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Issue Cover for Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012

Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012

[PDF - 6.15 MB - 191 pages]

Perspective

World Health Organization Perspective on Implementation of International Health Regulations [PDF - 195 KB - 6 pages]
M. Hardiman

In 2005, the International Health Regulations were adopted at the 58th World Health Assembly; in June 2007, they were entered into force for most countries. In 2012, the world is approaching a major 5-year milestone in the global commitment to ensure national capacities to identify, investigate, assess, and respond to public health events. In the past 5 years, existing programs have been boosted and some new activities relating to International Health Regulations provisions have been successfully established. The lessons and experience of the past 5 years need to be drawn upon to provide improved direction for the future.

EID Hardiman M. World Health Organization Perspective on Implementation of International Health Regulations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1041-1046. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120395
AMA Hardiman M. World Health Organization Perspective on Implementation of International Health Regulations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1041-1046. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120395.
APA Hardiman, M. (2012). World Health Organization Perspective on Implementation of International Health Regulations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1041-1046. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120395.

Medscape CME Activity
Assessment of Public Health Events through International Health Regulations, United States, 2007–2011 [PDF - 228 KB - 7 pages]
K. S. Kohl et al.

Under the current International Health Regulations, 194 states parties are obligated to report potential public health emergencies of international concern to the World Health Organization (WHO) within 72 hours of becoming aware of an event. During July 2007–December 2011, WHO assessed and posted on a secure web portal 222 events from 105 states parties, including 24 events from the United States. Twelve US events involved human influenza caused by a new virus subtype, including the first report of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, which constitutes the only public health emergency of international concern determined by the WHO director-general to date. Additional US events involved 5 Salmonella spp. outbreaks, botulism, Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections, Guillain-Barré syndrome, contaminated heparin, Lassa fever, an oil spill, and typhoid fever. Rapid information exchange among WHO and member states facilitated by the International Health Regulations leads to better situation awareness of emerging threats and enables a more coordinated and transparent global response.

EID Kohl KS, Arthur RR, O’Connor R, Fernandez J. Assessment of Public Health Events through International Health Regulations, United States, 2007–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1047-1053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120231
AMA Kohl KS, Arthur RR, O’Connor R, et al. Assessment of Public Health Events through International Health Regulations, United States, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1047-1053. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120231.
APA Kohl, K. S., Arthur, R. R., O’Connor, R., & Fernandez, J. (2012). Assessment of Public Health Events through International Health Regulations, United States, 2007–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1047-1053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120231.

International Health Regulations—What Gets Measured Gets Done [PDF - 130 KB - 4 pages]
K. Ijaz et al.

The global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome highlighted the need to detect and control disease outbreaks at their source, as envisioned by the 2005 revised International Health Regulations (IHR). June 2012 marked the initial deadline by which all 194 World Health Organization (WHO) member states agreed to have IHR core capacities fully implemented for limiting the spread of public health emergencies of international concern. Many countries fell short of these implementation goals and requested a 2-year extension. The degree to which achieving IHR compliance will result in global health security is not clear, but what is clear is that progress against the threat of epidemic disease requires a focused approach that can be monitored and measured efficiently. We developed concrete goals and metrics for 4 of the 8 core capacities with other US government partners in consultation with WHO and national collaborators worldwide. The intent is to offer an example of an approach to implementing and monitoring IHR for consideration or adaptation by countries that complements other frameworks and goals of IHR. Without concrete metrics, IHR may waste its considerable promise as an instrument for global health security against public health emergencies.

EID Ijaz K, Kasowski E, Arthur RR, Angulo FJ, Dowell SF. International Health Regulations—What Gets Measured Gets Done. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1054-1057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120487
AMA Ijaz K, Kasowski E, Arthur RR, et al. International Health Regulations—What Gets Measured Gets Done. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1054-1057. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120487.
APA Ijaz, K., Kasowski, E., Arthur, R. R., Angulo, F. J., & Dowell, S. F. (2012). International Health Regulations—What Gets Measured Gets Done. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1054-1057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120487.
Synopses

Lessons Learned from Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic Response in Thailand [PDF - 312 KB - 7 pages]
K. Ungchusak et al.

In 2009, Thailand experienced rapid spread of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The national response came under intense public scrutiny as the number of confirmed cases and associated deaths increased. Thus, during July–December 2009, the Ministry of Public Health and the World Health Organization jointly reviewed the response efforts. The review found that the actions taken were largely appropriate and proportionate to need. However, areas needing improvement were surveillance, laboratory capacity, hospital infection control and surge capacity, coordination and monitoring of guidelines for clinical management and nonpharmaceutical interventions, risk communications, and addressing vulnerabilities of non-Thai displaced and migrant populations. The experience in Thailand may be applicable to other countries and settings, and the lessons learned may help strengthen responses to other pandemics or comparable prolonged public health emergencies.

EID Ungchusak K, Sawanpanyalert P, Hanchoworakul W, Sawanpanyalert N, Maloney SA, Brown R, et al. Lessons Learned from Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic Response in Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1058-1064. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.110976
AMA Ungchusak K, Sawanpanyalert P, Hanchoworakul W, et al. Lessons Learned from Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic Response in Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1058-1064. doi:10.3201/eid1807.110976.
APA Ungchusak, K., Sawanpanyalert, P., Hanchoworakul, W., Sawanpanyalert, N., Maloney, S. A., Brown, R....Chusuttiwat, S. (2012). Lessons Learned from Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic Response in Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1058-1064. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.110976.
Research

Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies among Dairy Cattle, the Netherlands, Winter 2011–2012 [PDF - 449 KB - 7 pages]
A. Elbers et al.

Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011–January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the central-eastern part of the Netherlands than in the northern and southern regions (p<0.001). In addition, high (70%–100%) within-herd seroprevalence was observed in 2 SBV-infected dairy herds and 2 SBV-infected sheep herds. No significant differences were found in age-specific prevalence of antibodies against SBV, which is an indication that SBV is newly arrived in the country.

EID Elbers A, Loeffen W, Quak S, de Boer-Luijtze E, van der Spek AN, Bouwstra R, et al. Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies among Dairy Cattle, the Netherlands, Winter 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1065-1071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120323
AMA Elbers A, Loeffen W, Quak S, et al. Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies among Dairy Cattle, the Netherlands, Winter 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1065-1071. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120323.
APA Elbers, A., Loeffen, W., Quak, S., de Boer-Luijtze, E., van der Spek, A. N., Bouwstra, R....van der Poel, W. (2012). Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies among Dairy Cattle, the Netherlands, Winter 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1065-1071. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120323.

Predicting Risk for Death from MRSA Bacteremia [PDF - 272 KB - 9 pages]
M. Pastagia et al.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is often fatal. To determine predictors of risk for death, we conducted a retrospective cohort study. We examined 699 episodes of MRSA bacteremia involving 603 patients admitted to an academic medical center in New York City during 2002–2007. Data came from chart reviews, hospital databases, and recultured frozen MRSA specimens. Among the 699 episodes, 55 were caused by vancomycin–intermediate resistant S. aureus strains, 55 by heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains, and 589 by non–vancomycin-resistant strains; 190 (31.5%) patients died. We used regression risk analysis to quantify the association between clinical correlates and death. We found that older age, residence in a nursing home, severe bacteremia, and organ impairment were independently associated with increased risk for death; consultation with an infectious disease specialist was associated with lower risk for death; and MRSA strain types were not associated with risk for death.

EID Pastagia M, Kleinman LC, Lacerda de la Cruz EG, Jenkins SG. Predicting Risk for Death from MRSA Bacteremia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1072-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.101371
AMA Pastagia M, Kleinman LC, Lacerda de la Cruz EG, et al. Predicting Risk for Death from MRSA Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1072-1080. doi:10.3201/eid1807.101371.
APA Pastagia, M., Kleinman, L. C., Lacerda de la Cruz, E. G., & Jenkins, S. G. (2012). Predicting Risk for Death from MRSA Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1072-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.101371.

Adenoviruses in Fecal Samples from Asymptomatic Rhesus Macaques, United States [PDF - 389 KB - 8 pages]
S. Roy et al.

Adenoviruses can cause infectious diarrheal disease or respiratory infections in humans; 2 recent reports have indicated probable human infection with simian adenoviruses (SAdVs). To assess the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs, we tested fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques housed in 5 primate facilities in the United States and cultured 23 SAdV isolates. Of these, 9 were purified and completely sequenced; 3 SAdV samples from the American Type Culture Collection (SAdV-6, SAdV-18, and SAdV-20) were also completely sequenced. The sequence of SAdV-18 was closely related to that of human adenovirus F across the whole genome, and the new isolates were found to harbor 2 fiber genes similar to those of human adenovirus (HAdV) strains HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, which can cause infectious diarrhea. The high prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques and the similarity of the isolates to human strains indicates the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs.

EID Roy S, Sandhu A, Medina A, Clawson DS, Wilson JM. Adenoviruses in Fecal Samples from Asymptomatic Rhesus Macaques, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1081-1088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111665
AMA Roy S, Sandhu A, Medina A, et al. Adenoviruses in Fecal Samples from Asymptomatic Rhesus Macaques, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1081-1088. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111665.
APA Roy, S., Sandhu, A., Medina, A., Clawson, D. S., & Wilson, J. M. (2012). Adenoviruses in Fecal Samples from Asymptomatic Rhesus Macaques, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1081-1088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111665.

Spike Protein Fusion Peptide and Feline Coronavirus Virulence [PDF - 479 KB - 7 pages]
H. Chang et al.

Coronaviruses are well known for their potential to change their host or tissue tropism, resulting in unpredictable new diseases and changes in pathogenicity; severe acute respiratory syndrome and feline coronaviruses, respectively, are the most recognized examples. Feline coronaviruses occur as 2 pathotypes: nonvirulent feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs), which replicate in intestinal epithelium cells, and lethal feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs), which replicate in macrophages. Evidence indicates that FIPV originates from FECV by mutation, but consistent distinguishing differences have not been established. We sequenced the full genome of 11 viruses of each pathotype and then focused on the single most distinctive site by additionally sequencing hundreds of viruses in that region. As a result, we identified 2 alternative amino acid differences in the putative fusion peptide of the spike protein that together distinguish FIPV from FECV in >95% of cases. By these and perhaps other mutations, the virus apparently acquires its macrophage tropism and spreads systemically.

