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Issue Cover for Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014

Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014

[PDF - 17.75 MB - 179 pages]

Synopses

Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China [PDF - 888 KB - 10 pages]
H. Zhang et al.

Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China.

EID Zhang H, Zhang Y, Yang W, Tao X, Li H, Ding J, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1433-1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.130440
AMA Zhang H, Zhang Y, Yang W, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1433-1442. doi:10.3201/eid2009.130440.
APA Zhang, H., Zhang, Y., Yang, W., Tao, X., Li, H., Ding, J....Tang, Q. (2014). Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1433-1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.130440.

Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013 [PDF - 532 KB - 9 pages]
S. V. Basavaraju et al.

The cause of encephalitis among solid organ transplant recipients may be multifactorial; the disease can result from infectious or noninfectious etiologies. During 2002–2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated several encephalitis clusters among transplant recipients. Cases were caused by infections from transplant-transmitted pathogens: West Nile virus, rabies virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. In many of the clusters, identification of the cause was complicated by delayed diagnosis due to the rarity of the disease, geographic distance separating transplant recipients, and lack of prompt recognition and reporting systems. Establishment of surveillance systems to detect illness among organ recipients, including communication among transplant center physicians, organ procurement organizations, and public health authorities, may enable the rapid discovery and investigation of infectious encephalitis clusters. These transplant-transmitted pathogen clusters highlight the need for greater awareness among clinicians, pathologists, and public health workers, of emerging infectious agents causing encephalitis among organ recipients.

EID Basavaraju SV, Kuehnert MJ, Zaki S, Sejvar J. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1443-1451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131332
AMA Basavaraju SV, Kuehnert MJ, Zaki S, et al. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1443-1451. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131332.
APA Basavaraju, S. V., Kuehnert, M. J., Zaki, S., & Sejvar, J. (2014). Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1443-1451. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131332.

Medscape CME Activity
Confirmed Bacillus anthracis Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Scotland, 2009–2010 [PDF - 736 KB - 12 pages]
M. Booth et al.

In Scotland, the 2009 outbreak of Bacillus anthracis infection among persons who inject drugs resulted in a 28% death rate. To compare nonsurvivors and survivors, we obtained data on 11 nonsurvivors and 16 survivors. Time from B. anthracis exposure to symptoms or hospitalization and skin and limb findings at presentation did not differ between nonsurvivors and survivors. Proportionately more nonsurvivors had histories of excessive alcohol use (p = 0.05) and required vasopressors and/or mechanical ventilation (p<0.01 for each individually). Nonsurvivors also had higher sequential organ failure assessment scores (mean + SEM) (7.3 + 0.9 vs. 1.2 + 0.4, p<0.0001). Antibacterial drug administration, surgery, and anthrax polyclonal immune globulin treatments did not differ between nonsurvivors and survivors. Of the 14 patients who required vasopressors during hospitalization, 11 died. Sequential organ failure assessment score or vasopressor requirement during hospitalization might identify patients with injectional anthrax for whom limited adjunctive therapies might be beneficial.

EID Booth M, Donaldson L, Cui X, Sun J, Cole S, Dailsey S, et al. Confirmed Bacillus anthracis Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1452-1463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131481
AMA Booth M, Donaldson L, Cui X, et al. Confirmed Bacillus anthracis Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1452-1463. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131481.
APA Booth, M., Donaldson, L., Cui, X., Sun, J., Cole, S., Dailsey, S....Eichacker, P. Q. (2014). Confirmed Bacillus anthracis Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs, Scotland, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1452-1463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131481.
Research

Passive Surveillance for Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, United States, 2011–2013 [PDF - 414 KB - 6 pages]
C. D. Pham et al.

Emergence of Aspergillus fumigatus strains containing mutations that lead to azole resistance has become a serious public health threat in many countries. Nucleotide polymorphisms leading to amino acid substitutions in the lanosterol demethylase gene (cyp51A) are associated with reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. The most widely recognized mutation is a lysine to histidine substitution at aa 98 (L98H) and a duplication of the untranscribed promoter region, together known as TR34/L98H. This mechanism of resistance has been reported in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, and is associated with resistance to all azole drugs and subsequent treatment failures. To determine whether isolates with this mutation are spreading into the United States, we conducted a passive surveillance–based study of 1,026 clinical isolates of A. fumigatus from 22 US states during 2011–2013. No isolates harboring the TR34/L98H mutation were detected, and MICs of itraconazole were generally low.

EID Pham CD, Reiss E, Hagen F, Meis JF, Lockhart SR. Passive Surveillance for Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, United States, 2011–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1498-1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140142
AMA Pham CD, Reiss E, Hagen F, et al. Passive Surveillance for Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, United States, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1498-1503. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140142.
APA Pham, C. D., Reiss, E., Hagen, F., Meis, J. F., & Lockhart, S. R. (2014). Passive Surveillance for Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, United States, 2011–2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1498-1503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140142.

