecular genetics identified a new strain of louping ill virus, 94% identical to the strain from Britain. Surveillance is needed to minimize risk to domestic and wildlife species and humans.

EID Balseiro A, Royo LJ, Martínez C, Fernández de Mera IG, Höfle Ú, Polledo L, et al. Louping Ill in Goats, Spain, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):976-978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120220
AMA Balseiro A, Royo LJ, Martínez C, et al. Louping Ill in Goats, Spain, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):976-978. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120220.
APA Balseiro, A., Royo, L. J., Martínez, C., Fernández de Mera, I. G., Höfle, Ú., Polledo, L....Marín, J. F. (2012). Louping Ill in Goats, Spain, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 976-978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120220.

Accuracy of ICD-10 Codes for Surveillance of Clostridium difficile Infections, France [PDF - 213 KB - 3 pages]
G. Jones et al.

The sensitivity and specificity of surveillance for Clostridium difficile infections according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes were compared with laboratory results as standard. Sensitivity was 35.6%; specificity was 99.9%. Concordance between the 2 methods was moderate. Surveillance based on ICD-10 codes underestimated the rate based on laboratory results.

EID Jones G, Taright N, Boelle P, Marty J, Lalande V, Eckert C, et al. Accuracy of ICD-10 Codes for Surveillance of Clostridium difficile Infections, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):979-981. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111188
AMA Jones G, Taright N, Boelle P, et al. Accuracy of ICD-10 Codes for Surveillance of Clostridium difficile Infections, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):979-981. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111188.
APA Jones, G., Taright, N., Boelle, P., Marty, J., Lalande, V., Eckert, C....Barbut, F. (2012). Accuracy of ICD-10 Codes for Surveillance of Clostridium difficile Infections, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 979-981. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111188.

Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil [PDF - 239 KB - 4 pages]
E. S. Travassos da Rosa et al.

We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State.

EID Travassos da Rosa ES, Medeiros D, Nunes M, Simith DB, Pereira AS, Elkhoury MR, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):982-985. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110948
AMA Travassos da Rosa ES, Medeiros D, Nunes M, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):982-985. doi:10.3201/eid1806.110948.
APA Travassos da Rosa, E. S., Medeiros, D., Nunes, M., Simith, D. B., Pereira, A. S., Elkhoury, M. R....Vasconcelos, P. (2012). Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 982-985. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110948.

Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Antibodies in Poultry Cullers, South Korea, 2003–2004 [PDF - 160 KB - 3 pages]
D. Kwon et al.

Transmission of influenza (H5N1) virus from birds to humans is a serious public health threat. In South Korea, serologic investigation among 2,512 poultry workers exposed during December 2003–March 2004 to poultry with confirmed or suspected influenza (H5N1) virus infection found antibodies in 9. Frequency of bird-to-human transmission was low.

EID Kwon D, Lee J, Choi W, Choi J, Chung Y, Lee N, et al. Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Antibodies in Poultry Cullers, South Korea, 2003–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):986-988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111631
AMA Kwon D, Lee J, Choi W, et al. Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Antibodies in Poultry Cullers, South Korea, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):986-988. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111631.
APA Kwon, D., Lee, J., Choi, W., Choi, J., Chung, Y., Lee, N....Kang, C. (2012). Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Antibodies in Poultry Cullers, South Korea, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 986-988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111631.

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand [PDF - 202 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Bai et al.

We identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in pre-enriched blood of 4 patients from Thailand. Nucleotide sequences for transfer-messenger RNA gene, citrate synthase gene, and the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer were identical or closely related to those for the strain that has been considered pathogenic since initially isolated from a human in Wyoming, USA.

EID Bai Y, Kosoy MY, Diaz MH, Winchell J, Baggett H, Maloney SA, et al. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):989-991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111750
AMA Bai Y, Kosoy MY, Diaz MH, et al. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):989-991. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111750.
APA Bai, Y., Kosoy, M. Y., Diaz, M. H., Winchell, J., Baggett, H., Maloney, S. A....Peruski, L. F. (2012). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis in Humans, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 989-991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111750.