EID Chang H, Egberink HF, Halpin R, Spiro DJ, Rottier P. Spike Protein Fusion Peptide and Feline Coronavirus Virulence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1089-1095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120143
AMA Chang H, Egberink HF, Halpin R, et al. Spike Protein Fusion Peptide and Feline Coronavirus Virulence. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1089-1095. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120143.
APA Chang, H., Egberink, H. F., Halpin, R., Spiro, D. J., & Rottier, P. (2012). Spike Protein Fusion Peptide and Feline Coronavirus Virulence. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1089-1095. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120143.

Enterococcus faecalis Clones in Poultry and in Humans with Urinary Tract Infections, Vietnam [PDF - 164 KB - 5 pages]
L. Poulsen et al.

Enterococcus spp. as pathogens have increased, but the sources of infection often remain unclear. To investigate whether poultry might be a reservoir for E. faecalis–associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans, we characterized E. faecalis isolates from patients in Vietnam with UTIs during January 2008–January 2010 and poultry living in close contact with them by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, analysis of antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns, and sequencing of virulence genes. In 7 (23%) of 31 UTI cases, we detected identical MLST, indistinguishable or closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, and similar antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns. Isolates from urine and poultry showed identical virulence gene profiles, except for 1 variation, and individual genes showed identical sequences. The homology of isolates from urine and poultry further indicates the zoonotic potential and global spread of E. faecalis sequence type 16, which recently was reported in humans with endocarditis and in pigs in Denmark.

EID Poulsen L, Bisgaard M, Son N, Trung N, An H, Dalsgaard A. Enterococcus faecalis Clones in Poultry and in Humans with Urinary Tract Infections, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1096-1100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111754
AMA Poulsen L, Bisgaard M, Son N, et al. Enterococcus faecalis Clones in Poultry and in Humans with Urinary Tract Infections, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1096-1100. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111754.
APA Poulsen, L., Bisgaard, M., Son, N., Trung, N., An, H., & Dalsgaard, A. (2012). Enterococcus faecalis Clones in Poultry and in Humans with Urinary Tract Infections, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1096-1100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111754.

Loss of Household Protection from Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets against Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes, Benin [PDF - 174 KB - 6 pages]
A. Asidi et al.

Pyrethroid resistance is becoming widespread in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, coinciding with expanded use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) throughout Africa. To investigate whether nets in use are still protective, we conducted household trials in northern and southern Benin, where An. gambiae mosquitoes are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to pyrethroids. Rooms were fitted with window traps and monitored for mosquito biting and survival rates before and after the nets were treated with pyrethroid. Sleeping under an ITN in the location with resistant mosquitoes was no more protective than sleeping under an untreated net, regardless of its physical condition. By contrast, sleeping under an ITN in the location with susceptible mosquitoes decreased the odds of biting by 66%. ITNs provide little or no protection once the mosquitoes become resistant and the netting acquires holes. Resistance seriously threatens malaria control strategies based on ITN.

EID Asidi A, N’Guessan R, Akogbeto M, Curtis C, Rowland M. Loss of Household Protection from Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets against Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes, Benin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1101-1106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120218
AMA Asidi A, N’Guessan R, Akogbeto M, et al. Loss of Household Protection from Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets against Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1101-1106. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120218.
APA Asidi, A., N’Guessan, R., Akogbeto, M., Curtis, C., & Rowland, M. (2012). Loss of Household Protection from Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets against Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1101-1106. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120218.

Retrospective Evaluation of Control Measures for Contacts of Patient with Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever [PDF - 198 KB - 8 pages]
A. Timen et al.

After an imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever was reported in 2008 in the Netherlands, control measures to prevent transmission were implemented. To evaluate consequences of these measures, we administered a structured questionnaire to 130 contacts classified as either having high-risk or low-risk exposure to body fluids of the case-patient; 77 (59.2%) of 130 contacts responded. A total of 67 (87.0%) of 77 respondents agreed that temperature monitoring and reporting was necessary, significantly more often among high-risk than low-risk contacts (p<0.001). Strict compliance with daily temperature monitoring decreased from 80.5% (62/77) during week 1 to 66.2% (51/77) during week 3. Contacts expressed concern about development of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (58.4%, 45/77) and infecting a family member (40.2%, 31/77). High-risk contacts had significantly higher scores on psychological impact scales (p<0.001) during and after the monitoring period. Public health authorities should specifically address consequences of control measures on the daily life of contacts.

EID Timen A, Isken LD, Willemse P, van den Berkmortel F, Koopmans M, van Oudheusden D, et al. Retrospective Evaluation of Control Measures for Contacts of Patient with Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1107-1114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.101638
AMA Timen A, Isken LD, Willemse P, et al. Retrospective Evaluation of Control Measures for Contacts of Patient with Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1107-1114. doi:10.3201/eid1807.101638.
APA Timen, A., Isken, L. D., Willemse, P., van den Berkmortel, F., Koopmans, M., van Oudheusden, D....van Dissel, J. T. (2012). Retrospective Evaluation of Control Measures for Contacts of Patient with Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1107-1114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.101638.

Validity of International Health Regulations in Reporting Emerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 143 KB - 6 pages]
M. Edelstein et al.

