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Volume 19, Number 7—July 2013


Etymologia: Verona Integron

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EID Etymologia: Verona Integron. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1181.
AMA Etymologia: Verona Integron. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1181. doi:10.3201/eid1907.ET1907.
APA (2013). Etymologia: Verona Integron. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1181.

Verona Integron

From the Latin integrare (to make whole), integrons are systems for capturing and spreading antibiotic resistance genes among gram-negative bacteria. Integrons were first described by Stokes and Hall in 1989, although they clearly contributed to the first outbreaks of multidrug resistance in the 1950s. The Verona integron was first described in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a patient hospitalized at Verona University Hospital, Verona, Italy. Integrons are ancient structures that have been present in bacteria for millions of years, indicating that bacteria had the means of acquiring and disseminating antibiotic resistance long before humans developed antibiotics.


  1. Lauretti L, Riccio ML, Mazzariol A, Cornaglia G, Amicosante G, Fontana R, Cloning and characterization of blaVIM, a new integron-borne metallo-β-lactamase gene from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:158490 .PubMed
  2. Mazel D. Integrons: agents of bacterial evolution. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006;4:60820 . DOIPubMed
  3. Stokes HW, Hall RM. A novel family of potentially mobile DNA elements encoding site-specific gene-integration functions: integrons. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:166983 . DOIPubMed
Cite This Article

DOI: 10.3201/eid1907.ET1907

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Table of Contents – Volume 19, Number 7—July 2013