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Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014

Distance from Construction Site and Risk for Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA

Janis E. BlairComments to Author , Yu-Hui H. Chang, Yvette Ruiz, Stacy Duffy, Beth E. Heinrich, and Douglas F. Lake1
Author affiliations: Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (J.E. Blair); Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (Y.-H. H. Chang, B.E. Heinrich); Arizona State University, Phoenix (Y. Ruiz, S. Duffy, D.F. Lake)

Main Article

Table 2

Characteristics of participants, by cellular immunity conversion status at 1-year follow up, in a study of distance from a construction site as a risk factor for coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA, 2012–2013*

Characteristic Cellular immunity status†
p value‡
Negative, n = 199 Positive, n = 11
Sex 0.65
M 27/199 (13.6) 2/11 (18.2)
172/199 (86.4)
9/11 (81.8)

Median age, y (range)
50.0 (23.0–76.0)
52.0 (26.0–71.0)
Race 0.66
White 165/198 (83.3) 11/11 (100)
Hispanic 14/198 (7.1) 0
19/198 (9.6)

Work near a construction site
87/192 (45.3)
3/11 (27.3)
Live near a construction site
23/198 (11.6)
2/10 (20.0)
New home construction, remodeling, landscaping in home or neighborhood since enrollment§
40/198 (20.2)
1/9 (11.1)
Regular weekly participation in outdoor activities¶ .
Running 26/199 (13.1) 1/11 (9.1) >0.99
Hiking 51/199 (25.6) 3/11 (27.3) >0.99
Walking 133/199 (66.8) 10/11 (90.9) 0.18
Yard work
64/199 (32.2)
6 /11 (54.6)
Employment site 0.06
Campus A 117/199 (58.8) 3/11 (27.3)
Campus B 82/199 (41.2) 8/11 (72.7)

*A CD69 lymphocyte-activation test was used to determine if the cellular immunity status of participants had converted from negative to positive.
†Values are no. with characteristic/no. total (%), except as noted for age.
‡For age, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used; for other variables, the Fisher exact test was used.
§Work that took place within the past year.
¶Other activities that were evaluated but that did not differ significantly between participants who did and did not convert from negative to positive cellular immunity status were jogging, gardening, landscaping, golfing, playing team sports, swimming, and biking.

Main Article

1Preliminary findings from this study were presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Coccidioidomycosis Study Group, Pasadena, California, USA, April 6, 2013.

Page created: August 13, 2014
Page updated: August 13, 2014
Page reviewed: August 13, 2014
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