Understanding which emerging infectious diseases are of international public health concern is vital. The International Health Regulations include a decision instrument to help countries determine which public health events are of international concern and require reporting to the World Health Organization (WHO) on the basis of seriousness, unusualness, international spread and trade, or need for travel restrictions. This study examined the validity of the International Health Regulations decision instrument in reporting emerging infectious disease to WHO by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. It found a sensitivity of 95.6%, a specificity of 38%, and a positive predictive value of 35.5%. These findings are acceptable if the notification volume to WHO remains low. Validity could be improved by setting more prescriptive criteria of seriousness and unusualness and training persons responsible for notification. However, the criteria should be balanced with the need for the instrument to adapt to future unknown threats.

EID Edelstein M, Heymann DL, Giesecke J, Weinberg J. Validity of International Health Regulations in Reporting Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1115-1120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111608
AMA Edelstein M, Heymann DL, Giesecke J, et al. Validity of International Health Regulations in Reporting Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1115-1120. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111608.
APA Edelstein, M., Heymann, D. L., Giesecke, J., & Weinberg, J. (2012). Validity of International Health Regulations in Reporting Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1115-1120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111608.

Costing Framework for International Health Regulations (2005) [PDF - 244 KB - 7 pages]
R. Katz et al.

The revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]) conferred new responsibilities on member states of the World Health Organization, requiring them to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health emergencies. Many countries have not yet developed these capacities, and poor understanding of the associated costs have created a barrier to effectively marshaling assistance. To help national and international decision makers understand the inputs and associated costs of implementing the IHR (2005), we developed an IHR implementation strategy to serve as a framework for making preliminary estimates of fixed and operating costs associated with developing and sustaining IHR core capacities across an entire public health system. This tool lays the groundwork for modeling the costs of strengthening public health systems from the central to the peripheral level of an integrated health system, a key step in helping national health authorities define necessary actions and investments required for IHR compliance.

EID Katz R, Haté V, Kornblet S, Fischer JE. Costing Framework for International Health Regulations (2005). Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1121-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120191
AMA Katz R, Haté V, Kornblet S, et al. Costing Framework for International Health Regulations (2005). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1121-1127. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120191.
APA Katz, R., Haté, V., Kornblet, S., & Fischer, J. E. (2012). Costing Framework for International Health Regulations (2005). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1121-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120191.
Dispatches

Seroconversion to Seasonal Influenza Viruses after A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection, Quebec, Canada [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
M. Baz et al.

We looked for cross-reactive antibodies in 122 persons with paired serum samples collected during the 2009 pandemic of influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09. Eight (12%) of 67 persons with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and/or serology also seroconverted to the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) virus, compared with 1 (2%) of 55 A(H1N1)pdm09-negative persons (p<0.05).

EID Baz M, Papenburg J, Hamelin M, Ouakki M, Skowronski DM, De Serres G, et al. Seroconversion to Seasonal Influenza Viruses after A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection, Quebec, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1132-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111680
AMA Baz M, Papenburg J, Hamelin M, et al. Seroconversion to Seasonal Influenza Viruses after A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection, Quebec, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1132-1134. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111680.
APA Baz, M., Papenburg, J., Hamelin, M., Ouakki, M., Skowronski, D. M., De Serres, G....Boivin, G. (2012). Seroconversion to Seasonal Influenza Viruses after A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection, Quebec, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1132-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111680.

Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador [PDF - 206 KB - 4 pages]
V. H. Leyva-Grado et al.

To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region.

EID Leyva-Grado VH, Mubareka S, Krammer F, Cárdenas WB, Palese P. Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1135-1138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111930
AMA Leyva-Grado VH, Mubareka S, Krammer F, et al. Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1135-1138. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111930.
APA Leyva-Grado, V. H., Mubareka, S., Krammer, F., Cárdenas, W. B., & Palese, P. (2012). Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1135-1138. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111930.

Multiple Introductions of Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Laos, 2009–2010 [PDF - 446 KB - 5 pages]
S. Sonnberg et al.

Avian influenza viruses (H5N1) of clades 2.3.4.1, 2.3.4.2, and 2.3.2.1 were introduced into Laos in 2009–2010. To investigate these viruses, we conducted active surveillance of poultry during March 2010. We detected viruses throughout Laos, including several interclade reassortants and 2 subgroups of clade 2.3.4, one of which caused an outbreak in May 2010.

EID Sonnberg S, Phommachanh P, Naipospos T, McKenzie J, Chanthavisouk C, Pathammavong S, et al. Multiple Introductions of Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Laos, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1139-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111642
AMA Sonnberg S, Phommachanh P, Naipospos T, et al. Multiple Introductions of Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Laos, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1139-1143. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111642.
APA Sonnberg, S., Phommachanh, P., Naipospos, T., McKenzie, J., Chanthavisouk, C., Pathammavong, S....Webster, R. G. (2012). Multiple Introductions of Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Laos, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1139-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111642.

Human Infection from Avian-like Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses in Pigs, China [PDF - 265 KB - 3 pages]
H. Yang et al.

In investigating influenza in an immunodeficient child in China, in December 2010, we found that the influenza virus showed high sequence identity to that of swine. Serologic evidence indicated that viral persistence in pigs was the source of infection. Continued surveillance of pigs and systemic analysis of swine influenza isolates are needed.

EID Yang H, Qiao C, Tang X, Chen Y, Xin X, Chen H. Human Infection from Avian-like Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses in Pigs, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1165-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120009
AMA Yang H, Qiao C, Tang X, et al. Human Infection from Avian-like Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses in Pigs, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1165-1166. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120009.
APA Yang, H., Qiao, C., Tang, X., Chen, Y., Xin, X., & Chen, H. (2012). Human Infection from Avian-like Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses in Pigs, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1165-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120009.