Swine-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012 [PDF - 751 KB - 9 pages]
A. S. Bowman et al.

Agricultural fairs provide an opportunity for bidirectional transmission of influenza A viruses. We sought to determine influenza A virus activity among swine at fairs in the United States. As part of an ongoing active influenza A virus surveillance project, nasal swab samples were collected from exhibition swine at 40 selected Ohio agricultural fairs during 2012. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was isolated from swine at 10 of the fairs. According to a concurrent public health investigation, 7 of the 10 fairs were epidemiologically linked to confirmed human infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. Comparison of genome sequences of the subtype H3N2 isolates recovered from humans and swine from each fair revealed nucleotide identities of >99.7%, confirming zoonotic transmission between swine and humans. All influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in this study, regardless of host species or fair, were >99.5% identical, indicating that 1 virus strain was widely circulating among exhibition swine in Ohio during 2012.

EID Bowman AS, Nelson SW, Page SL, Nolting JM, Killian ML, Sreevatsan S, et al. Swine-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1472-1480. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131082
AMA Bowman AS, Nelson SW, Page SL, et al. Swine-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1472-1480. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131082.
APA Bowman, A. S., Nelson, S. W., Page, S. L., Nolting, J. M., Killian, M. L., Sreevatsan, S....Slemons, R. D. (2014). Swine-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1472-1480. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131082.

Feeding Period Required by Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks for Transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to Vertebrate Hosts [PDF - 997 KB - 7 pages]
D. G. Saraiva et al.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is endemic to the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil, where the etiologic agent, Rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by adult Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. We determined the minimal feeding period required by A. aureolatum nymphs and adults to transmit R. rickettsii to guinea pigs. Unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks had to be attached to the host for >10 hours to transmit R. rickettsii. In contrast, fed ticks needed a minimum of 10 minutes of attachment to transmit R. rickettsii to hosts. Most confirmed infections of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans in the São Paulo metropolitan area have been associated with contact with domestic dogs, the main host of A. aureolatum adult ticks. The typical expectation that transmission of tickborne bacteria to humans as well as to dogs requires ≥2 hours of tick attachment may discourage persons from immediately removing them and result in transmission of this lethal bacterium.

EID Saraiva DG, Soares HS, Soares J, Labruna MB. Feeding Period Required by Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks for Transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to Vertebrate Hosts. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1504-1510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140189
AMA Saraiva DG, Soares HS, Soares J, et al. Feeding Period Required by Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks for Transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to Vertebrate Hosts. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1504-1510. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140189.
APA Saraiva, D. G., Soares, H. S., Soares, J., & Labruna, M. B. (2014). Feeding Period Required by Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks for Transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to Vertebrate Hosts. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1504-1510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140189.

Distance from Construction Site and Risk for Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA [PDF - 510 KB - 8 pages]
J. E. Blair et al.

Coccidioides spp. fungi, which are present in soil in the southwestern United States, can become airborne when the soil is disrupted, and humans who inhale the spores can become infected. In 2012, our institution in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA, began a building project requiring extensive excavation of soil. One year after construction began, we compared the acquisition of coccidioidomycosis in employees working adjacent to the construction site (campus A) with that of employees working 13 miles away (campus B). Initial testing indicated prior occult coccidioidal infection in 20 (11.4%) of 176 campus A employees and in 19 (13.6%) of 140 campus B employees (p = 0.55). At the 1-year follow-up, 3 (2.5%) of 120 employees from campus A and 8 (8.9%) of 90 from campus B had flow cytometric evidence of new coccidioidal infection (p = 0.04). The rate of coccidioidal acquisition differed significantly between campuses, but was not higher on the campus with construction.

EID Blair JE, Chang YH, Ruiz Y, Duffy S, Heinrich BE, Lake DF. Distance from Construction Site and Risk for Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1464-1471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131588
AMA Blair JE, Chang YH, Ruiz Y, et al. Distance from Construction Site and Risk for Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1464-1471. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131588.
APA Blair, J. E., Chang, Y. H., Ruiz, Y., Duffy, S., Heinrich, B. E., & Lake, D. F. (2014). Distance from Construction Site and Risk for Coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1464-1471. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131588.

Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages [PDF - 629 KB - 9 pages]
X. Deng et al.

Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains from 2 different sequencing platforms. Five major genetic lineages were recognized, which revealed possible patterns of geographic and epidemiologic distribution. Analyses on the population dynamics and evolutionary history estimated that major lineages emerged during the 17th–18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s.

EID Deng X, Desai PT, den Bakker HC, Mikoleit M, Tolar B, Trees E, et al. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1481-1489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131095
AMA Deng X, Desai PT, den Bakker HC, et al. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1481-1489. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131095.
APA Deng, X., Desai, P. T., den Bakker, H. C., Mikoleit, M., Tolar, B., Trees, E....McClelland, M. (2014). Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1481-1489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131095.

