Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 21, Number 3—March 2015

Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Laos

Frank Y.K. WongComments to Author , Phouvong Phommachanh, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Chintana Chanthavisouk, Jeffrey Gilbert, John Bingham, Kelly R. Davies, Julie Cooke, Debbie Eagles, Sithong Phiphakhavong, Songhua Shan, Vittoria Stevens, David T. Williams, Phachone Bounma, Bounkhouang Khambounheuang, Christopher Morrissy, Bounlom Douangngeun, and Subhash Morzaria
Author affiliations: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (F.Y.K. Wong, J. Bingham, K.R. Davies, J. Cooke, D. Eagles, S. Shan, V. Stevens, D.T. Williams, C. Morrissy); National Animal Health Laboratory, Vientiane, Laos (P. Phommachanh, B. Douangngeun); Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Vientiane (S. Phiphakhavong, P. Bounma, B. Khambounheuang); Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand (W. Kalpravidh, C. Chanthavisouk, J. Gilbert, S. Morzaria)

Main Article

Table 1

Amino acid substitutions in translated mature HA1 proteins of influenza A(H5N6) virus from Laos and H5 clade 2.3.4 reference viruses*

Mature HA1 position (H5 numbering)† H5 subtype virus clade‡
DK/LAO/XBY4 (H5N6) DK/GD/GD01 (H5N6) WD/SD/628 (H5N1) CK/LAO/XNY26 (H5N1) 2.3.4 JWE/HK/1038 (H5N1) 2.3.4 DK/LAO/3295 (H5N1) 2.3.4 ANH/1 (H5N1) 2.3.4
40 R R K K K K K
45 N N N D D D D
53 K K K R R R R
72 R R R N N N N
82 R R R K K K K
95 L L L F F F F
114 T T I I I I I
115 L L L Q Q Q Q
123 P P P S S S S
124 N N D D D D D
127 T T T A A A A
129 L L L S S S S
133 A A A S S S S
140 M M A T T T T
151 T T I I I I I
155 D N D N N N N
156 A A A T K T T
162 M M I R R R R
169 R R R Q Q Q Q
183 N N N D D D D
189 N N N K K K K
192 K K K Q Q Q Q
198 V V V I I I I
210 E V V V V V V
218 Q Q Q K K K K
223 R R R S S S S
240 H H H N N N N
263 T T T A A A A
265 M M M M M I V
269 M M V V V V V
273 H H H N N N N

*HA, hemagglutinin.
†Sites associated with antigenicity are indicated in boldface (not comprehensive) (11).
‡Virus names: DK/LAO/XBY4, A/duck/Laos/XBY004/2014; DK/GD/GD01, A/duck/Guangdong/GD01/2014; WD/SD/628, A/wild duck/Shandong/628/2011; CK/LAO/XNY26, A/chicken/Laos/Xaythiani-26/2006; JWE/HK/1038, A/Japanese white-eye/Hong Kong/1038/2006; DK/LAO/3295, A/duck/Laos/3295/2006; ANH/1, A/Anhui/1/2005. Clade designations provided by the World Health Organization/World Organisation for Animal Health/Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations H5N1 Evolution Working Group unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses ( Proposed clade has not been formally recognized.

Main Article

  1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Approaches to controlling, preventing and eliminating H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in endemic countries. Animal Production and Health Paper No 171. Rome: The Organization; 2011.
  2. Boltz  DA, Douangngeun  B, Phommachanh  P, Sinthasak  S, Mondry  R, Obert  C, Emergence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses with reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors and novel reassortants in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:94959. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Sonnberg  S, Phommachanh  P, Naipospos  TS, McKenzie  J, Chanthavisouk  C, Pathammavong  S, Multiple introductions of avian influenza viruses (H5N1), Laos, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:113943. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. World Organisation for Animal Health. Update on highly pathogenic avian influenza in animals (type H5 and H7), 2014 [cited 2014 Aug 25].
  5. Heine  HG, Trinidad  L, Selleck  P, Lowther  S. Rapid detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus by TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerasc chain reaction. Avian Dis. 2007;51:3702. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kampmann  ML, Fordyce  SL, Avila-Arcos  MC, Rasmussen  M, Willerslev  E, Nielsen  LP, A simple method for the parallel deep sequencing of full influenza A genomes. J Virol Methods. 2011;178:2438. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Tamura  K, Stecher  G, Peterson  D, Filipski  A, Kumar  S. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:27259. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gu  M, Zhao  G, Zhao  KK, Zhong  L, Huang  JQ, Wan  HQ, Novel variants of clade 2.3.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:20214. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Lee  YJ, Kang  HM, Lee  EK, Song  BM, Jeong  J, Kwon  YK, Novel reassortant influenza A(H5N8) viruses, South Korea, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:10879. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Herfst  S, Schrauwen  EJA, Linster  M, Chutinimitkul  S, de Wit  E, Munster  VJ, Airborne transmission of influenza A/H5N1 virus between ferrets. Science. 2012;336:153441. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cai  Z, Ducatez  MF, Yang  J, Zhang  T, Long  LP, Boon  AC, Identifying antigenicity-associated sites in highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin by using sparse learning. J Mol Biol. 2012;422:14555. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Wang  G, Deng  G, Shi  J, Luo  W, Zhang  G, Zhang  Q, H6 influenza viruses pose a potential threat to human health. J Virol. 2014;88:395364. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hai-bo  W, Chao-tan  G, Ru-feng  L, Li-hua  X, Enn-kang  W, Jin-bao  Y, Characterization of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus isolated from ducks in Eastern China in 2011. Arch Virol. 2012;157:11316. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Deng  G, Tan  D, Shi  J, Cui  P, Jiang  Y, Liu  L, Complex reassortment of multiple subtypes of avian influenza viruses in domestic ducks at the Dongting Lake region of China. J Virol. 2013;87:945262. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. World Health Organization. WHO China statement on H5N6, 2014 [cited 2014 Aug 25].

Main Article

Page created: February 18, 2015
Page updated: February 18, 2015
Page reviewed: February 18, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.