Electronic Event–based Surveillance for Monitoring Dengue, Latin America [PDF - 346 KB - 4 pages]
A. G. Hoen et al.

The current dengue epidemic in Latin America represents a major threat to health. However, surveillance of affected regions lacks timeliness and precision. We investigated real-time electronic sources for monitoring spread of dengue into new regions. This approach could provide timely estimates of changes in distribution of dengue, a critical component of prevention and control efforts.

EID Hoen AG, Keller M, Verma AD, Buckeridge DL, Brownstein JS. Electronic Event–based Surveillance for Monitoring Dengue, Latin America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1147-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120055
AMA Hoen AG, Keller M, Verma AD, et al. Electronic Event–based Surveillance for Monitoring Dengue, Latin America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1147-1150. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120055.
APA Hoen, A. G., Keller, M., Verma, A. D., Buckeridge, D. L., & Brownstein, J. S. (2012). Electronic Event–based Surveillance for Monitoring Dengue, Latin America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1147-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120055.

Changing Socioeconomic Indicators of Human Plague, New Mexico, USA [PDF - 922 KB - 4 pages]
A. M. Schotthoefer et al.

Socioeconomic indicators associated with temporal changes in the distribution of human plague cases in New Mexico were investigated for 1976–2007. In the 1980s, cases were more likely in census block groups with poor housing conditions, but by the 2000s, cases were associated with affluent areas concentrated in the Santa Fe–Albuquerque region.

EID Schotthoefer AM, Eisen RJ, Kugeler KJ, Ettestad P, Reynolds PJ, Brown T, et al. Changing Socioeconomic Indicators of Human Plague, New Mexico, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1151-1154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120121
AMA Schotthoefer AM, Eisen RJ, Kugeler KJ, et al. Changing Socioeconomic Indicators of Human Plague, New Mexico, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1151-1154. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120121.
APA Schotthoefer, A. M., Eisen, R. J., Kugeler, K. J., Ettestad, P., Reynolds, P. J., Brown, T....Gage, K. L. (2012). Changing Socioeconomic Indicators of Human Plague, New Mexico, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1151-1154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120121.

Disseminated Microsporidiosis in an Immunosuppressed Patient [PDF - 432 KB - 4 pages]
E. G. Meissner et al.

We report a case of disseminated microsporidiosis in a patient with multiple myeloma who had received an allogeneic stem cell transplant requiring substantial immunosuppression. The causative organism was identified as Tubulinosema acridophagus, confirming this genus of microsporidia as a novel human pathogen.

EID Meissner EG, Bennett JE, Qvarnstrom Y, da Silva A, Chu EY, Tsokos M, et al. Disseminated Microsporidiosis in an Immunosuppressed Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1155-1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120047
AMA Meissner EG, Bennett JE, Qvarnstrom Y, et al. Disseminated Microsporidiosis in an Immunosuppressed Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1155-1158. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120047.
APA Meissner, E. G., Bennett, J. E., Qvarnstrom, Y., da Silva, A., Chu, E. Y., Tsokos, M....Gea-Banacloche, J. (2012). Disseminated Microsporidiosis in an Immunosuppressed Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1155-1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120047.

Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009 [PDF - 326 KB - 4 pages]
M. Staff et al.

A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface.

EID Staff M, Musto J, Hogg G, Janssen M, Rose K. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1159-1162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111443
AMA Staff M, Musto J, Hogg G, et al. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1159-1162. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111443.
APA Staff, M., Musto, J., Hogg, G., Janssen, M., & Rose, K. (2012). Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1159-1162. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111443.

Probable Transmission of Coxsackie B3 Virus from Human to Chimpanzee, Denmark [PDF - 281 KB - 3 pages]
S. C. Nielsen et al.

In 2010, a chimpanzee died at Copenhagen Zoo following an outbreak of respiratory disease among chimpanzees in the zoo. Identification of coxsackie B3 virus, a common human pathogen, as the causative agent, and its severe manifestation, raise questions about pathogenicity and transmissibility among humans and other primates.

EID Nielsen SC, Mourier T, Baandrup U, Søland T, Bertelsen M, Gilbert M, et al. Probable Transmission of Coxsackie B3 Virus from Human to Chimpanzee, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1163-1165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111689
AMA Nielsen SC, Mourier T, Baandrup U, et al. Probable Transmission of Coxsackie B3 Virus from Human to Chimpanzee, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1163-1165. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111689.
APA Nielsen, S. C., Mourier, T., Baandrup, U., Søland, T., Bertelsen, M., Gilbert, M....Nielsen, L. (2012). Probable Transmission of Coxsackie B3 Virus from Human to Chimpanzee, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1163-1165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111689.

Transmission of Bordetella holmesii during Pertussis Outbreak, Japan [PDF - 214 KB - 4 pages]
H. Kamiya et al.

We describe the epidemiology of a pertussis outbreak in Japan in 2010–2011 and Bordetella holmesii transmission. Six patients were infected; 4 patients were students and a teacher at the same junior high school. Epidemiologic links were found between 5 patients. B. holmesii may have been transmitted from person to person.

