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Issue Cover for Volume 19, Number 7—July 2013

Volume 19, Number 7—July 2013

[PDF - 6.83 MB - 155 pages]

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Transmission of Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection from Horses to Humans [PDF - 894 KB - 8 pages]
S. Pelkonen et al.

Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a zoonotic pathogen for persons in contact with horses. In horses, S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen, but human infections associated with S. zooepidemicus are often severe. Within 6 months in 2011, 3 unrelated cases of severe, disseminated S. zooepidemicus infection occurred in men working with horses in eastern Finland. To clarify the pathogen’s epidemiology, we describe the clinical features of the infection in 3 patients and compare the S. zooepidemicus isolates from the human cases with S. zooepidemicus isolates from horses. The isolates were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing of the szP gene. Molecular typing methods showed that human and equine isolates were identical or closely related. These results emphasize that S. zooepidemicus transmitted from horses can lead to severe infections in humans. As leisure and professional equine sports continue to grow, this infection should be recognized as an emerging zoonosis.

EID Pelkonen S, Lindahl SB, Suomala P, Karhukorpi J, Vuorinen S, Koivula I, et al. Transmission of Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection from Horses to Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1041-1048. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121365
AMA Pelkonen S, Lindahl SB, Suomala P, et al. Transmission of Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection from Horses to Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1041-1048. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121365.
APA Pelkonen, S., Lindahl, S. B., Suomala, P., Karhukorpi, J., Vuorinen, S., Koivula, I....Tuuminen, T. (2013). Transmission of Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection from Horses to Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1041-1048. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121365.
Research

Travel-associated Illness Trends and Clusters, 2000–2010 [PDF - 1.41 MB - 9 pages]
K. Leder et al.

Longitudinal data examining travel-associated illness patterns are lacking. To address this need and determine trends and clusters in travel-related illness, we examined data for 2000–2010, prospectively collected for 42,223 ill travelers by 18 GeoSentinel sites. The most common destinations from which ill travelers returned were sub-Saharan Africa (26%), Southeast Asia (17%), south-central Asia (15%), and South America (10%). The proportion who traveled for tourism decreased significantly, and the proportion who traveled to visit friends and relatives increased. Among travelers returning from malaria-endemic regions, the proportionate morbidity (PM) for malaria decreased; in contrast, the PM trends for enteric fever and dengue (excluding a 2002 peak) increased. Case clustering was detected for malaria (Africa 2000, 2007), dengue (Thailand 2002, India 2003), and enteric fever (Nepal 2009). This multisite longitudinal analysis highlights the utility of sentinel surveillance of travelers for contributing information on disease activity trends and an evidence base for travel medicine recommendations.

EID Leder K, Torresi J, Brownstein JS, Wilson ME, Keystone JS, Barnett E, et al. Travel-associated Illness Trends and Clusters, 2000–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1049-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121573
AMA Leder K, Torresi J, Brownstein JS, et al. Travel-associated Illness Trends and Clusters, 2000–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1049-1073. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121573.
APA Leder, K., Torresi, J., Brownstein, J. S., Wilson, M. E., Keystone, J. S., Barnett, E....Freedman, D. O. (2013). Travel-associated Illness Trends and Clusters, 2000–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1049-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121573.

Quantifying Effect of Geographic Location on Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria [PDF - 455 KB - 8 pages]
A. A. Lover and R. J. Coker

Recent autochthonous transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria in previously malaria-free temperate regions has generated renewed interest in the epidemiology of this disease. Accurate estimates of the incubation period and time to relapse are required for effective malaria surveillance; however, this information is currently lacking. By using historical data from experimental human infections with diverse P. vivax strains, survival analysis models were used to obtain quantitative estimates of the incubation period and time to first relapse for P. vivax malaria in broad geographic regions. Results show that Eurasian strains from temperate regions have longer incubation periods, and Western Hemisphere strains from tropical and temperate regions have longer times to relapse compared with Eastern Hemisphere strains. The diversity in these estimates of key epidemiologic parameters for P. vivax supports the need for elucidating local epidemiology to inform clinical follow-up and to build an evidence base toward global elimination of malaria.

EID Lover AA, Coker RJ. Quantifying Effect of Geographic Location on Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1058-1065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121674
AMA Lover AA, Coker RJ. Quantifying Effect of Geographic Location on Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1058-1065. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121674.
APA Lover, A. A., & Coker, R. J. (2013). Quantifying Effect of Geographic Location on Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1058-1065. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121674.