Medscape CME Activity
Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with or without AIDS, France [PDF - 517 KB - 8 pages]
A. Roux et al.

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in patients without AIDS is increasingly common. We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients with proven PCP; of 544 patients, 223 (41%) had AIDS (AIDS patients) and 321 (59%) had other immunosuppressive disorders (non-AIDS patients). Fewer AIDS than non-AIDS patients required intensive care or ventilation, and the rate of hospital deaths—17.4% overall—was significantly lower for AIDS versus non-AIDS patients (4% vs. 27%; p<0.0001). Multivariable analysis showed the odds of hospital death increased with older age, receipt of allogeneic bone marrow transplant, immediate use of oxygen, need for mechanical ventilation, and longer time to treatment; HIV-positive status or receipt of a solid organ transplant decreased odds for death. PCP is more often fatal in non-AIDS patients, but time to diagnosis affects survival and is longer for non-AIDS patients. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for PCP in immunocompromised patients who do not have AIDS.

EID Roux A, Canet E, Valade S, Gangneux-Robert F, Hamane S, Lafabrie A, et al. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with or without AIDS, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1490-1497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131668
AMA Roux A, Canet E, Valade S, et al. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with or without AIDS, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1490-1497. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131668.
APA Roux, A., Canet, E., Valade, S., Gangneux-Robert, F., Hamane, S., Lafabrie, A....Azoulay, É. (2014). Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with or without AIDS, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1490-1497. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131668.
Dispatches

Asymptomatic, Mild, and Severe Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in Humans, Guangzhou, China [PDF - 652 KB - 5 pages]
Z. Chen et al.

Targeted surveillance for influenza A(H7N9) identified 21 cases of infection with this virus in Guangzhou, China, during April 1, 2013–March 7, 2014. The spectrum of illness ranged from severe pneumonia to asymptomatic infection. Epidemiologic findings for a family cluster of 1 severe and 1 mild case suggested limited person-to-person transmission of this virus.

EID Chen Z, Liu H, Lu J, Luo L, Li K, Liu Y, et al. Asymptomatic, Mild, and Severe Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in Humans, Guangzhou, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1535-1540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140424
AMA Chen Z, Liu H, Lu J, et al. Asymptomatic, Mild, and Severe Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in Humans, Guangzhou, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1535-1540. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140424.
APA Chen, Z., Liu, H., Lu, J., Luo, L., Li, K., Liu, Y....Xiao, X. (2014). Asymptomatic, Mild, and Severe Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in Humans, Guangzhou, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1535-1540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140424.

Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus CC398 in Intensive Care Unit, France [PDF - 527 KB - 5 pages]
A. Brunel et al.

During testing for Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit in France in 2011, we found that methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clonal complex 398 was the most frequent clone (29/125, 23.2%). It was isolated from patients (5/89, 5.6%), health care workers (2/63, 3.2%), and environmental sites (15/864,1.7%). Results indicate emergence of this clone in a hospital setting.

EID Brunel A, Bañuls A, Marchandin H, Bouzinbi N, Morquin D, Jumas-Bilak E, et al. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus CC398 in Intensive Care Unit, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1511-1515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.130225
AMA Brunel A, Bañuls A, Marchandin H, et al. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus CC398 in Intensive Care Unit, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1511-1515. doi:10.3201/eid2009.130225.
APA Brunel, A., Bañuls, A., Marchandin, H., Bouzinbi, N., Morquin, D., Jumas-Bilak, E....Corne, P. (2014). Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus CC398 in Intensive Care Unit, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1511-1515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.130225.

Factors Contributing to Decline in Foodborne Disease Outbreak Reports, United States [PDF - 317 KB - 3 pages]
M. Imanishi et al.

The number of foodborne disease outbreaks reported in the United States declined substantially in 2009, when the surveillance system transitioned from reporting only foodborne disease outbreaks to reporting all enteric disease outbreaks. A 2013 survey found that some outbreaks that would have been previously reported as foodborne are now reported as having other transmission modes.

EID Imanishi M, Manikonda K, Murthy BP, Gould L. Factors Contributing to Decline in Foodborne Disease Outbreak Reports, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1551-1553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140044
AMA Imanishi M, Manikonda K, Murthy BP, et al. Factors Contributing to Decline in Foodborne Disease Outbreak Reports, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1551-1553. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140044.
APA Imanishi, M., Manikonda, K., Murthy, B. P., & Gould, L. (2014). Factors Contributing to Decline in Foodborne Disease Outbreak Reports, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1551-1553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140044.

Genetic Variation among African Swine Fever Genotype II Viruses, Eastern and Central Europe [PDF - 508 KB - 4 pages]
C. Gallardo et al.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.