EID Kamiya H, Otsuka N, Ando Y, Odaira F, Yoshino S, Kawano K, et al. Transmission of Bordetella holmesii during Pertussis Outbreak, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1166-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120130
AMA Kamiya H, Otsuka N, Ando Y, et al. Transmission of Bordetella holmesii during Pertussis Outbreak, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1166-1169. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120130.
APA Kamiya, H., Otsuka, N., Ando, Y., Odaira, F., Yoshino, S., Kawano, K....Okabe, N. (2012). Transmission of Bordetella holmesii during Pertussis Outbreak, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1166-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120130.

Trap-Vaccinate-Release Program to Control Raccoon Rabies, New York, USA [PDF - 262 KB - 3 pages]
S. Slavinski et al.

In 2009, an outbreak of raccoon rabies in Central Park in New York City, New York, USA, infected 133 raccoons. Five persons and 2 dogs were exposed but did not become infected. A trap-vaccinate-release program vaccinated ≈500 raccoons and contributed to the end of the epizootic.

EID Slavinski S, Humberg L, Lowney M, Simon R, Calvanese N, Bregman B, et al. Trap-Vaccinate-Release Program to Control Raccoon Rabies, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1170-1172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111485
AMA Slavinski S, Humberg L, Lowney M, et al. Trap-Vaccinate-Release Program to Control Raccoon Rabies, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1170-1172. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111485.
APA Slavinski, S., Humberg, L., Lowney, M., Simon, R., Calvanese, N., Bregman, B....Oleszko, W. (2012). Trap-Vaccinate-Release Program to Control Raccoon Rabies, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1170-1172. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111485.

Potential International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis [PDF - 221 KB - 4 pages]
I. Rodríguez et al.

In developing countries, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes substantial illness and death, and drug resistance is increasing. Isolates from the United Kingdom containing virulence-resistance plasmids were characterized. They mainly caused invasive infections in adults linked to Africa. The common features in isolates from these continents indicate the role of human travel in their spread.

EID Rodríguez I, Rodicio M, Guerra B, Hopkins KL. Potential International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1173-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120063
AMA Rodríguez I, Rodicio M, Guerra B, et al. Potential International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1173-1176. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120063.
APA Rodríguez, I., Rodicio, M., Guerra, B., & Hopkins, K. L. (2012). Potential International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1173-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120063.

Outbreak-associated Vibrio cholerae Genotypes with Identical Pulsotypes, Malaysia, 2009 [PDF - 236 KB - 3 pages]
C. Teh et al.

A cholera outbreak in Terengganu, Malaysia, in November 2009 was caused by 2 El Tor Vibrio cholerae variants resistant to typical antimicrobial drugs. Evidence of replacement of treatable V. cholerae infection in the region with antimicrobial-resistant strains calls for increased surveillance and prevention measures.

EID Teh C, Suhaili Z, Lim K, Khamaruddin M, Yahya F, Sajili M, et al. Outbreak-associated Vibrio cholerae Genotypes with Identical Pulsotypes, Malaysia, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1177-1179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111656
AMA Teh C, Suhaili Z, Lim K, et al. Outbreak-associated Vibrio cholerae Genotypes with Identical Pulsotypes, Malaysia, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1177-1179. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111656.
APA Teh, C., Suhaili, Z., Lim, K., Khamaruddin, M., Yahya, F., Sajili, M....Thong, K. (2012). Outbreak-associated Vibrio cholerae Genotypes with Identical Pulsotypes, Malaysia, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1177-1179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111656.

Dobrava Hantavirus Infection Complicated by Panhypopituitarism, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010 [PDF - 354 KB - 4 pages]
N. Sarıgüzel et al.

We identified Dobrava-Belgrade virus infection in Turkey (from a strain related to hantavirus strains from nearby countries) in a patient who had severe symptoms leading to panhypopituitarism, but no known risk for hantavirus. Our findings emphasize the need for increased awareness of hantaviruses in the region and assessment of symptomatic persons without known risk factors for infection.

EID Sarıgüzel N, Hofmann J, Canpolat A, Türk A, Ettinger J, Atmaca D, et al. Dobrava Hantavirus Infection Complicated by Panhypopituitarism, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1180-1183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111746
AMA Sarıgüzel N, Hofmann J, Canpolat A, et al. Dobrava Hantavirus Infection Complicated by Panhypopituitarism, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1180-1183. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111746.
APA Sarıgüzel, N., Hofmann, J., Canpolat, A., Türk, A., Ettinger, J., Atmaca, D....Kruger, D. H. (2012). Dobrava Hantavirus Infection Complicated by Panhypopituitarism, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1180-1183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111746.

Timeliness of Nongovernmental versus Governmental Global Outbreak Communications [PDF - 217 KB - 4 pages]
L. Mondor et al.

To compare the timeliness of nongovernmental and governmental communications of infectious disease outbreaks and evaluate trends for each over time, we investigated the time elapsed from the beginning of an outbreak to public reporting of the event. We found that governmental sources improved the timeliness of public reporting of infectious disease outbreaks during the study period.

EID Mondor L, Brownstein JS, Chan E, Madoff LC, Pollack MP, Buckeridge DL, et al. Timeliness of Nongovernmental versus Governmental Global Outbreak Communications. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1184-1187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120249
AMA Mondor L, Brownstein JS, Chan E, et al. Timeliness of Nongovernmental versus Governmental Global Outbreak Communications. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1184-1187. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120249.
APA Mondor, L., Brownstein, J. S., Chan, E., Madoff, L. C., Pollack, M. P., Buckeridge, D. L....Brewer, T. F. (2012). Timeliness of Nongovernmental versus Governmental Global Outbreak Communications. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1184-1187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120249.