Immunodeficiency-associated Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Type 3 in Infant, South Africa, 2011 [PDF - 239 KB - 3 pages]
N. Gumede et al.

Patients with primary immunodeficiency are prone to persistently excrete Sabin-like virus after administration of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine and have an increased risk for vaccine-derived paralytic polio. We report a case of type 3 immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus in a child in South Africa who was born with X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome.

EID Gumede N, Muthambi V, Schoub BD. Immunodeficiency-associated Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Type 3 in Infant, South Africa, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):992-994. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120037
AMA Gumede N, Muthambi V, Schoub BD. Immunodeficiency-associated Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Type 3 in Infant, South Africa, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):992-994. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120037.
APA Gumede, N., Muthambi, V., & Schoub, B. D. (2012). Immunodeficiency-associated Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Type 3 in Infant, South Africa, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 992-994. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120037.

Rickettsia parkeri Infection in Domestic Dogs, Southern Louisiana, USA, 2011 [PDF - 193 KB - 3 pages]
B. J. Grasperge et al.

The association between companion animals and tick-borne rickettsial disease has long been recognized and can be essential to the emergence of rickettsioses. We tested whole blood from dogs in temporary shelters by using PCR for rickettsial infections. Of 93 dogs, 12 (13%) were positive for Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging tick-borne rickettsiosis.

EID Grasperge BJ, Wolfson W, Macaluso KR. Rickettsia parkeri Infection in Domestic Dogs, Southern Louisiana, USA, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):995-997. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120165
AMA Grasperge BJ, Wolfson W, Macaluso KR. Rickettsia parkeri Infection in Domestic Dogs, Southern Louisiana, USA, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):995-997. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120165.
APA Grasperge, B. J., Wolfson, W., & Macaluso, K. R. (2012). Rickettsia parkeri Infection in Domestic Dogs, Southern Louisiana, USA, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 995-997. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120165.

Wild Boars as Hosts of Human-Pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants [PDF - 327 KB - 4 pages]
J. Michalik et al.

To investigate the potential of wild boars to host Anaplasma phagocytophilum, we analyzed bacterial 16S rRNA and ank genes. DNA sequencing identified several A. phagocytophilum variants, including a predominance of strains known to cause human disease. Boars are thus hosts for A. phagocytophilum, notably, strains associated with human granulocytic anaplasmosis.

EID Michalik J, Stańczak J, Cieniuch S, Racewicz M, Sikora B, Dabert M. Wild Boars as Hosts of Human-Pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):998-1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110997
AMA Michalik J, Stańczak J, Cieniuch S, et al. Wild Boars as Hosts of Human-Pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):998-1001. doi:10.3201/eid1806.110997.
APA Michalik, J., Stańczak, J., Cieniuch, S., Racewicz, M., Sikora, B., & Dabert, M. (2012). Wild Boars as Hosts of Human-Pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 998-1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110997.

Local Transmission of Imported Endemic Syphilis, Canada, 2011 [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
S. Fanella et al.

Endemic (nonvenereal) syphilis is relatively common in nonindustrialized regions of the world. We describe a case of local transmission in Canada and review tools available for confirming a diagnosis. Improved molecular tools and global clinical awareness are needed to recognize cases of endemic syphilis imported to areas where it is not normally seen.

EID Fanella S, Kadkhoda K, Shuel M, Tsang R. Local Transmission of Imported Endemic Syphilis, Canada, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1002-1004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111421
AMA Fanella S, Kadkhoda K, Shuel M, et al. Local Transmission of Imported Endemic Syphilis, Canada, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1002-1004. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111421.
APA Fanella, S., Kadkhoda, K., Shuel, M., & Tsang, R. (2012). Local Transmission of Imported Endemic Syphilis, Canada, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1002-1004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111421.
Letters

Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium [PDF - 278 KB - 2 pages]
M. Garigliany et al.
EID Garigliany M, Hoffmann B, Dive M, Sartelet A, Bayrou C, Cassart D, et al. Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1005-1006. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120104
AMA Garigliany M, Hoffmann B, Dive M, et al. Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1005-1006. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120104.
APA Garigliany, M., Hoffmann, B., Dive, M., Sartelet, A., Bayrou, C., Cassart, D....Desmecht, D. (2012). Schmallenberg Virus in Calf Born at Term with Porencephaly, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1005-1006. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120104.

