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Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012


Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador

Victor H. Leyva-Grado, Samira Mubareka, Florian Krammer, Washington B. Cárdenas, and Peter PaleseComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA (V.H. Leyva-Grado, F. Krammer, P. Palese); Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (S. Mubareka); and; Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL), Guayaquil, Ecuador (W.B. Cárdenas)

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Table 2

ELISA results for the presence of influenza B virus antibodies in guinea pigs from different regions of Ecuador*

Region No. (%) positive, by antigen†
Whole virus (Yamagata88) Recombinant hemagglutinin Recombinant nucleoprotein
Cuenca, n = 20 17 (85) 18 (90) 18 (94)‡
Guayaquil, n = 10 8 (80) 9 (90) 9 (90)
Manabí, n =10 2 (20) 1 (1) 1 (10)
Total 27 28 28

*Samples were from adult guinea pigs raised as livestock on local farms (Cuenca) or from live animal markets (Guayaquil and Manabí). Whole virus, B/Yamagata/16/1988. Recombinant hemagglutinin was derived from B/Florida/04/2006; nucleoprotein was derived from B/Yamagata/16/1988.
†Serum samples were considered positive if absorbance (read at 405 nm) was higher than the value of the negative control (naive guinea pig serum) + 3 SD.
‡Only 19 samples were tested.

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