Role of Birds in Dispersal of Etiologic Agents of Tick-borne Zoonoses, Spain, 2009 [PDF - 294 KB - 4 pages]
A. M. Palomar et al.

We amplified gene sequences from Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia garinii, B. valaisiana, B. turdi, Rickettsia monacensis, R. helvetica, R. sibirica sibirica, and Rickettsia spp. (including Candidatus Rickettsia vini) in ticks removed from birds in Spain. The findings support the role of passerine birds as possible dispersers of these tick-borne pathogens.

EID Palomar AM, Santibáñez P, Mazuelas D, Roncero L, Santibáñez S, Portillo A, et al. Role of Birds in Dispersal of Etiologic Agents of Tick-borne Zoonoses, Spain, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1188-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111777
AMA Palomar AM, Santibáñez P, Mazuelas D, et al. Role of Birds in Dispersal of Etiologic Agents of Tick-borne Zoonoses, Spain, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1188-1191. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111777.
APA Palomar, A. M., Santibáñez, P., Mazuelas, D., Roncero, L., Santibáñez, S., Portillo, A....Oteo, J. A. (2012). Role of Birds in Dispersal of Etiologic Agents of Tick-borne Zoonoses, Spain, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1188-1191. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111777.

Calicivirus from Novel Recovirus Genogroup in Human Diarrhea, Bangladesh [PDF - 315 KB - 4 pages]
S. L. Smits et al.

To identify unknown human viruses in the enteric tract, we examined 105 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea in Bangladesh. A novel calicivirus was identified in a sample from 1 patient and subsequently found in samples from 5 other patients. Phylogenetic analyses classified this virus within the proposed genus Recovirus.

EID Smits SL, Rahman M, Schapendonk C, van Leeuwen M, Faruque A, Haagmans BL, et al. Calicivirus from Novel Recovirus Genogroup in Human Diarrhea, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1192-1195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120344
AMA Smits SL, Rahman M, Schapendonk C, et al. Calicivirus from Novel Recovirus Genogroup in Human Diarrhea, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1192-1195. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120344.
APA Smits, S. L., Rahman, M., Schapendonk, C., van Leeuwen, M., Faruque, A., Haagmans, B. L....Osterhaus, A. (2012). Calicivirus from Novel Recovirus Genogroup in Human Diarrhea, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1192-1195. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120344.

Medscape CME Activity
Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H7N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Adult, New York, USA, 2003 [PDF - 185 KB - 4 pages]
B. Ostrowsky et al.

In 2003, infection with low pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N2) virus was identified in an immunocompromised man with fever and community-acquired pneumonia in New York, USA. The patient recovered. Although the source of the virus was not identified, this case indicates the usefulness of virus culture for detecting novel influenza A viruses.

EID Ostrowsky B, Huang A, Terry W, Anton D, Brunagel B, Traynor L, et al. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H7N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Adult, New York, USA, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1128-1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111913
AMA Ostrowsky B, Huang A, Terry W, et al. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H7N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Adult, New York, USA, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1128-1131. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111913.
APA Ostrowsky, B., Huang, A., Terry, W., Anton, D., Brunagel, B., Traynor, L....Uyeki, T. M. (2012). Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H7N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Adult, New York, USA, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1128-1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111913.
Letters

Treatment Duration for Patients with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States [PDF - 115 KB - 2 pages]
C. A. Winston and K. Mitruka
EID Winston CA, Mitruka K. Treatment Duration for Patients with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1201-1202. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120261
AMA Winston CA, Mitruka K. Treatment Duration for Patients with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1201-1202. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120261.
APA Winston, C. A., & Mitruka, K. (2012). Treatment Duration for Patients with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1201-1202. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120261.

Exposure of US Travelers to Rabid Zebra, Kenya, 2011 [PDF - 123 KB - 3 pages]
E. W. Lankau et al.
EID Lankau EW, Montgomery JM, Tack DM, Obonyo M, Kadivane S, Blanton JD, et al. Exposure of US Travelers to Rabid Zebra, Kenya, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1202-1204. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120081
AMA Lankau EW, Montgomery JM, Tack DM, et al. Exposure of US Travelers to Rabid Zebra, Kenya, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1202-1204. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120081.
APA Lankau, E. W., Montgomery, J. M., Tack, D. M., Obonyo, M., Kadivane, S., Blanton, J. D....Rupprecht, C. E. (2012). Exposure of US Travelers to Rabid Zebra, Kenya, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1202-1204. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120081.

Culicoids as Vectors of Schmallenberg Virus [PDF - 127 KB - 3 pages]
L. Rasmussen et al.
EID Rasmussen L, Kristensen B, Kirkeby C, Rasmussen T, Belsham GJ, Bødker R, et al. Culicoids as Vectors of Schmallenberg Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1204-1206. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120385
AMA Rasmussen L, Kristensen B, Kirkeby C, et al. Culicoids as Vectors of Schmallenberg Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1204-1206. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120385.
APA Rasmussen, L., Kristensen, B., Kirkeby, C., Rasmussen, T., Belsham, G. J., Bødker, R....Bøtner, A. (2012). Culicoids as Vectors of Schmallenberg Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1204-1206. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120385.