Zoonotic Disease Pathogens in Fish Used for Pedicure [PDF - 205 KB - 3 pages]
D. W. Verner-Jeffreys et al.
EID Verner-Jeffreys DW, Baker-Austin C, Pond MJ, Rimmer G, Kerr R, Stone D, et al. Zoonotic Disease Pathogens in Fish Used for Pedicure. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1006-1008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111782
AMA Verner-Jeffreys DW, Baker-Austin C, Pond MJ, et al. Zoonotic Disease Pathogens in Fish Used for Pedicure. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1006-1008. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111782.
APA Verner-Jeffreys, D. W., Baker-Austin, C., Pond, M. J., Rimmer, G., Kerr, R., Stone, D....Feist, S. W. (2012). Zoonotic Disease Pathogens in Fish Used for Pedicure. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1006-1008. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111782.

Rickettsia conorii Indian Tick Typhus Strain and R. slovaca in Humans, Sicily [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
A. Torina et al.
EID Torina A, Fernández de Mera IG, Alongi A, Mangold AJ, Blanda V, Scarlata F, et al. Rickettsia conorii Indian Tick Typhus Strain and R. slovaca in Humans, Sicily. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1008-1010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110966
AMA Torina A, Fernández de Mera IG, Alongi A, et al. Rickettsia conorii Indian Tick Typhus Strain and R. slovaca in Humans, Sicily. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1008-1010. doi:10.3201/eid1806.110966.
APA Torina, A., Fernández de Mera, I. G., Alongi, A., Mangold, A. J., Blanda, V., Scarlata, F....de la Fuente, J. (2012). Rickettsia conorii Indian Tick Typhus Strain and R. slovaca in Humans, Sicily. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1008-1010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110966.

Detection of European Strain of Echinococcus multilocularis in North America [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
E. J. Jenkins et al.
EID Jenkins EJ, Peregrine AS, Hill JE, Somers C, Gesy K, Barnes B, et al. Detection of European Strain of Echinococcus multilocularis in North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1010-1012. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111420
AMA Jenkins EJ, Peregrine AS, Hill JE, et al. Detection of European Strain of Echinococcus multilocularis in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1010-1012. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111420.
APA Jenkins, E. J., Peregrine, A. S., Hill, J. E., Somers, C., Gesy, K., Barnes, B....Polley, L. (2012). Detection of European Strain of Echinococcus multilocularis in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1010-1012. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111420.

Recognition and Diagnosis of Cryptococcus gattii Infections in the United States [PDF - 231 KB - 4 pages]
S. Iverson et al.
EID Iverson S, Chiller T, Beekmann S, Polgreen PM, Harris J. Recognition and Diagnosis of Cryptococcus gattii Infections in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1012-1015. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111228
AMA Iverson S, Chiller T, Beekmann S, et al. Recognition and Diagnosis of Cryptococcus gattii Infections in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1012-1015. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111228.
APA Iverson, S., Chiller, T., Beekmann, S., Polgreen, P. M., & Harris, J. (2012). Recognition and Diagnosis of Cryptococcus gattii Infections in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1012-1015. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111228.

Coccidioidal Endophthalmitis in Immunocompetent Person, California, USA [PDF - 218 KB - 2 pages]
M. Cheng et al.
EID Cheng M, Leibowitz M, Ha E. Coccidioidal Endophthalmitis in Immunocompetent Person, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1015-1016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111765
AMA Cheng M, Leibowitz M, Ha E. Coccidioidal Endophthalmitis in Immunocompetent Person, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1015-1016. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111765.
APA Cheng, M., Leibowitz, M., & Ha, E. (2012). Coccidioidal Endophthalmitis in Immunocompetent Person, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1015-1016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111765.

