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Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014


Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans

Jeremy C. Jones, Stephanie Sonnberg, Zeynep A. Koçer, Karthik Shanmuganatham, Patrick Seiler, Yuelong Shu, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan, Malik Peiris, Richard J. Webby, and Robert G. WebsterComments to Author 
Author affiliations: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (J.C. Jones, S. Sonnberg, Z.A. Kocer, K. Shanmuganatham, P. Seiler, R.J. Webby, R.G. Webster); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China (Y. Shu); Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China (H. Zhu, Y. Guan); State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China (H. Zhu, Y. Guan, M. Peiris); The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (H. Zhu, Y. Guan, M. Peiris)

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Table 2

Shedding of influenza A(H7N9) virus by direct contact among birds*

Species Titer from oropharyngeal swab†
2 dpi 4 dpi 6 dpi 8 dpi
Zebra finch 1.0 ± 0.0 (1/3)‡ 1.0 ± 0.0 (1/3) ‡ < <
Society finch 5.8 ± 0.0 (1/3) 3.5 ± 0.0 (1/3) 2.3 ± 0.0 (1/3) 2.8 ± 0.0 (1/3)
Sparrow < 1.9 ± 1.2 (2/3) < <
Parakeet < < < <

*dpi, days post inoculation; <, below the limit of detection (<0.75 EID50/mL); EID50, 50% egg infectious dose.
†Log10 EID50/mL. Data are the mean ± SD of positive samples (no. birds shedding/total no. sampled at the indicated time point). All cloacal samples were below the limit of detection at all time points.
‡Sample contained trace amount of virus: 1 or 2 of 3 inoculated eggs was positive at the lowest serial dilution.

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