Mutation in Spike Protein Cleavage Site and Pathogenesis of Feline Coronavirus [PDF - 663 KB - 8 pages]
B. N. Licitra et al.

Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) exist as 2 biotypes: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FECV causes subclinical infections; FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic and fatal disease. It is thought that mutations in FECV enable infection of macrophages, causing FIP. However, the molecular basis for this biotype switch is unknown. We examined a furin cleavage site in the region between receptor-binding (S1) and fusion (S2) domains of the spike of serotype 1 FCoV. FECV sequences were compared with FIPV sequences. All FECVs had a conserved furin cleavage motif. For FIPV, there was a correlation with the disease and >1 substitution in the S1/S2 motif. Fluorogenic peptide assays confirmed that the substitutions modulate furin cleavage. We document a functionally relevant S1/S2 mutation that arises when FIP develops in a cat. These insights into FIP pathogenesis may be useful in development of diagnostic, prevention, and treatment measures against coronaviruses.

EID Licitra BN, Millet JK, Regan AD, Hamilton BS, Rinaldi VD, Duhamel GE, et al. Mutation in Spike Protein Cleavage Site and Pathogenesis of Feline Coronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1066-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121094
AMA Licitra BN, Millet JK, Regan AD, et al. Mutation in Spike Protein Cleavage Site and Pathogenesis of Feline Coronavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1066-1073. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121094.
APA Licitra, B. N., Millet, J. K., Regan, A. D., Hamilton, B. S., Rinaldi, V. D., Duhamel, G. E....Whittaker, G. R. (2013). Mutation in Spike Protein Cleavage Site and Pathogenesis of Feline Coronavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1066-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121094.

Pneumococcal Serotypes before and after Introduction of Conjugate Vaccines, United States, 1999–2011 [PDF - 506 KB - 10 pages]
S. S. Richter et al.

Serotyping data for pneumococci causing invasive and noninvasive disease in 2008–2009 and 2010–2011 from >43 US centers were compared with data from preconjugate vaccine (1999–2000) and postconjugate vaccine (2004–2005) periods. Prevalence of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes decreased from 64% of invasive and 50% of noninvasive isolates in 1999–2000 to 3.8% and 4.2%, respectively, in 2010–2011. Increases in serotype 19A stopped after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. Prevalences of other predominant serotypes included in or related to PCV13 (3, 6C, 7F) also remained similar for 2008–2009 and 2010–2011. The only major serotype that increased from 2008–2009 to 2010–2011 was nonvaccine serotype 35B. These data show that introduction of the 7-valent vaccine has dramatically decreased prevalence of its serotypes and that addition of serotypes in PCV13 could provide coverage of 39% of isolates that continue to cause disease.

EID Richter SS, Heilmann KP, Dohrn CL, Riahi F, Diekema DJ, Doern GV. Pneumococcal Serotypes before and after Introduction of Conjugate Vaccines, United States, 1999–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1074-1083. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121830
AMA Richter SS, Heilmann KP, Dohrn CL, et al. Pneumococcal Serotypes before and after Introduction of Conjugate Vaccines, United States, 1999–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1074-1083. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121830.
APA Richter, S. S., Heilmann, K. P., Dohrn, C. L., Riahi, F., Diekema, D. J., & Doern, G. V. (2013). Pneumococcal Serotypes before and after Introduction of Conjugate Vaccines, United States, 1999–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1074-1083. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121830.

Influence of Pneumococcal Vaccines and Respiratory Syncytial Virus on Alveolar Pneumonia, Israel [PDF - 991 KB - 8 pages]
D. M. Weinberger et al.

Postlicensure surveillance of pneumonia incidence can be used to estimate whether pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) affect incidence. We used Poisson regression models that control for baseline seasonality to determine the impact of PCVs and the possible effects of variations in virus activity in Israel on these surveillance estimates. PCV was associated with significant declines in radiologically confirmed alveolar pneumonia (RCAP) among patients <6 months, 6–17 months, and 18–35 months of age (–31% [95% CI –51% to –15%], –41% [95% CI –52 to –32%], and –34% [95% CI –42% to –25%], respectively). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity was associated with strong increases in RCAP incidence, with up to 44% of cases attributable to RSV among infants <6 months of age and lower but significant impacts in older children. Seasonal variations, particularly in RSV activity, masked the impact of 7-valent PCVs, especially for young children in the first 2 years after vaccine introduction.