Human MRSA Isolates with Novel Genetic Homolog, Germany [PDF - 173 KB - 3 pages]
A. Kriegeskorte et al.
EID Kriegeskorte A, Ballhausen B, Idelevich EA, Köck R, Friedrich AW, Karch H, et al. Human MRSA Isolates with Novel Genetic Homolog, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1016-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110910
AMA Kriegeskorte A, Ballhausen B, Idelevich EA, et al. Human MRSA Isolates with Novel Genetic Homolog, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1016-1018. doi:10.3201/eid1806.110910.
APA Kriegeskorte, A., Ballhausen, B., Idelevich, E. A., Köck, R., Friedrich, A. W., Karch, H....Becker, K. (2012). Human MRSA Isolates with Novel Genetic Homolog, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1016-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110910.

ESBL-Positive Enterobacteria Isolates in Drinking Water [PDF - 166 KB - 2 pages]
H. De Boeck et al.
EID De Boeck H, Miwanda B, Lunguya-Metila O, Muyembe-Tamfum J, Stobberingh E, Glupczynski Y, et al. ESBL-Positive Enterobacteria Isolates in Drinking Water. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1019-1020. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111214
AMA De Boeck H, Miwanda B, Lunguya-Metila O, et al. ESBL-Positive Enterobacteria Isolates in Drinking Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1019-1020. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111214.
APA De Boeck, H., Miwanda, B., Lunguya-Metila, O., Muyembe-Tamfum, J., Stobberingh, E., Glupczynski, Y....Jacobs, J. (2012). ESBL-Positive Enterobacteria Isolates in Drinking Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1019-1020. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111214.

Novel Chlamydiaceae Disease in Captive Salamanders [PDF - 240 KB - 3 pages]
A. Martel et al.
EID Martel A, Adriaensen C, Bogaerts S, Ducatelle R, Favoreel H, Crameri S, et al. Novel Chlamydiaceae Disease in Captive Salamanders. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1020-1022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111137
AMA Martel A, Adriaensen C, Bogaerts S, et al. Novel Chlamydiaceae Disease in Captive Salamanders. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1020-1022. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111137.
APA Martel, A., Adriaensen, C., Bogaerts, S., Ducatelle, R., Favoreel, H., Crameri, S....Pasmans, F. (2012). Novel Chlamydiaceae Disease in Captive Salamanders. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1020-1022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111137.

Novel Variant of Beilong Paramyxovirus in Rats, China [PDF - 174 KB - 3 pages]
P. Woo et al.
EID Woo P, Lau S, Wong B, Wu Y, Lam C, Yuen K. Novel Variant of Beilong Paramyxovirus in Rats, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1022-1024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111901
AMA Woo P, Lau S, Wong B, et al. Novel Variant of Beilong Paramyxovirus in Rats, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1022-1024. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111901.
APA Woo, P., Lau, S., Wong, B., Wu, Y., Lam, C., & Yuen, K. (2012). Novel Variant of Beilong Paramyxovirus in Rats, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1022-1024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111901.

Pneumococcal Serotype–specific Unresponsiveness in Vaccinated Child with Cochlear Implant [PDF - 183 KB - 3 pages]
E. Stanford et al.
EID Stanford E, Ladhani S, Slack M, Scott D, Fitzgerald-O’Connor A, Waight P, et al. Pneumococcal Serotype–specific Unresponsiveness in Vaccinated Child with Cochlear Implant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1024-1026. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110906
AMA Stanford E, Ladhani S, Slack M, et al. Pneumococcal Serotype–specific Unresponsiveness in Vaccinated Child with Cochlear Implant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1024-1026. doi:10.3201/eid1806.110906.
APA Stanford, E., Ladhani, S., Slack, M., Scott, D., Fitzgerald-O’Connor, A., Waight, P....Borrow, R. (2012). Pneumococcal Serotype–specific Unresponsiveness in Vaccinated Child with Cochlear Implant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1024-1026. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110906.