EID Gallardo C, Fernández-Pinero J, Pelayo V, Gazaev I, Markowska-Daniel I, Pridotkas G, et al. Genetic Variation among African Swine Fever Genotype II Viruses, Eastern and Central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1544-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140554
AMA Gallardo C, Fernández-Pinero J, Pelayo V, et al. Genetic Variation among African Swine Fever Genotype II Viruses, Eastern and Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1544-1547. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140554.
APA Gallardo, C., Fernández-Pinero, J., Pelayo, V., Gazaev, I., Markowska-Daniel, I., Pridotkas, G....Arias, M. (2014). Genetic Variation among African Swine Fever Genotype II Viruses, Eastern and Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1544-1547. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140554.

Family Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections, Tunisia, 2013 [PDF - 480 KB - 4 pages]
F. Abroug et al.

In 2013 in Tunisia, 3 persons in 1 family were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The index case-patient’s respiratory tract samples were negative for MERS-CoV by reverse transcription PCR, but diagnosis was retrospectively confirmed by PCR of serum. Sequences clustered with those from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

EID Abroug F, Slim A, Ouanes-Besbes L, Kacem M, Dachraoui F, Ouanes I, et al. Family Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections, Tunisia, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1527-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140378
AMA Abroug F, Slim A, Ouanes-Besbes L, et al. Family Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections, Tunisia, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1527-1530. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140378.
APA Abroug, F., Slim, A., Ouanes-Besbes, L., Kacem, M., Dachraoui, F., Ouanes, I....Gerber, S. I. (2014). Family Cluster of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections, Tunisia, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1527-1530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140378.

Mutations of Novel Influenza A(H10N8) Virus in Chicken Eggs and MDCK Cells [PDF - 393 KB - 3 pages]
J. Yang et al.

The recent emergence of human infection with influenza A(H10N8) virus is an urgent public health concern. Genomic analysis showed that the virus was conserved in chicken eggs but presented substantial adaptive mutations in MDCK cells. Our results provide additional evidence for the avian origin of this influenza virus.

EID Yang J, Zhang T, Guo L, Hu Y, Li J, Su H, et al. Mutations of Novel Influenza A(H10N8) Virus in Chicken Eggs and MDCK Cells. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1541-1543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140257
AMA Yang J, Zhang T, Guo L, et al. Mutations of Novel Influenza A(H10N8) Virus in Chicken Eggs and MDCK Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1541-1543. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140257.
APA Yang, J., Zhang, T., Guo, L., Hu, Y., Li, J., Su, H....Sun, L. (2014). Mutations of Novel Influenza A(H10N8) Virus in Chicken Eggs and MDCK Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1541-1543. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140257.

Novel Circovirus from Mink, China [PDF - 349 KB - 3 pages]
H. Lian et al.

A long-established epidemic of enteritis, caused by an unidentified pathogen distinct from parvovirus, has now been recognized in mink. In 2013, we identified a novel circovirus by degenerate PCR and fully sequenced its genome. This virus differs substantially from currently known members of the genus Circovirus and represents a new species.

EID Lian H, Liu Y, Li N, Wang Y, Zhang S, Hu R. Novel Circovirus from Mink, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1547-1549. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140015
AMA Lian H, Liu Y, Li N, et al. Novel Circovirus from Mink, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1547-1549. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140015.
APA Lian, H., Liu, Y., Li, N., Wang, Y., Zhang, S., & Hu, R. (2014). Novel Circovirus from Mink, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1547-1549. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140015.

Risk Factors for Severe Influenza A–Related Pneumonia in Adult Cohort, Mexico, 2013–14 [PDF - 457 KB - 5 pages]
A. Gómez-Gómez et al.

During the 2013–14 influenza season, we assessed characteristics of 102 adults with suspected influenza pneumonia in a hospital in Mexico; most were unvaccinated. More comorbidities and severity of illness were found than for patients admitted during the 2009–10 influenza pandemic. Vaccination policies should focus on risk factors.

EID Gómez-Gómez A, Magaña-Aquino M, Bernal-Silva S, Araujo-Meléndez J, Comas-García A, Alonso-Zúñiga E, et al. Risk Factors for Severe Influenza A–Related Pneumonia in Adult Cohort, Mexico, 2013–14. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1554-1558. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140115
AMA Gómez-Gómez A, Magaña-Aquino M, Bernal-Silva S, et al. Risk Factors for Severe Influenza A–Related Pneumonia in Adult Cohort, Mexico, 2013–14. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1554-1558. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140115.
APA Gómez-Gómez, A., Magaña-Aquino, M., Bernal-Silva, S., Araujo-Meléndez, J., Comas-García, A., Alonso-Zúñiga, E....Noyola, D. E. (2014). Risk Factors for Severe Influenza A–Related Pneumonia in Adult Cohort, Mexico, 2013–14. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1554-1558. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140115.

Incidence of Cronobacter spp. Infections, United States, 2003–2009 [PDF - 509 KB - 4 pages]
M. E. Patrick et al.