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Ghana, West Africa [PDF - 85 KB - 3 pages]
D. Hayman et al.
EID Hayman D, Yu M, Crameri G, Wang L, Suu-Ire R, Wood J, et al. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Ghana, West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1207-1209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111654
AMA Hayman D, Yu M, Crameri G, et al. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Ghana, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1207-1209. doi:10.3201/eid1807.111654.
APA Hayman, D., Yu, M., Crameri, G., Wang, L., Suu-Ire, R., Wood, J....Cunningham, A. A. (2012). Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Ghana, West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1207-1209. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.111654.

Outbreak-associated Novel Duck Reovirus, China, 2011 [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Chen et al.
EID Chen Z, Zhu Y, Li C, Liu G. Outbreak-associated Novel Duck Reovirus, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1209-1211. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120190
AMA Chen Z, Zhu Y, Li C, et al. Outbreak-associated Novel Duck Reovirus, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1209-1211. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120190.
APA Chen, Z., Zhu, Y., Li, C., & Liu, G. (2012). Outbreak-associated Novel Duck Reovirus, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1209-1211. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120190.

Considerations for Oral Cholera Vaccine Use during Outbreak after Earthquake in Haiti, 2010–2011 [PDF - 116 KB - 4 pages]
K. Date et al.
EID Date K, Hyde T, Mintz E, Vicari A, Danovaro-Holliday M, Ruiz-Matus C, et al. Considerations for Oral Cholera Vaccine Use during Outbreak after Earthquake in Haiti, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1211-1214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120071
AMA Date K, Hyde T, Mintz E, et al. Considerations for Oral Cholera Vaccine Use during Outbreak after Earthquake in Haiti, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1211-1214. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120071.
APA Date, K., Hyde, T., Mintz, E., Vicari, A., Danovaro-Holliday, M., Ruiz-Matus, C....Deen, J. L. (2012). Considerations for Oral Cholera Vaccine Use during Outbreak after Earthquake in Haiti, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1211-1214. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120071.

Buruli Ulcer in Gabon, 2001–2010 [PDF - 103 KB - 2 pages]
U. Ngoa et al.
EID Ngoa U, Adzoda GK, Louis B, Adegnika A, Lell B. Buruli Ulcer in Gabon, 2001–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1206-1207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.110613
AMA Ngoa U, Adzoda GK, Louis B, et al. Buruli Ulcer in Gabon, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1206-1207. doi:10.3201/eid1807.110613.
APA Ngoa, U., Adzoda, G. K., Louis, B., Adegnika, A., & Lell, B. (2012). Buruli Ulcer in Gabon, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1206-1207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.110613.
Another Dimension

Tracking the Vector of Onchocerca lupi in a Rural Area of Greece [PDF - 384 KB - 5 pages]
D. Otranto et al.
EID Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F, Papadopoulos E, Petrić D, Ćupina A, Bain O. Tracking the Vector of Onchocerca lupi in a Rural Area of Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1196-1200. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.ad1807
AMA Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F, Papadopoulos E, et al. Tracking the Vector of Onchocerca lupi in a Rural Area of Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1196-1200. doi:10.3201/eid1807.ad1807.
APA Otranto, D., Dantas-Torres, F., Papadopoulos, E., Petrić, D., Ćupina, A., & Bain, O. (2012). Tracking the Vector of Onchocerca lupi in a Rural Area of Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1196-1200. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.ad1807.
Books and Media

Infectious Disease: A Geographic Guide and Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases [PDF - 83 KB - 2 pages]
B. P. Petruccelli
EID Petruccelli BP. Infectious Disease: A Geographic Guide and Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1216-1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120604
AMA Petruccelli BP. Infectious Disease: A Geographic Guide and Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1216-1217. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120604.
APA Petruccelli, B. P. (2012). Infectious Disease: A Geographic Guide and Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1216-1217. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120604.

The Origins of AIDS [PDF - 70 KB - 1 page]
K. M. De Cock
EID De Cock KM. The Origins of AIDS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1215. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120461
AMA De Cock KM. The Origins of AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1215. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120461.
APA De Cock, K. M. (2012). The Origins of AIDS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1215. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120461.

Eradication: Ridding the World of Diseases Forever? [PDF - 75 KB - 2 pages]
J. P. Koplan
EID Koplan JP. Eradication: Ridding the World of Diseases Forever?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1215-1216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120474
AMA Koplan JP. Eradication: Ridding the World of Diseases Forever?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1215-1216. doi:10.3201/eid1807.120474.
APA Koplan, J. P. (2012). Eradication: Ridding the World of Diseases Forever?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1215-1216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.120474.
About the Cover

Health Threats of All Stripes [PDF - 101 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Health Threats of All Stripes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1218-1219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.ac1807
AMA Potter P. Health Threats of All Stripes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1218-1219. doi:10.3201/eid1807.ac1807.
APA Potter, P. (2012). Health Threats of All Stripes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1218-1219. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.ac1807.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Rabies [PDF - 147 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Rabies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(7):1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.et1807
AMA Etymologia: Rabies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(7):1169. doi:10.3201/eid1807.et1807.
APA (2012). Etymologia: Rabies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1807.et1807.
Page created: May 24, 2013
Page updated: February 01, 2018
Page reviewed: February 01, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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