EID Weinberger DM, Givon-Lavi N, Shemer-Avni Y, Bar-Ziv J, Alonso WJ, Greenberg D, et al. Influence of Pneumococcal Vaccines and Respiratory Syncytial Virus on Alveolar Pneumonia, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1084-1091. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121625
AMA Weinberger DM, Givon-Lavi N, Shemer-Avni Y, et al. Influence of Pneumococcal Vaccines and Respiratory Syncytial Virus on Alveolar Pneumonia, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1084-1091. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121625.
APA Weinberger, D. M., Givon-Lavi, N., Shemer-Avni, Y., Bar-Ziv, J., Alonso, W. J., Greenberg, D....Dagan, R. (2013). Influence of Pneumococcal Vaccines and Respiratory Syncytial Virus on Alveolar Pneumonia, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1084-1091. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121625.
Dispatches

Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China [PDF - 302 KB - 3 pages]
L. Wei et al.

Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

EID Wei L, Zhu S, Yan X, Wang J, Zhang C, Liu S, et al. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1092-1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121126
AMA Wei L, Zhu S, Yan X, et al. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1092-1094. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121126.
APA Wei, L., Zhu, S., Yan, X., Wang, J., Zhang, C., Liu, S....Liu, J. (2013). Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1092-1094. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121126.

Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan [PDF - 329 KB - 3 pages]
J. Usubalieva et al.

Human echinococcosis is a reportable disease in Kyrgyzstan. Between 1995 and 2011, human alveolar echinococcosis increased from <3 cases per year to >60 cases per year. The origins of this epidemic, which started in 2004, may be linked to the socioeconomic changes that followed the dissolution of the former Soviet Union.

EID Usubalieva J, Minbaeva G, Ziadinov I, Deplazes P, Torgerson PR. Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1095-1097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121405
AMA Usubalieva J, Minbaeva G, Ziadinov I, et al. Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1095-1097. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121405.
APA Usubalieva, J., Minbaeva, G., Ziadinov, I., Deplazes, P., & Torgerson, P. R. (2013). Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1095-1097. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121405.

Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela [PDF - 492 KB - 4 pages]
M. Segovia et al.

Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing.

EID Segovia M, Carrasco HJ, Martínez CE, Messenger LA, Nessi A, Londoño JC, et al. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1098-1101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121576
AMA Segovia M, Carrasco HJ, Martínez CE, et al. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1098-1101. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121576.
APA Segovia, M., Carrasco, H. J., Martínez, C. E., Messenger, L. A., Nessi, A., Londoño, J. C....Llewellyn, M. S. (2013). Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1098-1101. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121576.

Unique Clone of Coxiella burnetii Causing Severe Q Fever, French Guiana [PDF - 364 KB - 3 pages]
A. Mahamat et al.

Acute Q fever is an emergent and severe disease in French Guiana. We obtained 5 Coxiella burnetii isolates from samples of patients from Cayenne and found an epidemic clone circulating in Cayenne. This clone has caused pneumonia and endocarditis and seems to be more virulent than previously described strains.

EID Mahamat A, Edouard S, Demar M, Abboud P, Patrice J, La Scola B, et al. Unique Clone of Coxiella burnetii Causing Severe Q Fever, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1102-1104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130044
AMA Mahamat A, Edouard S, Demar M, et al. Unique Clone of Coxiella burnetii Causing Severe Q Fever, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1102-1104. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130044.
APA Mahamat, A., Edouard, S., Demar, M., Abboud, P., Patrice, J., La Scola, B....Raoult, D. (2013). Unique Clone of Coxiella burnetii Causing Severe Q Fever, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1102-1104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130044.

Babesia microti Infection, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA [PDF - 380 KB - 3 pages]
M. E. Acosta et al.

Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.

EID Acosta ME, Ender PT, Smith EM, Jahre JA. Babesia microti Infection, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1105-1107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121593
AMA Acosta ME, Ender PT, Smith EM, et al. Babesia microti Infection, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1105-1107. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121593.
APA Acosta, M. E., Ender, P. T., Smith, E. M., & Jahre, J. A. (2013). Babesia microti Infection, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1105-1107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121593.

Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Bo, Sierra Leone [PDF - 760 KB - 3 pages]
R. Ansumana et al.

We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012–January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus.

EID Ansumana R, Jacobsen KH, Leski TA, Covington AL, Bangura U, Hodges MH, et al. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Bo, Sierra Leone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1108-1110. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121563
AMA Ansumana R, Jacobsen KH, Leski TA, et al. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Bo, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1108-1110. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121563.
APA Ansumana, R., Jacobsen, K. H., Leski, T. A., Covington, A. L., Bangura, U., Hodges, M. H....Stenger, D. A. (2013). Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Bo, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1108-1110. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121563.