During 2003–2009, we identified 544 cases of Cronobacter spp. infection from 6 US states. The highest percentage of invasive infections occurred among children <5 years of age; urine isolates predominated among adults. Rates of invasive infections among infants approximate earlier estimates. Overall incidence of 0.66 cases/100,000 population was higher than anticipated.

EID Patrick ME, Mahon BE, Greene SA, Rounds J, Cronquist A, Wymore K, et al. Incidence of Cronobacter spp. Infections, United States, 2003–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1536-1539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140545
AMA Patrick ME, Mahon BE, Greene SA, et al. Incidence of Cronobacter spp. Infections, United States, 2003–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1536-1539. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140545.
APA Patrick, M. E., Mahon, B. E., Greene, S. A., Rounds, J., Cronquist, A., Wymore, K....Bowen, A. (2014). Incidence of Cronobacter spp. Infections, United States, 2003–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1536-1539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140545.

Investigation and Control of Anthrax Outbreak at the Human–Animal Interface, Bhutan, 2010 [PDF - 310 KB - 3 pages]
N. K. Thapa et al.

In 2010, we investigated anthrax outbreak in Bhutan. A total of 43 domestic animals died, and cutaneous anthrax developed in 9 persons, and 1 died. All affected persons had contact with the carcasses of infected animals. Comprehensive preparedness and response guidelines are needed to increase public awareness of anthrax in Bhutan.

EID Thapa NK, Tenzin T, Wangdi K, Dorji T, Migma M, Dorjee J, et al. Investigation and Control of Anthrax Outbreak at the Human–Animal Interface, Bhutan, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1524-1526. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140181
AMA Thapa NK, Tenzin T, Wangdi K, et al. Investigation and Control of Anthrax Outbreak at the Human–Animal Interface, Bhutan, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1524-1526. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140181.
APA Thapa, N. K., Tenzin, T., Wangdi, K., Dorji, T., Migma, M., Dorjee, J....Hoffmaster, A. R. (2014). Investigation and Control of Anthrax Outbreak at the Human–Animal Interface, Bhutan, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1524-1526. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140181.

Pork Consumption and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus,Thailand, 2007–2008 [PDF - 592 KB - 4 pages]
S. Gonwong et al.

The nationwide seroprevalence of hepatitis E IgG was determined among young men in Thailand. Overall seroprevalence was 14% (95% CI 13%–15%); range by province was 3%–26%. Seroprevalence was lowest in the south, an area predominantly occupied by persons of the Islam religion, whose dietary laws proscribe pork.

EID Gonwong S, Chuenchitra T, Khantapura P, Islam D, Sirisopana N, Mason CJ. Pork Consumption and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus,Thailand, 2007–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1531-1534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140418
AMA Gonwong S, Chuenchitra T, Khantapura P, et al. Pork Consumption and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus,Thailand, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1531-1534. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140418.
APA Gonwong, S., Chuenchitra, T., Khantapura, P., Islam, D., Sirisopana, N., & Mason, C. J. (2014). Pork Consumption and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus,Thailand, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1531-1534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140418.

Enhanced MERS Coronavirus Surveillance of Travelers from the Middle East to England [PDF - 739 KB - 3 pages]
H. Thomas et al.

During the first year of enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance in England, 77 persons traveling from the Middle East had acute respiratory illness and were tested for the virus. Infection was confirmed in 2 travelers with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2 of their contacts. Patients with less severe manifestations tested negative.

EID Thomas H, Zhao H, Green HK, Boddington NL, Carvalho C, Osman HK, et al. Enhanced MERS Coronavirus Surveillance of Travelers from the Middle East to England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1562-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140817
AMA Thomas H, Zhao H, Green HK, et al. Enhanced MERS Coronavirus Surveillance of Travelers from the Middle East to England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1562-1564. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140817.
APA Thomas, H., Zhao, H., Green, H. K., Boddington, N. L., Carvalho, C., Osman, H. K....Pebody, R. G. (2014). Enhanced MERS Coronavirus Surveillance of Travelers from the Middle East to England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1562-1564. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140817.

Household-Level Spatiotemporal Patterns of Incidence of Cholera, Haiti, 2011 [PDF - 403 KB - 4 pages]
J. K. Blackburn et al.

A cholera outbreak began in Haiti during October, 2010. Spatiotemporal patterns of household-level cholera in Ouest Department showed that the initial clusters tended to follow major roadways; subsequent clusters occurred further inland. Our data highlight transmission pathway complexities and the need for case and household-level analysis to understand disease spread and optimize interventions.

EID Blackburn JK, Diamond U, Kracalik IT, Widmer J, Brown W, Morrissey B, et al. Household-Level Spatiotemporal Patterns of Incidence of Cholera, Haiti, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1516-1519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131882
AMA Blackburn JK, Diamond U, Kracalik IT, et al. Household-Level Spatiotemporal Patterns of Incidence of Cholera, Haiti, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1516-1519. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131882.
APA Blackburn, J. K., Diamond, U., Kracalik, I. T., Widmer, J., Brown, W., Morrissey, B....Morris, J. (2014). Household-Level Spatiotemporal Patterns of Incidence of Cholera, Haiti, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1516-1519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131882.