African Swine Fever Virus Strain Georgia 2007/1 in Ornithodoros erraticus Ticks [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
A. V. Diaz et al.
EID Diaz AV, Netherton CL, Dixon LK, Wilson AJ. African Swine Fever Virus Strain Georgia 2007/1 in Ornithodoros erraticus Ticks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1026-1028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111728
AMA Diaz AV, Netherton CL, Dixon LK, et al. African Swine Fever Virus Strain Georgia 2007/1 in Ornithodoros erraticus Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1026-1028. doi:10.3201/eid1806.111728.
APA Diaz, A. V., Netherton, C. L., Dixon, L. K., & Wilson, A. J. (2012). African Swine Fever Virus Strain Georgia 2007/1 in Ornithodoros erraticus Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1026-1028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.111728.

Apparent Triclabendazole-Resistant Human Fasciola hepatica Infection, the Netherlands [PDF - 178 KB - 2 pages]
A. Winkelhagen et al.
EID Winkelhagen A, Mank T, de Vries PJ, Soetekouw R. Apparent Triclabendazole-Resistant Human Fasciola hepatica Infection, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1028-1029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120302
AMA Winkelhagen A, Mank T, de Vries PJ, et al. Apparent Triclabendazole-Resistant Human Fasciola hepatica Infection, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1028-1029. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120302.
APA Winkelhagen, A., Mank, T., de Vries, P. J., & Soetekouw, R. (2012). Apparent Triclabendazole-Resistant Human Fasciola hepatica Infection, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1028-1029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120302.

Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France [PDF - 256 KB - 2 pages]
M. Kaba et al.
EID Kaba M, Colson P, Larrat S, Gaillard S, Baccard M, Piroth L, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1031-1032. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110632
AMA Kaba M, Colson P, Larrat S, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1031-1032. doi:10.3201/eid1806.110632.
APA Kaba, M., Colson, P., Larrat, S., Gaillard, S., Baccard, M., Piroth, L....Morand, P. (2012). Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sheltered Homeless Persons, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1031-1032. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.110632.

Possibility of Leishmaniasis Transmission in Jura, France [PDF - 158 KB - 1 page]
M. Kasbari et al.
EID Kasbari M, Ravel C, Noël H, Pesson B, Schaffner F, Depaquit J. Possibility of Leishmaniasis Transmission in Jura, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120158
AMA Kasbari M, Ravel C, Noël H, et al. Possibility of Leishmaniasis Transmission in Jura, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1030. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120158.
APA Kasbari, M., Ravel, C., Noël, H., Pesson, B., Schaffner, F., & Depaquit, J. (2012). Possibility of Leishmaniasis Transmission in Jura, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120158.

Etymologia: Prion [PDF - 183 KB - 2 pages]
L. B. Schonberger and R. B. Schonberger
EID Schonberger LB, Schonberger RB. Etymologia: Prion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1030-1031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120271
AMA Schonberger LB, Schonberger RB. Etymologia: Prion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1030-1031. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120271.
APA Schonberger, L. B., & Schonberger, R. B. (2012). Etymologia: Prion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1030-1031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120271.
Books and Media

Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review [PDF - 192 KB - 1 page]
S. A. Bloom
EID Bloom SA. Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120388
AMA Bloom SA. Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1033. doi:10.3201/eid1806.120388.
APA Bloom, S. A. (2012). Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.120388.
About the Cover

I rhyme / To see myself, to set the darkness echoing [PDF - 197 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. I rhyme / To see myself, to set the darkness echoing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):1034-1035. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.ac1806
AMA Potter P. I rhyme / To see myself, to set the darkness echoing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):1034-1035. doi:10.3201/eid1806.ac1806.
APA Potter, P. (2012). I rhyme / To see myself, to set the darkness echoing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 1034-1035. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.ac1806.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Syphilis [PDF - 166 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Syphilis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):997. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.et1806
AMA Etymologia: Syphilis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):997. doi:10.3201/eid1806.et1806.
APA (2012). Etymologia: Syphilis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(6), 997. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1806.et1806.
Page created: October 19, 2012
Page updated: October 19, 2012
Page reviewed: October 19, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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