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Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012

Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador

Victor H. Leyva-Grado, Samira Mubareka, Florian Krammer, Washington B. Cárdenas, and Peter PaleseComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA (V.H. Leyva-Grado, F. Krammer, P. Palese); Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (S. Mubareka); and; Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL), Guayaquil, Ecuador (W.B. Cárdenas)

Main Article

Table 1

ELISA results for the presence of influenza A virus antibodies in guinea pigs from different regions of Ecuador*

Region No. (%) positive, by antigen†
H1 H3 H5 NP N1 (Cal09) N1 (Vietnam04) N2
Cuenca, n = 20 11 (55) 12 (60) 6 (30) 16 (80) 8 (57)‡ 8 (57)‡ 10 (71)
Guayaquil, n = 10 8 (80) 5 (50) 8 (80) 10 (100) 8 (88)§ 8 (88)§ 8 (88)§
Manabí, n = 10 1 (10) 1 (10) 0 3 (30) 1 (50)¶ 1 (50)¶
Total 20 18 14 29 17 17 18

*Samples were from adult guinea pigs raised as livestock on local farms (Cuenca) or from live animal markets (Guayaquil and Manabí). H1, recombinant hemagglutinin from A/California/04/2009 (Cal09); H3, recombinant hemagglutinin from A/Wisconsin/67/2005; H5, recombinant hemagglutinin from A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (Vietnam04); NP, recombinant nucleoprotein from A/Brisbane/10/2007; N1, recombinant neuraminidase from Cal09 or Vietnam04; N2, recombinant neuraminidase from A/Hong Kong/1/1968.
†Serum samples were considered positive if absorbance (read at 405 nm) was higher than the value of the negative control (naive guinea pig serum) +3 SD.
‡Only 14 samples were tested.
§Only 9 samples were tested.
¶Only 2 samples were tested.

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Page created: June 12, 2012
Page updated: June 18, 2012
Page reviewed: June 18, 2012
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