Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014

Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans

Jeremy C. Jones, Stephanie Sonnberg, Zeynep A. Koçer, Karthik Shanmuganatham, Patrick Seiler, Yuelong Shu, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan, Malik Peiris, Richard J. Webby, and Robert G. WebsterComments to Author 
Author affiliations: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (J.C. Jones, S. Sonnberg, Z.A. Kocer, K. Shanmuganatham, P. Seiler, R.J. Webby, R.G. Webster); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China (Y. Shu); Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China (H. Zhu, Y. Guan); State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China (H. Zhu, Y. Guan, M. Peiris); The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (H. Zhu, Y. Guan, M. Peiris)

Main Article

Table 1

Oropharyngeal and cloacal virus titers in birds inoculated with influenza A(H7N9) virus*

Species Titer from oropharyngeal swab†
No. deaths‡
2 dpi 4 dpi 6 dpi 8 dpi
Zebra finch 4.8 ± 0.5 (7/7) 3.8 ± 1.3 (5/5) 2.9 ± 1.0 (5/5)§ < 1/5
Society finch 4.9 ± 0.5 (7/7) 3.9 ± 0.7 (5/5) 1.0 ± 0.0 (1/5) < 0/5
Sparrow 3.0 ± 0.5 (6/6) 3.0 ± 0.7 (3/4) < < 1/5
Parakeet 3.4 ± 0.5 (5/5) 3.9 ± 1.6 (4/5) 2.6 ± 0.1 (4/5) < 0/5

*dpi, days post inoculation; <, below the limit of detection (<0.75 EID50/mL); EID50, 50% egg infectious dose.
†Log10 EID50/mL. Data are the mean ± SD of positive samples (no. birds shedding virus/total no. sampled at the indicated time point). All cloacal samples were below the limit of detection at all time points.
‡Number of animals found dead out of the total for each group; excludes necropsied animals
§Includes the animal found dead on this day.

Main Article

Page created: February 19, 2014
Page updated: February 19, 2014
Page reviewed: February 19, 2014
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.