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Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014

Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011

B. Schimmer1Comments to Author , N. Schotten1, E. van Engelen, J.L.A. Hautvast, P.M. Schneeberger, and Y.T.H.P. van Duijnhoven
Author affiliations: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands (B. Schimmer, N. Schotten, Y.T.H.P. van Duynhoven); Animal Health Service, Deventer, the Netherlands (E. van Engelen); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (J.L.A. Hautvast); Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands (P.M. Schneeberger)

Main Article

Table 7

Combined multilevel analysis of participant- and farm-based characteristics associated with Coxiella burnetii seropositivity in dairy cattle farm residents, the Netherlands, September 2010–March 2011*

Variable OR (95% CI)
Age, y
<35 Reference
35–44 1.3 (0.8–2.3)
45–54 1.2 (0.7–2.0)
1.9 (1.1–3.5)
Work on farm
No Reference
Part time (1–39 h/wk) 2.5 (1.1–5.6)
Full time (>40 h/wk)
10.7 (4.2–27.0)
Use of gloves during cattle birth care
Fully compliant 0.4 (0.2–0.8)
Partly or noncompliant Reference
No birth care
0.7 (0.4–1.1)
Contact with pigs at own or other farm
Yes 2.4 (1.1–5.1)
Contact with poultry at own farm
Yes 0.5 (0.3–0.8)
Indirect contact with rats/mice at own farm
Yes 1.6 (1.0–2.7)
No. cows on farm in 2008†
1.0 (1.0–1.0)
Farm region
South 1.9 (1.2–3.1)
Automatic milking
Yes 0.6 (0.4–1.0)
Birds in stable
Yes 2.3 (1.2–4.4)
Contact with cows at other farm
Yes 1.8 (1.0–3.2)
Contact with compost
Yes 0.6 (0.3–0.9)
Beef cattle on the farm
Yes 1.9 (1.0–3.7)
No Reference

*The analysis included the primary participant- and farm-based characteristics associated with positivity (p<0.10 in likelihood ratio test). The number of observations was 708; the number of levels used was 309 (quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion 695.52). OR, odds ratio.
†Risk increases per cow.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: February 19, 2014
Page updated: February 19, 2014
Page reviewed: February 19, 2014
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