Novel Bartonella Agent as Cause of Verruga Peruana [PDF - 513 KB - 4 pages]
D. L. Blazes et al.

While studying chronic verruga peruana infections in Peru from 2003, we isolated a novel Bartonella agent, which we propose be named Candidatus Bartonella ancashi. This case reveals the inherent weakness of relying solely on clinical syndromes for diagnosis and underscores the need for a new diagnostic paradigm in developing settings.

EID Blazes DL, Mullins K, Smoak BL, Jiang J, Canal E, Solorzano N, et al. Novel Bartonella Agent as Cause of Verruga Peruana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1111-1114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121718
AMA Blazes DL, Mullins K, Smoak BL, et al. Novel Bartonella Agent as Cause of Verruga Peruana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1111-1114. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121718.
APA Blazes, D. L., Mullins, K., Smoak, B. L., Jiang, J., Canal, E., Solorzano, N....Laughlin, L. (2013). Novel Bartonella Agent as Cause of Verruga Peruana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1111-1114. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121718.

Schmallenberg Virus among Female Lambs, Belgium, 2012 [PDF - 297 KB - 3 pages]
F. Claine et al.

Reemergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) occurred among lambs (n = 50) in a sheep flock in Belgium between mid-July and mid-October 2012. Bimonthly assessment by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and seroneutralization demonstrated that 100% of lambs were infected. Viremia duration may be longer in naturally infected than in experimentally infected animals.

EID Claine F, Coupeau D, Wiggers L, Muylkens B, Kirschvink N. Schmallenberg Virus among Female Lambs, Belgium, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1115-1117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121768
AMA Claine F, Coupeau D, Wiggers L, et al. Schmallenberg Virus among Female Lambs, Belgium, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1115-1117. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121768.
APA Claine, F., Coupeau, D., Wiggers, L., Muylkens, B., & Kirschvink, N. (2013). Schmallenberg Virus among Female Lambs, Belgium, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1115-1117. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121768.

Psychrobacter arenosus Bacteremia after Blood Transfusion, France [PDF - 312 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Caspar et al.

We report a case of transfusion-associated bacteremia caused by Psychrobacter arenosus. This psychrotolerant bacterium was previously isolated in 2004 from coastal sea ice and sediments in the Sea of Japan, but not from humans. P. arenosus should be considered a psychrotolerant bacterial species that can cause transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections.

EID Caspar Y, Recule C, Pouzol P, Lafeuillade B, Mallaret M, Maurin M, et al. Psychrobacter arenosus Bacteremia after Blood Transfusion, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1118-1120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121599
AMA Caspar Y, Recule C, Pouzol P, et al. Psychrobacter arenosus Bacteremia after Blood Transfusion, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1118-1120. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121599.
APA Caspar, Y., Recule, C., Pouzol, P., Lafeuillade, B., Mallaret, M., Maurin, M....Croize, J. (2013). Psychrobacter arenosus Bacteremia after Blood Transfusion, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1118-1120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121599.

Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Western Canada [PDF - 465 KB - 4 pages]
A. Agunos et al.

During 2005–2010, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance identified increased prevalence of ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) resistance among Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken in British Columbia (4%–17%) and Saskatchewan (6%–11%), Canada. Fluoroquinolones are critically important to human medicine and are not labeled for use in poultry in Canada.

EID Agunos A, Léger D, Avery BP, Parmley E, Deckert A, Carson CA, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Western Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1121-1124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.111417
AMA Agunos A, Léger D, Avery BP, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Western Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1121-1124. doi:10.3201/eid1907.111417.
APA Agunos, A., Léger, D., Avery, B. P., Parmley, E., Deckert, A., Carson, C. A....Dutil, L. (2013). Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Western Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1121-1124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.111417.

Asynchronous Onset of Clinical Disease in BSE-Infected Macaques [PDF - 358 KB - 3 pages]
J. Montag et al.

To estimate the effect of the variability of prion disease onset on primary bovine spongiform encephalopathy transmission to humans, we studied 6 cynomolgus macaques. The preclinical incubation period was significantly prolonged in 2 animals, implying that onset of variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease in humans could be more diverse than previously expected.