Common Exposure to STL Polyomavirus During Childhood [PDF - 403 KB - 3 pages]
E. S. Lim et al.

STL polyomavirus (STLPyV) was recently identified in human specimens. To determine seropositivity for STLPyV, we developed an ELISA and screened patient samples from 2 US cities (Denver, Colorado [500]; St. Louis, Missouri [419]). Overall seropositivity was 68%–70%. The age-stratified data suggest that STLPyV infection is widespread and commonly acquired during childhood.

EID Lim ES, Meinerz NM, Primi B, Wang D, Garcea RL. Common Exposure to STL Polyomavirus During Childhood. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1559-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140561
AMA Lim ES, Meinerz NM, Primi B, et al. Common Exposure to STL Polyomavirus During Childhood. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1559-1561. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140561.
APA Lim, E. S., Meinerz, N. M., Primi, B., Wang, D., & Garcea, R. L. (2014). Common Exposure to STL Polyomavirus During Childhood. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1559-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140561.
Letters

Reemergence of Brucella melitensis Infection in Wildlife, France [PDF - 231 KB - 2 pages]
B. Garin-Bastuji et al.
EID Garin-Bastuji B, Hars J, Drapeau A, Cherfa M, Game Y, Le Horgne J, et al. Reemergence of Brucella melitensis Infection in Wildlife, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1570-1571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131517
AMA Garin-Bastuji B, Hars J, Drapeau A, et al. Reemergence of Brucella melitensis Infection in Wildlife, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1570-1571. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131517.
APA Garin-Bastuji, B., Hars, J., Drapeau, A., Cherfa, M., Game, Y., Le Horgne, J....Mick, V. (2014). Reemergence of Brucella melitensis Infection in Wildlife, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1570-1571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131517.

Antibody against Arenaviruses in Humans, Southwestern United States [PDF - 242 KB - 2 pages]
M. L. Milazzo et al.
EID Milazzo ML, Iralu J, Fulhorst CF, Koster F. Antibody against Arenaviruses in Humans, Southwestern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1592-1593. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140593
AMA Milazzo ML, Iralu J, Fulhorst CF, et al. Antibody against Arenaviruses in Humans, Southwestern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1592-1593. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140593.
APA Milazzo, M. L., Iralu, J., Fulhorst, C. F., & Koster, F. (2014). Antibody against Arenaviruses in Humans, Southwestern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1592-1593. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140593.

Porcine Coronavirus HKU15 Detected in 9 US States, 2014 [PDF - 299 KB - 2 pages]
L. Wang et al.
EID Wang L, Byrum B, Zhang Y. Porcine Coronavirus HKU15 Detected in 9 US States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1594-1595. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140756
AMA Wang L, Byrum B, Zhang Y. Porcine Coronavirus HKU15 Detected in 9 US States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1594-1595. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140756.
APA Wang, L., Byrum, B., & Zhang, Y. (2014). Porcine Coronavirus HKU15 Detected in 9 US States, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1594-1595. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140756.

Genetic Changes of Reemerged Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, China [PDF - 249 KB - 2 pages]
J. Lu et al.
EID Lu J, Wu J, Guan D, Yi L, Zeng X, Zou L, et al. Genetic Changes of Reemerged Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1582-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140250
AMA Lu J, Wu J, Guan D, et al. Genetic Changes of Reemerged Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1582-1583. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140250.
APA Lu, J., Wu, J., Guan, D., Yi, L., Zeng, X., Zou, L....Ke, C. (2014). Genetic Changes of Reemerged Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1582-1583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140250.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus from Waterfowl, South Korea, 2014 [PDF - 262 KB - 2 pages]
K. Ku et al.
EID Ku K, Park E, Yum J, Kim J, Oh S, Seo S. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus from Waterfowl, South Korea, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1587-1588. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140390
AMA Ku K, Park E, Yum J, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus from Waterfowl, South Korea, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1587-1588. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140390.
APA Ku, K., Park, E., Yum, J., Kim, J., Oh, S., & Seo, S. (2014). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus from Waterfowl, South Korea, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1587-1588. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140390.

Schistosomiasis Haematobium, Corsica, France [PDF - 415 KB - 3 pages]
A. Berry et al.
EID Berry A, Moné H, Iriart X, Mouahid G, Aboo O, Boissier J, et al. Schistosomiasis Haematobium, Corsica, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1595-1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140928
AMA Berry A, Moné H, Iriart X, et al. Schistosomiasis Haematobium, Corsica, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1595-1597. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140928.
APA Berry, A., Moné, H., Iriart, X., Mouahid, G., Aboo, O., Boissier, J....Magnaval, J. (2014). Schistosomiasis Haematobium, Corsica, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1595-1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140928.

