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Volume 18, Number 9—September 2012


Surveillance for Influenza Viruses in Poultry and Swine, West Africa, 2006–2008

Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Viviane A. Kouakou, Gilbert L. Aplogan, Felix Awoume, Casimir K. Kouakou, Lamidi Kakpo, Bridgett R. Sharp, Laura McClenaghan, Pamela McKenzie, Robert G. Webster, Richard J. Webby, and Mariette F. Ducatez1Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: Central Laboratory for Animal Diseases, Bingerville, Côte d’Ivoire (E. Couacy-Hymann, V.A. Kouakou, C.K. Kouakou); Laboratoire de Diagnostic Vétérinaire et de Sérosurveillance, Parakou, Benin (G.L. Aplogan, L. Kakpo); Laboratoire Vétérinaire de Lomé, Lomé, Togo (F. Awoume); and St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (B.R. Sharp, L. McClenaghan, P. McKenzie, R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby, M.F. Ducatez)

Main Article

Table 4

Role of influenza virus stability, as influenced by temperature and relative humidity, on hen egg and livestock production, Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Nigeria, Togo, Indonesia, and Vietnam*

Country Livestock production
Temperature, °C (range)¶# Relative humidity, % (range)#**
Hen eggs†‡ Chicken meat‡§ Turkey meat‡§ Duck meat‡§ Pork‡§
Benin 306 22 ND ND 4 26.3 (23–30) 74.9 (70–81)
Côte d’Ivoire 610 23 ND ND 7 26.7 (22–32) 75.3 (70–82)
Egypt 7,000 629 10.5 39 2 22 (9–35) 35.2 (35–46)
Nigeria 12,284 243 ND ND 218 26.4 (21–33) 84.7 (80–88)
Togo 174 9 ND ND 9 26.6 (22–32) 70.6 (63–78)
Indonesia 1,123 1,450 ND 31 637 27.7 (23–33) 80.6 (75–85)
Vietnam 247 448 ND 82 2,470 24.1 (13–33) 71.1 (67–76)

*Livestock production: Food and Agriculture Organization data for 2008 (21), temperature and relative humidity data:, March 28, 2012. ND, no data.
†Combination of official data, Food and Agriculture Organization estimates, and calculated data.
‡× 106 eggs.
§× 106 kg.
¶Annual mean value (coldest monthly average low temperature to warmest monthly average high temperature).
#Temperature and relative humidity were measured in the following cities: Cotonou, Benin; Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire; Cairo, Egypt; Lagos, Nigeria; Lomé, Togo; Jakarta, Indonesia; and Hanoi, Vietnam.
**Annual mean value (driest monthly relative humidity average to most humid monthly relative humidity average).

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique,Toulouse, France.