EID Montag J, Schulz-Schaeffer W, Schrod A, Hunsmann G, Motzkus D. Asynchronous Onset of Clinical Disease in BSE-Infected Macaques. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1125-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120438
AMA Montag J, Schulz-Schaeffer W, Schrod A, et al. Asynchronous Onset of Clinical Disease in BSE-Infected Macaques. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1125-1127. doi:10.3201/eid1907.120438.
APA Montag, J., Schulz-Schaeffer, W., Schrod, A., Hunsmann, G., & Motzkus, D. (2013). Asynchronous Onset of Clinical Disease in BSE-Infected Macaques. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1125-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120438.

Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Clinics, United Kingdom, 2009 [PDF - 296 KB - 3 pages]
P. Seddon et al.

Incidence of pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing among persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed prevalence and management in CF centers in the United Kingdom and found 5.0% of 3,805 adults and 3.3% of 3,317 children had recently been diagnosed with NTM. Of those, 44% of adults and 47% of children received treatment.

EID Seddon P, Fidler K, Raman S, Wyatt H, Ruiz G, Elston C, et al. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Clinics, United Kingdom, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1128-1130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120615
AMA Seddon P, Fidler K, Raman S, et al. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Clinics, United Kingdom, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1128-1130. doi:10.3201/eid1907.120615.
APA Seddon, P., Fidler, K., Raman, S., Wyatt, H., Ruiz, G., Elston, C....Newport, M. (2013). Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Clinics, United Kingdom, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1128-1130. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120615.

Reducing Visceral Leishmaniasis by Insecticide Impregnation of Bed-Nets, Bangladesh [PDF - 411 KB - 4 pages]
D. Mondal et al.

The effect of insecticide-treated materials on reducing visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is disputable. In Bangladesh, we evaluated the effect of a community-based intervention with insecticide impregnation of existing bed-nets in reducing VL incidence. This intervention reduced VL by 66.5%. Widespread bed-net impregnation with slow-release insecticide may control VL in Bangladesh.

EID Mondal D, Huda M, Karmoker M, Ghosh D, Matlashewski G, Nabi S, et al. Reducing Visceral Leishmaniasis by Insecticide Impregnation of Bed-Nets, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1131-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120932
AMA Mondal D, Huda M, Karmoker M, et al. Reducing Visceral Leishmaniasis by Insecticide Impregnation of Bed-Nets, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1131-1134. doi:10.3201/eid1907.120932.
APA Mondal, D., Huda, M., Karmoker, M., Ghosh, D., Matlashewski, G., Nabi, S....Kroeger, A. (2013). Reducing Visceral Leishmaniasis by Insecticide Impregnation of Bed-Nets, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1131-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120932.

Genetic Variants of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Domestic Rodents, Northern China [PDF - 345 KB - 3 pages]
M. Zhang et al.

We screened Orientia tsutsugamushi from 385 domestic rodents and 19 humans with scrub typhus in rural Tai’an District, Shandong Province, a new scrub typhus epidemic area in northern China. Sequence analysis identified 7 genotypes in the rodents, of which 2 were also identified in the humans.

EID Zhang M, Zhao Z, Wang X, Li Z, Ding L, Ding S, et al. Genetic Variants of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Domestic Rodents, Northern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1135-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120984
AMA Zhang M, Zhao Z, Wang X, et al. Genetic Variants of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Domestic Rodents, Northern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1135-1137. doi:10.3201/eid1907.120984.
APA Zhang, M., Zhao, Z., Wang, X., Li, Z., Ding, L., Ding, S....Yang, H. (2013). Genetic Variants of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Domestic Rodents, Northern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1135-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120984.

Undetected Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Amplified by First-line Therapy in Mixed Infection [PDF - 411 KB - 4 pages]
S. M. Hingley-Wilson et al.

Infections with >1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain(s) are underrecognized. We show, in vitro and in vivo, how first-line treatment conferred a competitive growth advantage to amplify a multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strain in a patient with mixed infection. Diagnostic techniques that identify mixed tubercle bacilli populations are needed to curb the spread of multidrug resistance.

EID Hingley-Wilson SM, Casey R, Connell D, Bremang S, Evans JT, Hawkey PM, et al. Undetected Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Amplified by First-line Therapy in Mixed Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1138-1141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130313
AMA Hingley-Wilson SM, Casey R, Connell D, et al. Undetected Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Amplified by First-line Therapy in Mixed Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1138-1141. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130313.
APA Hingley-Wilson, S. M., Casey, R., Connell, D., Bremang, S., Evans, J. T., Hawkey, P. M....Lalvani, A. (2013). Undetected Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Amplified by First-line Therapy in Mixed Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1138-1141. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130313.

Clinical Findings for Early Human Cases of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection, Shanghai, China [PDF - 540 KB - 5 pages]
S. Lu et al.