Live Poultry Market Closure and Control of Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Shanghai, China [PDF - 283 KB - 2 pages]
Y. He et al.
EID He Y, Liu P, Tang S, Chen Y, Pei E, Zhao B, et al. Live Poultry Market Closure and Control of Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Shanghai, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1565-1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131243
AMA He Y, Liu P, Tang S, et al. Live Poultry Market Closure and Control of Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Shanghai, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1565-1566. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131243.
APA He, Y., Liu, P., Tang, S., Chen, Y., Pei, E., Zhao, B....Wu, F. (2014). Live Poultry Market Closure and Control of Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Shanghai, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1565-1566. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131243.

Shiga Toxin 2A–Encoding Bacteriophages in Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains [PDF - 241 KB - 2 pages]
L. Beutin et al.
EID Beutin L, Hammerl JA, Reetz J, Strauch E. Shiga Toxin 2A–Encoding Bacteriophages in Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1567-1568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131373
AMA Beutin L, Hammerl JA, Reetz J, et al. Shiga Toxin 2A–Encoding Bacteriophages in Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1567-1568. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131373.
APA Beutin, L., Hammerl, J. A., Reetz, J., & Strauch, E. (2014). Shiga Toxin 2A–Encoding Bacteriophages in Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1567-1568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131373.

Rio Mamore Virus and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Brazil [PDF - 295 KB - 3 pages]
R. Carvalho de Oliveira et al.
EID Carvalho de Oliveira R, Cordeiro-Santos M, Guterres A, Fernandes J, de Melo AX, João G, et al. Rio Mamore Virus and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1568-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131472
AMA Carvalho de Oliveira R, Cordeiro-Santos M, Guterres A, et al. Rio Mamore Virus and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1568-1570. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131472.
APA Carvalho de Oliveira, R., Cordeiro-Santos, M., Guterres, A., Fernandes, J., de Melo, A. X., João, G....Sampaio de Lemos, E. (2014). Rio Mamore Virus and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1568-1570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131472.

Clostridium tetani Osteitis without Tetanus [PDF - 278 KB - 3 pages]
P. Levy et al.
EID Levy P, Fournier P, Lotte L, Million M, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Clostridium tetani Osteitis without Tetanus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131579
AMA Levy P, Fournier P, Lotte L, et al. Clostridium tetani Osteitis without Tetanus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1571-1573. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131579.
APA Levy, P., Fournier, P., Lotte, L., Million, M., Brouqui, P., & Raoult, D. (2014). Clostridium tetani Osteitis without Tetanus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1571-1573. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131579.

Invasive Infection Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter soli, Japan [PDF - 284 KB - 3 pages]
H. Kitanaka et al.
EID Kitanaka H, Sasano M, Yokoyama S, Suzuki M, Jin W, Inayoshi M, et al. Invasive Infection Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter soli, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1574-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140117
AMA Kitanaka H, Sasano M, Yokoyama S, et al. Invasive Infection Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter soli, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1574-1576. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140117.
APA Kitanaka, H., Sasano, M., Yokoyama, S., Suzuki, M., Jin, W., Inayoshi, M....Arakawa, Y. (2014). Invasive Infection Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter soli, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1574-1576. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140117.

Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Isolates Producing KPC-3, North Dakota, USA [PDF - 331 KB - 3 pages]
L. M. Kiedrowski et al.
EID Kiedrowski LM, Guerrero DM, Bonomo RA, Viau RA, Rojas LJ, Mojica MF, et al. Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Isolates Producing KPC-3, North Dakota, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1583-1585. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140344
AMA Kiedrowski LM, Guerrero DM, Bonomo RA, et al. Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Isolates Producing KPC-3, North Dakota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1583-1585. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140344.
APA Kiedrowski, L. M., Guerrero, D. M., Bonomo, R. A., Viau, R. A., Rojas, L. J., Mojica, M. F....Perez, F. (2014). Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Isolates Producing KPC-3, North Dakota, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1583-1585. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140344.

Spread of Vaccinia Virus to Cattle Herds, Argentina, 2011 [PDF - 392 KB - 3 pages]
A. Franco-Luiz et al.
EID Franco-Luiz A, Fagundes-Pereira A, Costa G, Alves P, Oliveira D, Bonjardim C, et al. Spread of Vaccinia Virus to Cattle Herds, Argentina, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1576-1578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140154
AMA Franco-Luiz A, Fagundes-Pereira A, Costa G, et al. Spread of Vaccinia Virus to Cattle Herds, Argentina, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1576-1578. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140154.
APA Franco-Luiz, A., Fagundes-Pereira, A., Costa, G., Alves, P., Oliveira, D., Bonjardim, C....Lima, M. (2014). Spread of Vaccinia Virus to Cattle Herds, Argentina, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1576-1578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140154.