A novel strain of influenza A(H7N9) virus has emerged in China and is causing mild to severe clinical symptoms in infected humans. Some case-patients have died. To further knowledge of this virus, we report the characteristics and clinical histories of 4 early case-patients.

EID Lu S, Zheng Y, Li T, Hu Y, Liu X, Xi X, et al. Clinical Findings for Early Human Cases of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection, Shanghai, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1142-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130612
AMA Lu S, Zheng Y, Li T, et al. Clinical Findings for Early Human Cases of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection, Shanghai, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1142-1146. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130612.
APA Lu, S., Zheng, Y., Li, T., Hu, Y., Liu, X., Xi, X....Bao, J. (2013). Clinical Findings for Early Human Cases of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection, Shanghai, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1142-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130612.

Multidrug-Resistant Atypical Variants of Shigella flexneri in China [PDF - 968 KB - 4 pages]
S. Qiu et al.

We identified 3 atypical Shigella flexneri varieties in China, including 92 strains with multidrug resistance, distinct pulse types, and a novel sequence type. Atypical varieties were prevalent mainly in developed regions, and 1 variant has become the dominant Shigella spp. serotype in China. Improved surveillance will help guide the prevention and control of shigellosis.

EID Qiu S, Wang Y, Xu X, Li P, Hao R, Yang C, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Atypical Variants of Shigella flexneri in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1147-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.111221
AMA Qiu S, Wang Y, Xu X, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Atypical Variants of Shigella flexneri in China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1147-1150. doi:10.3201/eid1907.111221.
APA Qiu, S., Wang, Y., Xu, X., Li, P., Hao, R., Yang, C....Song, H. (2013). Multidrug-Resistant Atypical Variants of Shigella flexneri in China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1147-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.111221.
Letters

MDR TB Transmission, Singapore [PDF - 300 KB - 2 pages]
C. Chee et al.
EID Chee C, Hsu L, Sng L, Leo Y, Cutter J, Wang Y. MDR TB Transmission, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1151-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120372
AMA Chee C, Hsu L, Sng L, et al. MDR TB Transmission, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1151-1152. doi:10.3201/eid1907.120372.
APA Chee, C., Hsu, L., Sng, L., Leo, Y., Cutter, J., & Wang, Y. (2013). MDR TB Transmission, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1151-1152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.120372.

Human Infection with Marten Tapeworm [PDF - 332 KB - 3 pages]
P. Eberwein et al.
EID Eberwein P, Haeupler A, Kuepper F, Wagner D, Kern WV, Muntau B, et al. Human Infection with Marten Tapeworm. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1152-1154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121114
AMA Eberwein P, Haeupler A, Kuepper F, et al. Human Infection with Marten Tapeworm. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1152-1154. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121114.
APA Eberwein, P., Haeupler, A., Kuepper, F., Wagner, D., Kern, W. V., Muntau, B....Poppert, S. (2013). Human Infection with Marten Tapeworm. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1152-1154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121114.

Campylobacter jejuni in Hospitalized Patients with Diarrhea, Kolkata, India [PDF - 295 KB - 2 pages]
P. Mukherjee et al.
EID Mukherjee P, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya MK, Rajendran K, Mukhopadhyay AK. Campylobacter jejuni in Hospitalized Patients with Diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1155-1156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121278
AMA Mukherjee P, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya MK, et al. Campylobacter jejuni in Hospitalized Patients with Diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1155-1156. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121278.
APA Mukherjee, P., Ramamurthy, T., Bhattacharya, M. K., Rajendran, K., & Mukhopadhyay, A. K. (2013). Campylobacter jejuni in Hospitalized Patients with Diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1155-1156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121278.

Verona Integron–encoded Metallo-β-Lactamase 1 in Enterobacteria, Ontario, Canada [PDF - 336 KB - 3 pages]
N. Tijet et al.
EID Tijet N, Macmullin G, Lastovetska O, Vermeiren C, Wenzel P, Stacey-Works T, et al. Verona Integron–encoded Metallo-β-Lactamase 1 in Enterobacteria, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1156-1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121294
AMA Tijet N, Macmullin G, Lastovetska O, et al. Verona Integron–encoded Metallo-β-Lactamase 1 in Enterobacteria, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1156-1158. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121294.
APA Tijet, N., Macmullin, G., Lastovetska, O., Vermeiren, C., Wenzel, P., Stacey-Works, T....Melano, R. G. (2013). Verona Integron–encoded Metallo-β-Lactamase 1 in Enterobacteria, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1156-1158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121294.