Urethritis Caused by Novel Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W in Man Who Has Sex with Men, Japan [PDF - 311 KB - 3 pages]
K. Hayakawa et al.
EID Hayakawa K, Itoda I, Shimuta K, Takahashi H, Ohnishi M. Urethritis Caused by Novel Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W in Man Who Has Sex with Men, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1585-1587. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140349
AMA Hayakawa K, Itoda I, Shimuta K, et al. Urethritis Caused by Novel Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W in Man Who Has Sex with Men, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1585-1587. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140349.
APA Hayakawa, K., Itoda, I., Shimuta, K., Takahashi, H., & Ohnishi, M. (2014). Urethritis Caused by Novel Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W in Man Who Has Sex with Men, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1585-1587. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140349.

Rate of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Large Integrated Health Care Setting, California, USA, 1998–2012 [PDF - 242 KB - 2 pages]
J. L. Jones et al.
EID Jones JL, Shvachko VA, Wilkins E, Bergen R, Manos M. Rate of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Large Integrated Health Care Setting, California, USA, 1998–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1573-1574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131919
AMA Jones JL, Shvachko VA, Wilkins E, et al. Rate of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Large Integrated Health Care Setting, California, USA, 1998–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1573-1574. doi:10.3201/eid2009.131919.
APA Jones, J. L., Shvachko, V. A., Wilkins, E., Bergen, R., & Manos, M. (2014). Rate of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Large Integrated Health Care Setting, California, USA, 1998–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1573-1574. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.131919.

Cerebellitis Associated with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, United States, 2013 [PDF - 363 KB - 3 pages]
M. M. Sfeir and C. E. Najem
EID Sfeir MM, Najem CE. Cerebellitis Associated with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, United States, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1578-1580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140160
AMA Sfeir MM, Najem CE. Cerebellitis Associated with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, United States, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1578-1580. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140160.
APA Sfeir, M. M., & Najem, C. E. (2014). Cerebellitis Associated with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, United States, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1578-1580. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140160.

Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada [PDF - 247 KB - 3 pages]
S. Maurer-Stroh et al.
EID Maurer-Stroh S, Li Y, Bastien N, Gunalan V, Lee R, Eisenhaber F, et al. Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1580-1582. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140240
AMA Maurer-Stroh S, Li Y, Bastien N, et al. Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1580-1582. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140240.
APA Maurer-Stroh, S., Li, Y., Bastien, N., Gunalan, V., Lee, R., Eisenhaber, F....Booth, T. F. (2014). Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1580-1582. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140240.

Worker Health and Safety Practices in Research Facilities Using Nonhuman Primates, North America [PDF - 251 KB - 2 pages]
E. W. Lankau et al.
EID Lankau EW, Turner PV, Mullan RJ, Galland G. Worker Health and Safety Practices in Research Facilities Using Nonhuman Primates, North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1589-1590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140420
AMA Lankau EW, Turner PV, Mullan RJ, et al. Worker Health and Safety Practices in Research Facilities Using Nonhuman Primates, North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1589-1590. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140420.
APA Lankau, E. W., Turner, P. V., Mullan, R. J., & Galland, G. (2014). Worker Health and Safety Practices in Research Facilities Using Nonhuman Primates, North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1589-1590. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140420.

Mortierella wolfii–Associated Invasive Disease [PDF - 294 KB - 2 pages]
N. Layios et al.
EID Layios N, Canivet J, Baron F, Moutschen M, Hayette M. Mortierella wolfii–Associated Invasive Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1591-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140469
AMA Layios N, Canivet J, Baron F, et al. Mortierella wolfii–Associated Invasive Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1591-1592. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140469.
APA Layios, N., Canivet, J., Baron, F., Moutschen, M., & Hayette, M. (2014). Mortierella wolfii–Associated Invasive Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1591-1592. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.140469.
About the Cover

The Art of Intertwining Life and Work [PDF - 4.71 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove and K. Chuengsatiansup
EID Breedlove B, Chuengsatiansup K. The Art of Intertwining Life and Work. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1598-1599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.ac2009
AMA Breedlove B, Chuengsatiansup K. The Art of Intertwining Life and Work. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1598-1599. doi:10.3201/eid2009.ac2009.
APA Breedlove, B., & Chuengsatiansup, K. (2014). The Art of Intertwining Life and Work. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1598-1599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.ac2009.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Bacillus anthracis [PDF - 333 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Bacillus anthracis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(9):1463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.et2009
AMA Etymologia: Bacillus anthracis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1463. doi:10.3201/eid2009.et2009.
APA (2014). Etymologia: Bacillus anthracis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2009.et2009.
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The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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Emerging Infectious Diseases will no longer print copies of the journal after Volume 25. Printable PDF versions of issues, and articles, will still be available online. Visit EID Subscriptions to sign up for monthly email notifications for the table of contents, and for specific article types and disease topics.

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