Novel Bat-borne Hantavirus, Vietnam [PDF - 330 KB - 3 pages]
S. Arai et al.
EID Arai S, Nguyen S, Boldgiv B, Fukui D, Araki K, Dang C, et al. Novel Bat-borne Hantavirus, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1159-1161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121549
AMA Arai S, Nguyen S, Boldgiv B, et al. Novel Bat-borne Hantavirus, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1159-1161. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121549.
APA Arai, S., Nguyen, S., Boldgiv, B., Fukui, D., Araki, K., Dang, C....Oishi, K. (2013). Novel Bat-borne Hantavirus, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1159-1161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121549.

Possible Cause of Liver Failure in Patient with Dengue Shock Syndrome [PDF - 276 KB - 3 pages]
A. Khongphatthanayothin et al.
EID Khongphatthanayothin A, Mahayosnond A, Poovorawan Y. Possible Cause of Liver Failure in Patient with Dengue Shock Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1161-1163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121820
AMA Khongphatthanayothin A, Mahayosnond A, Poovorawan Y. Possible Cause of Liver Failure in Patient with Dengue Shock Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1161-1163. doi:10.3201/eid1907.121820.
APA Khongphatthanayothin, A., Mahayosnond, A., & Poovorawan, Y. (2013). Possible Cause of Liver Failure in Patient with Dengue Shock Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1161-1163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.121820.

Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Questing Ticks, Central Spain [PDF - 319 KB - 3 pages]
I. G. Fernández de Mera et al.
EID Fernández de Mera IG, Ruiz-Fons F, de la Fuente G, Mangold AJ, Gortázar C, de la Fuente J. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Questing Ticks, Central Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1163-1165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130005
AMA Fernández de Mera IG, Ruiz-Fons F, de la Fuente G, et al. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Questing Ticks, Central Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1163-1165. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130005.
APA Fernández de Mera, I. G., Ruiz-Fons, F., de la Fuente, G., Mangold, A. J., Gortázar, C., & de la Fuente, J. (2013). Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Questing Ticks, Central Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1163-1165. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130005.

Neonatal Granulicatella elegans Bacteremia, London, UK [PDF - 267 KB - 2 pages]
L. Quartermain et al.
EID Quartermain L, Tailor H, Njenga S, Bhattacharjee P, Rao G. Neonatal Granulicatella elegans Bacteremia, London, UK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1165-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130009
AMA Quartermain L, Tailor H, Njenga S, et al. Neonatal Granulicatella elegans Bacteremia, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1165-1166. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130009.
APA Quartermain, L., Tailor, H., Njenga, S., Bhattacharjee, P., & Rao, G. (2013). Neonatal Granulicatella elegans Bacteremia, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1165-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130009.

Bartonella Species in Raccoons and Feral Cats, Georgia, USA [PDF - 288 KB - 2 pages]
J. Hwang and N. L. Gottdenker
EID Hwang J, Gottdenker NL. Bartonella Species in Raccoons and Feral Cats, Georgia, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1167-1168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130010
AMA Hwang J, Gottdenker NL. Bartonella Species in Raccoons and Feral Cats, Georgia, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1167-1168. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130010.
APA Hwang, J., & Gottdenker, N. L. (2013). Bartonella Species in Raccoons and Feral Cats, Georgia, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1167-1168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130010.

Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG–Induced Disease in HIV-Infected Infant, Vietnam [PDF - 269 KB - 3 pages]
D. Hong et al.
EID Hong D, Huyen M, Lan N, Duong N, Ngo V, Ngoc D, et al. Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG–Induced Disease in HIV-Infected Infant, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130025
AMA Hong D, Huyen M, Lan N, et al. Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG–Induced Disease in HIV-Infected Infant, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1168. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130025.
APA Hong, D., Huyen, M., Lan, N., Duong, N., Ngo, V., Ngoc, D....Godreuil, S. (2013). Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG–Induced Disease in HIV-Infected Infant, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1168. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130025.

Bulleidia extructa Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection, United States [PDF - 262 KB - 2 pages]
B. Kloesel et al.
EID Kloesel B, Beliveau M, Patel R, Trousdale RT, Sia IG. Bulleidia extructa Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1170-1171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130078
AMA Kloesel B, Beliveau M, Patel R, et al. Bulleidia extructa Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1170-1171. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130078.
APA Kloesel, B., Beliveau, M., Patel, R., Trousdale, R. T., & Sia, I. G. (2013). Bulleidia extructa Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1170-1171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130078.

Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Zealand, Denmark, 2011 [PDF - 333 KB - 3 pages]
A. Fomsgaard et al.
EID Fomsgaard A, Fertner ME, Essbauer S, Nielsen AY, Frey S, Lindblom P, et al. Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Zealand, Denmark, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1171-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130092
AMA Fomsgaard A, Fertner ME, Essbauer S, et al. Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Zealand, Denmark, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1171-1173. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130092.
APA Fomsgaard, A., Fertner, M. E., Essbauer, S., Nielsen, A. Y., Frey, S., Lindblom, P....Dobler, G. (2013). Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Zealand, Denmark, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1171-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130092.

Usutu Virus in Migratory Song Thrushes, Spain [PDF - 323 KB - 3 pages]
U. Höfle et al.
EID Höfle U, Gamino V, de Mera IG, Mangold AJ, Ortíz J, de la Fuente J. Usutu Virus in Migratory Song Thrushes, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1173-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130199
AMA Höfle U, Gamino V, de Mera IG, et al. Usutu Virus in Migratory Song Thrushes, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1173-1175. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130199.
APA Höfle, U., Gamino, V., de Mera, I. G., Mangold, A. J., Ortíz, J., & de la Fuente, J. (2013). Usutu Virus in Migratory Song Thrushes, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1173-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130199.

Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection in a Man, Greece [PDF - 268 KB - 2 pages]
A. Germanakis et al.
EID Germanakis A, Chochlakis D, Angelakis E, Tselentis Y, Psaroulaki A. Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection in a Man, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1176-1177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130232
AMA Germanakis A, Chochlakis D, Angelakis E, et al. Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection in a Man, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1176-1177. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130232.
APA Germanakis, A., Chochlakis, D., Angelakis, E., Tselentis, Y., & Psaroulaki, A. (2013). Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection in a Man, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1176-1177. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130232.

Antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus in Cattle, Mozambique [PDF - 270 KB - 3 pages]
N. Lagerqvist et al.
EID Lagerqvist N, Moiane B, Mapaco L, Fafetine J, Vene S, Falk KI. Antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus in Cattle, Mozambique. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1177-1179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130332
AMA Lagerqvist N, Moiane B, Mapaco L, et al. Antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus in Cattle, Mozambique. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1177-1179. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130332.
APA Lagerqvist, N., Moiane, B., Mapaco, L., Fafetine, J., Vene, S., & Falk, K. I. (2013). Antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus in Cattle, Mozambique. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1177-1179. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130332.

Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections, Shanghai, China [PDF - 360 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Mei et al.
EID Mei Z, Lu S, Wu X, Shao L, Hui Y, Wang J, et al. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections, Shanghai, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1179-1181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130523
AMA Mei Z, Lu S, Wu X, et al. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections, Shanghai, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1179-1181. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130523.
APA Mei, Z., Lu, S., Wu, X., Shao, L., Hui, Y., Wang, J....Zhang, W. (2013). Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections, Shanghai, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1179-1181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130523.
Books and Media

The Stealth Virus [PDF - 241 KB - 1 page]
J. W. Tang
EID Tang JW. The Stealth Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130027
AMA Tang JW. The Stealth Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1182. doi:10.3201/eid1907.130027.
APA Tang, J. W. (2013). The Stealth Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.130027.
About the Cover

Summer Buzz [PDF - 268 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Summer Buzz. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.ac1907
AMA Potter P. Summer Buzz. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1184. doi:10.3201/eid1907.ac1907.
APA Potter, P. (2013). Summer Buzz. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.ac1907.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Verona Integron [PDF - 304 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Verona Integron. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(7):1181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.et1907
AMA Etymologia: Verona Integron. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1181. doi:10.3201/eid1907.et1907.
APA (2013). Etymologia: Verona Integron. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(7), 1181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1907.et1907.
Online Reports

Influence of Humans on Evolution and Mobilization of Environmental Antibiotic Resistome
W. H. Gaze et al.

The clinical failure of antimicrobial drugs that were previously effective in controlling infectious disease is a tragedy of increasing magnitude that gravely affects human health. This resistance by pathogens is often the endpoint of an evolutionary process that began billions of years ago in non–disease-causing microorganisms. This environmental resistome, its mobilization, and the conditions that facilitate its entry into human pathogens are at the heart of the current public health crisis in antibiotic resistance. Understanding the origins, evolution, and mechanisms of transfer of resistance elements is vital to our ability to adequately address this public health issue.

Page created: July 03, 2013
Page updated: July 03, 2013
Page reviewed: July 03, 2013
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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